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Full text of "Mineral Resources of the United States, 1924--Part II--Nonmetals"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/mineralresources021924 



X 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

HERBERT HOOVER, Secretary 



BUREAU OF MINES 

SCOTT TURNER, Director 



MINERAL RESOURCES 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES 
1924 



FRANK J. KATZ 

Chief Engineer, Division of Mineral Resources and Statistics 



PART II— NONMETALS 




itt.*S' 









UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1927 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAT BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

$1 PER COPY 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Abrasive materials, artificial... 252 

Natural 241 

Corundum 245 

Diatomaceous earth 247 

Emery 245 

Exports 249 

Flint lining for tube mills 249 

Garnet... 240 

Grindstones.. 243 

Imports 249 

Millstones.. 242 

Oilstones 244 

Pebbles for grinding... 249 

Pulpstones 243 

Pumice 248 

Tripoli 246 

World's production 251 

Asbestos, exports 308 

Imports 308 

Prices 306 

Production 305 

World's production 309 

Review of producers, by States 306 

Arizona 306 

California.. 306 

Georgia.. 306 

Maryland 306 

Montana 306 

Asphalt, exports 165 

Imports... 165 

Producers 168 

Asphalt Association 169 

Production.. 161 

Ichthyol 164 

Manufactured asphalt. 164 

Native asphalt and related bitumens 163 

Bituminous rock. 164 

Gilsonite 164 

Ozokerite 164 

Wurtzilite 164 

World's production 168 

Barium products. See Barytes. 

Barytes and barium products 313 

Barium chemicals 315 

Exports 316 

Imports 316 

Lithopone... 315 

Refined ground barytes... 314 

Crude barytes 311 

Consumption by uses... 312 

Exports 312 

Imports 312 

Sales 311 

World's production _ 313 

Customs duties 319 



Page 
Barytes and barium products, markets and 

prices 318 

Producers- 319 

Bromine.. 148 

Calcium chloride 149 

Carbon black, produced from natural gas 121 

Cement, alumina and other special cements. 375 

Canada, production 382 

Foreign industry, literature 382 

Foreign trade 377 

Exports 377 

Imports... 379 

General review of recent years. 352 

Hydraulic cements, chief.. 355 

Masonry cement 375 

Natural cement.. 375 

Portland cement... 360 

Domestic consumption 364 

Local supplies 366 

Manufacturing conditions 373 

Kilns and fuels 373 

Plants.. 373 

Capacity 374 

One hundred years of Portland cement.. 347 

Prices 369 

At factories... 369 

At markets 371 

Production 360 

Shipments. 360 

Stocks 360 

Puzzolan cement 375 

Clay, exports 120 

General conditions of industry 113 

Bentonite, utilization 114 

Imports 120 

Production, by States and kinds.. 115 

By uses.. 118 

Coal. 459 

Acknowledgments 459 

General statement 459 

Review of industry in 1924 460 

Anthracite 461 

Bituminous.. 460 

Standard units of measurement used 459 

Anthracite, Pennsylvania, detailed statis- 
tics. 564 

Culm-bank coal 564 

Fresh-mined coal 564 

Labor statistics. 581 

Mining, method of 583 

Operations, number of 574 

Production 565 

River coal 564 

Shipments 574 

Value 578 

III 



iv 



CONTENTS 



Page 
Coal, bituminous coal, by States and counties, 

detailed statistics,. 527 

Tables of production, value, men em- 
ployed, days worked, and output per 

man, 1923-24 527 

Alabama 528 

Arkansas ._ 529 

Colorado.. 529 

Illinois. 531 

Indiana 533 

Iowa 534 

Kansas 535 

Kentucky 535 

Maryland 538 

Michigan.. 538 

Missouri 539 

Montana 540 

New Mexico 540 

North Dakota (lignite) 541 

Ohio 542 

Oklahoma 544 

Pennsylvania (bituminous) 545 

South Dakota (lignite) 546 

Tennessee 547 

Texas 548 

Utah 548 

Virginia 519 

Washington 550 

West Virginia 550 

Wyoming 553 

Coal produced from 1807 to 1924 583 

General statistics 465 

Bituminous coal loaded for shipment 510 

Competition of coal and other sources of 

power 467 

Days worked by mines 483 

Exports 516 

Growth of industry _. 465 

Imports 516 

Men employed in mines 480 

Mines, idle, part-time, and full-time, 

number of 502 

Number and size 497 

Mining methods 490 

Output per man 485 

Producers, number and output as distinct 

from mines 504 

Production, by weeks and months 473 

Summaries by States and fields 469 

Value of coal produced 504 

World production 525 

Spot prices 507 

Stocks of coal held by consumers. _ 515 

Strikes and lockouts 488 

Stripping operations... 493 

Washing coal 496 

Working day, length of. 4S4 

Statistical summary 461 

Coal products, marketing 663 

Ammonia made from coal 711 

Ammonia chemicals, new 717 

Ammonium sulphate, as fertilizer 715 

Export market 714 

Competition of synthetic ammonia 713 

Explosives, ammonia for 717 

Liquid ammonia market _. 716 



Page 
Coal products, marketing ammonia from gas 

works 713 

Marketing sulphate from coke works 714 

Production 711 

Recovery, method of. 711 

Summary _ 718 

Uses, principal 712 

Value. _ 711 

Coke, sale and use of. 671 

Changed relations of beehive and by- 
product coke 674 

Coke breeze 685 

Use of breeze at by-product plants 685 

Coke for household fuel 678 

Need of expanded markets 680 

Coke users also coke sellers 676 

Connellsville coke as price base 684 

Domestic coke, quality 679 

Exports 683 

Foundry coke, properties 677 

Freight rates 686 

Imports 683 

Industrial uses 682 

Kinds of coke available 672 

Market conditions, changes in 671 

Market requirements of blastfurnace 

and foundry coke 677 

Marketing methods, general 683 

"Merchant" oven plants 684 

Metallurgical coke, preparation for mar- 
ket 678 

Quantities of coke available 672 

Relation of coke and steel industries 674 

Summary 687 

The dealer problem 681 

Water-gas making, coke for 682 

Foreword 663 

Acknowledgments 665 

Importance of problem 663 

Scope of report 664 

Gas for industry and city supply.. 688 

Coal-gas production, quantity.. 690 

Value. 690 

When coal gas is likely to be made 694 

Coke plants, gas-making capacity of, 

flexibility 694 

Economic service of gas as a fuel.. 695 

Househeating 697 

Industrial fue: 695 

Markets,* their relation to availability of 

gas 691 

A peculiar marketing problem 688 

Public utility gas-rate schedules 696 

Quality, standards 698 

Sale of gas from coke works 692 

Summary. 698 

Use of gas by producer.. 692 

Value of gas at coke works 693 

Interrelation of coal-products industries. . _ 668 

Competing products 670 

Fuels and raw materials.. 668 

Prices of coal products, interrelation of.. 670 

Selective manufacture, impossibility of.. 669 

Summary 671 

Light oil, use and values... 719 

Economics of recovery 722 



CONTENTS 






Page 

Coal products, light oils, future development. 720 

History of production. 719 

Marketing.. 724 

Prices of light oil products 726 

Sales, by coke works. 722 

By gas works 724 

Summary 727 

Processing of coal_. 665 

Beehive coke ovens . 666 

By-product coke ovens 667 

Carbonizing plants, types 665 

Five primary products 665 

Low-temperature carbonization 667 

Quantity of coal products made. _ 668 

Retort gasworks 667 

Tar and tar products, marketing.. 699 

Distillation of coal tar 703 

Popular misconceptions about tar prod- 
ucts. 699 

Tar, as a fuel 701 

For wood preservation.. 708 

Marketing tar from coke and gas 

works 703 

Prices at producer's plant 708 

Quantity produced and used 700 

Why tar is burned. 702 

Tar products, chemical markets for 707 

Markets, limitation 707 

Uses of primary tar products. 705 

Summary 710 

Coke and by-products 591 

Accounting practices that affect statistics 592 

Acknowledgments. 591 

Definitions of terms used in tables 591 

Marketing, special study of 591 

Coke 598 

Coal charged, cost.. 613 

Preparation 615 

Quantity 613 

Source... 615 

Coke breeze.. 620 

Disposal of coke 622 

Exports 636 

Growth of industry 598 

Imports 636 

Ovens, by-product, capacity 612 

Number and type 608 

Price 632 

Production, by furnace or nonfurnace 

ovens 603 

By States and districts... 604 

Monthly and weekly.. 599 

World production 644 

Sales 622 

Shipments by rail and water.. 639 

Stocks 622 

Value 632 

Yield of coke per ton of coal... 619 

Coke-oven by-products 644 

Ammonia 649 

B enzol and light-oil products 650 

Coke-oven gas 654 

Naphthalene 660 

Summary tables 644 



Pago 

Coke-oven by-products, tar . 647 

Coke-producing industries.. 593 

Production of coke, 1880-1924, by States... 661 

Statistical summary 595 

Cryolite 74 

Bibliography 74 

Feldspar, general conditions of industry 19 

Imports 24 

Industry, by States 21 

Arizona 22 

California 22 

Colorado 22 

Connecticut 22 

Delaware 22 

Illinois 22 

Maine 22 

Maryland.. 22 

New Hampshire 22 

New Jersey 23 

New York 23 

North Carolina 23 

Ohio 23 

Pennsylvania 23 

Tennessee.. 24 

Virginia 24 

Production 19 

Crude feldspar 20 

Foreign production 24 

Ground feldspar 20 

Fluorspar, bibliography 74 

Consumers.. 72 

Consumption... 71 

Exports 69 

Imports 69 

Industry, by States 66 

Colorado 66 

Illinois 66 

Kentucky. 67 

New Mexico 68 

Texas 68 

Utah 68 

Mined and shipped 63 

Production, by countries 74 

Shipments, by uses 73 

Stocks 68 

Uses - — 71 

Fuel briquets, binders 189 

Manufactured fuel, new forms_.. 191 

Plants in the United States 191 

Production. 187 

Seasonal fluctuations 189 

World's production 192 

Raw materials... 189 

Value --- — 188 

Fuller's earth, exports. 9 

General conditions of industry 7 

History of industry 8 

Imports 9 

Occurrence 7 

Production 8 

Uses 7 

Graphite, exports. 15 

Imports - 15 

Prices 14 

Foreign conditions. 15 



VI 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Graphite, production 13 

Manufactured graphite — 14 

World's production. - 17 

Uses... 13 

Gravel. See Sand and gravel. 

Gypsum, exports 233 

Imports 233 

Manufacturers. 235 

Block and tile 236 

Keenes cement 236 

Plaster. 235 

Plaster board 236 

Wall board - 236 

Miners.... 235,237 

Production 231 

Uses 237 

General uses 237 

Newer uses... 238 

Agriculture 239 

Anhydrite, utilization .- 239 

Construction 238 

Possible therapeutic uses 239 

Other uses 239 

Lime, consumption 201 

Exports 203 

General conditions of industry - 193 

Hydrated lime 200 

Imports 203 

Producing localities 204 

New England States 204 

Connecticut _ 205 

Maine 205 

Massachusetts 205 

Rhode Island 206 

Vermont 206 

North Atlantic States 206 

New Jersey 208 

New York 207 

Pennsylvania — 208 

North Mountain States 227 

Idaho 227 

Montana 227 

Wyoming 227 

Northeast Central States. 216 

Illinois 217 

Indiana 218 

Michigan 218 

Ohio — 219 

Wisconsin _ 220 

Northwest Central States 223 

Iowa 224 

Minnesota 224 

Missouri 224 

South Dakota... 225 

Pacific Coast States and Hawaii 229 

California. 229 

Oregon 230 

Washington 230 

Hawaii 230 

South Mountain States 227 

Arizona 228 

Colorado 228 

Nevada 228 

New Mexico 228 

Utah 228 



Page 
Lime-producing localities, Southeast Atlantic 

States 212 

Florida 213 

Georgia 213 

Maryland 213 

North Carolina __ 214 

Virginia 214 

West Virginia 215 

Southeast Central States 221 

Alabama 222 

Kentucky. 222 

Tennessee 223 

Southwest Central States 226 

Arkansas 226 

Oklahoma 226 

Texas 226 

Production.. _ 193 

Agricultural lime 199 

Building lime _ _ 199 

Chemical lime 199 

Magnesium and its compounds 125 

Dolomite 134 

Basic magnesium carbonate 134 

Carbon dioxide 135 

Dead-burned dolomite 134 

Dolomite products 134 

High-magnesium lime for sulphite paper 

mills 135 

Magnesite 126 

Annual supply __ 128 

Caustic calcined magnesite 129 

Crude magnesite 129 

Dead-burned magnesire 129 

Domestic production 126 

Exports 127 

Imports 127 

Market and prices 129 

Notes on magnesite industry 131 

Domestic industry 132 

California 132 

Nevada 132 

Washington 132 

Foreign industry 133 

World's production 131 

Magnesium chloride 135 

Magnesium salts, manufactured __ 136 

Magnesium sulphate 136 

Metallic magnesium.... 137 

Development and outlook 139 

Imports 138 

Mica, characteristics, discussion of 171 

Classification 174 

Exports 180 

Imperfections — - 172 

Imports 180 

Mining 177 

Preparation 178 

Production. .'. 172 

World's production. 179 

Uses.. 176 

Natural gas, production and consumption... 321 

Natural-gas gasoline 331 

Peat n 

Petroleum, California shipments through 

Panama Canal 421 



CONTENTS 



VII 



Page 

Petrtbleum, consumption .._ 426 

Crude petroleum, exports 419 

Imports... 419 

Specific gravity 452 

Motor fuel 455 

Oil shale and shale oil 456 

Prices 432 

Production. - 390 

Domestic production... 390 

Alaska.. 397 

Arkansas.. 392 

California... 390 

Colorado 396 

Eastern States 395 

Kansas 394 

Louisiana 394 

Montana 395 

New Mexico 396 

Oklahoma 391 

Texas 391 

Utah 397 

Wyoming... 393 

Rank of States. 390 

World's production 415 

Production and royalties from wells under 

Federal control 454 

Refinery statistics, summary of_._ 455 

Stocks 421 

Summary of industry 385 

Wells 446 

Phosphate rock industry 77 

Acid phosphate produced in the United 

States 81 

American phosphate industry 94 

Bibliography 109 

Exports, phosphate rock 82 

Superphosphates and other fertilizer ma- 
terials 85 

Florida phosphate, proposed tax on. 96 

Foreign phosphate, notes on 100 

Algeria 100 

Egypt 101 

Morocco 101 

Tunis 103 

Other countries... 103 

Australia 103 

China.. 104 

Esthonia 104 

France. 105 

Germany 105 

Great Britain 105 

Greece 106 

India.. _ 106 

Italy 106 

Japan 106 

New Zealand.. 106 

Norway 107 

Pacific Islands 107 

Philippine Islands 107 

Russia 108 

South Africa 108 

Spain 108 

Tasmania 109 

Franco-German agreement, as rumored 94 

Government activities in phosphate 88 



Page 
Phosphate rock industry, Government activ- 
ities in phosphate— Continued. 

Bureau of Soils 93 

Bureau of Standards 93 

Geological Survey 89 

Florida 89 

Idaho 91 

Montana 91 

Utah 92 

Wyoming A 92 

Imports of phosphatic fertilizers 82 

Miscellaneous activities, by States 96 

Florida 96 

Missouri 97 

Montana 97 

Tennessee 97 

Patents, recent 97 

Phosphate reserves of the United States... 87 

Florida 87 

Tonnage, revised estimates.. 87 

Western States 87 

Phosphate rock, in stock food 95 

Mined 78 

Sold 77 

Processes of treating phosphate rock 94 

Biological process 94 

Electric furnace process 95 

Enriched superphosphate 95 

Furnace method 95 

Phosphor-manganese as fertilizer 95 

Production by States 79 

Florida 79 

South Carolina 80 

Tennessee and Kentucky 80 

Western States 81 

Great Britain 98 

Norway 98 

Sweden 98 

United States 97 

Stocks 78 

World production and conditions 99 

Potash, American industry 35 

Bibliography 59 

Consumption in the United States 33 

Exports 33 

Extraction processes 39 

Aluminum-potassium silicates, utilization. 39 

Cement dust, potash from 40 

Dolbear process for treating Searles Lake 

brine 39 

Soluble potassium and sodium salts from 

insoluble materials __ 40 

Foreign potash, notes on 47 

France, Alsatian mines 51 

Government purchase of mines... 51 

Labor troubles 52 

Production 51 

Southern France, deposits in 52 

Germany, Baden, new potash mine 50 

General market conditions 47 

Magnesium liquor waste 49 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co., Ger- 
man holdings 49 

Wintershall group 48 

Other countries, Australia 52 

Canada 53 



vin 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Potash, foreign, Chile..-.. 63 

Czechoslovakia 53 

Italy 53 

Netherlands 54 

Norway 54 

Palestine 55 

Poland 55 

Russia 55 

Spain 55 

Sweden 56 

German-Alsatian potash agreement. 34 

.Government activities 41 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce 44 

Bureau of Mines 42 

Bureau of Soils 42 

Bureau of Standards 44 

Geological Survey 41 

Imports 29 

Investigations by the Geological Survey— 45 

Texas 45 

Utah 46 

Alunite 46 

Brines 46 

Carnallite 46 

Other investigations. 47 

Legislation, proposed 47 

Local agreement — 35 

Market conditions 33 

Other potash operations 36 

California 36 

Burnham Chemical Co 36 

California Kelp Co 36 

Inyo Chemical Co 36 

Maryland 37 

U. S. Industrial Chemical Co 37 

Nebraska 37 

Utah 37 

Patents, recent 58 

Potash-bearing shales in Minnesota 38 

Prices 33 

Production 27 

World production, summary 56 

Sales 27 

Tariff readjustment 47. 

Pyrites 4 

Salt 141 

Exports 144 

Imports 144 

Production 141 

World's production 147 

Sand and gravel, exports 265 

Glass sand 263 

Imports 265 

Molding sand 265 

Prices 263 

Production 253 

Silica, imports 185 

Shipments 184 

Uses _ 183 



Page 

Slate, exports 154 

General conditions of industry 151 

Imports 154 

Production _. 152 

Review of industry, by districts 155 

Maine district _ 155 

Middle Atlantic States 156 

New York-Vermont district. 155 

Other districts 157 

Shipments 158 

Soapstone. See Talc and Soapstone. 

Stone, exports 271 

Imports 271 

Production, by kinds and States 274 

Basalt and related rocks (trap rock) . . . 2S0 

Crushed stone.. 297 

Granite 274 

High-magnesium limestone 299 

Limestone 284 

Building stone 290 

Indiana 291 

Minnesota _ 292 

Missouri. 292 

Marble. 283 

Serpentine 284 

Miscellaneous stone 296 

Sandstone 292 

Bluestone 296 

Summary of production _.. 267 

Building stone 268 

Crushed stone.. 270 

Curbstone 270 

Flagstone. 270 

Fluxing stone 270 

Monumental stone 270 

Paving blocks 270 

Refractory stone 270 

Stone sold to manufacturing industries. 270 

Sulphur 1 

Exports 2 

Imports 2 

Production 1 

Talc and soapstone, exports 343 

Imports. 343 

Preparation for the market 343 

Producers, list of 342 

Production 339 

World's production 344 

Review of industry, by States 341 

California 341 

Georgia 341 

Maryland.. 341 

New Jersey 341 

New York 341 

North Carolina. 341 

Pennsylvania 341 

Vermont 341 

Virginia 342 

Uses 344 



CONTENTS IX 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Page 

1. Fuel briquets produced in the Eastern, Central, and Pacific Coast States and in the United 

States, 1910-1924 187 

2. Fluctuations in monthly production of fuel briquets in 1924 190 

3. Prices of Canadian asbestos, "crude" and "fiber," f. o. b., Quebec, 1922-1925.. 307 

4. Weekly quoted prices of crude barytes and of barium products, 1924 318 

5. Consumption of natural gas, 1906-1924, by uses. 322 

6. Natural gas consumed, natural gas treated for recovery of gasoline, and natural-gas gasoline pro- 

duced in the United States, 1911-1924. 332 

7. Motor fuel produced in the United States, 1918-1924 333 

8. Talc and soapstone produced in the United States, 1880-1924 340 

9. Distribution of cement plants in United States 350 

10. Graphic comparison of the output of Portland cement with volume of all manufactures, 1911- 

1924 353 

11. Production of Portland and natural cements, 1890-1924, and shipments of Portland cement, 1911- 

1924 357 

12. Monthly fluctuations in production, shipments, and stocks of finished Portland cement, 1922- 

1924 364 

13. Range in average factory value per barrel of Portland cement, 1880-1924 370 

14. Crude petroleum produced, imported, exported, delivered to consumers, and run to stills, 1909- 

1924 386 

15. Production of petroleum in the United States, Russia, Mexico, and all other countries, 1859-1924. 415 

16. Daily average production, imports, exports, consumption, and runs to stills and total stocks of 

crude petroleum at end of each month, 1923-24 422 

17. Supply and demand for crude petroleum, average price by months of typical Mid-Continent 

crude petroleum, and average annual price of all grades in the United States, 1918-1924 427 

18. Annual production at coke and gas works 668 

19. Annual value of coke and gas works products 669 

20. The interindustry flow of coal products.. 670 

21. Estimated uses of coke in the United States... 673 

22. Fluctuation in coke-plant activity _ 675 

23. Coal consumed in the manufacture of beehive and by-product coke, 1880-1924 676 

24. Cost of coal and value of all products per ton of coke produced, 1913-1924... 689 

25. By-products and gas produced at by-product coke plants, 1907-1924 689 

26. Disposition of gas produced at by-product ovens, 1915-1924 691 

27. Disposition of tar produced by coke ovens and gas works in 1922 700 

28. Production of benzol of all grades, by sources, 1918 and 1922... 721 

29. Average receipts per unit of the principal refined light oils and other by-products sold, 1913-1924. 723 

30. Source of the supply of naphthalene available in the United States, 1918-1924.. 725 

31. Value of the several by-products per ton of coke produced, 1913-1924 '. 725 

32. Spot price of 90 per cent benzol in New York, producers' prices of pure benzol f. o. b. works, and 

tank-wagon price of gasoline, by months, 1919-1924 727 

33. Spot prices of 90 per cent benzol, toluol, solvent naphtha, and flake naphthalene in New York, 

1919-1924 727 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE UNITED 
STATES, 1924— PART II 



SULPHUR AND PYRITES 



By Helena M. Meyer 



SULPHUR 

PRODUCTION 



The conditions in the sulphur industry were substantially the 
same in 1924 as in 1923. While production decreased 40 per cent 
during the year, from 2,036,097 to 1,220,561 long tons, shipments 
decreased only 5 per cent, from 1,618,841 to 1,537,345 tons. For 
the first time since 1920 the shipments were thus larger than the 
production, and with the exception of those for 1923 they were 
the largest ever recorded. The excess of shipments over produc- 
tion was drawn from stocks, which at the end of 1923 had reached 
the unprecedented total of 3,000,000 tons. This left 2,700,000 tons 
on hand at the mines at the end of 1924, a decrease of 10 per cent. 
Stocks, however, are still large enough to carry on record shipments, 
with the mines shut down, for nearly two years. The estimated 
value of shipments in 1924 is $25,000,000, compared with $26,000,000 
for 1923, at approximately the same rate per ton. 

As usual, the Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. and the Freeport Sulphur 
Co., of Texas, and the Union Sulphur Co., of Louisiana, produced 
practically the entire output. 

On December 23, 1924, all operations stopped at the deposit of 
the Union Sulphur Co. in Calcasieu Parish, La., owing to the exhaus- 
tion of the ore. The development of this deposit, which has been 
producing sulphur for 25 years, overthrew by cheaper production the 
domination of the sulphur markets by the Sicilian deposits. Ex- 
ploitation of this deposit was made difficult by quicksands but was 
finally, after many unsuccessful attempts, achieved by what is known 
as the Frasch process, devised by Herman Frasch, the founder of 
the Union Sulphur Co. By the adoption of this process the United 
States reached its present place as the leading sulphur-producing 
country of the world. The Union ore body has yielded about 
10,000,000 tons of sulphur. The company expects soon to begin 

> Figures of imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the United States Geological Survey, from 
records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



2 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



operations on a new large proved deposit of sulphur, called the 
Union Mound, about 9 miles from the town of Kichmond, in Fort 
Bend County, Tex. It also owns another deposit in Calcasieu 
Parish, La., which, however, will not be worked for some time. 

The agreement between the American producers and the Sicilian 
Sulphur Consortium, described in Mineral Kesources for 1922 and 
1923, has apparently aided the Sicilian producers. Prior to the World 
War the annual production of sulphur in Sicily averaged over 340,000 
long tons. The production during and since the war has decreased 
materially, owing largely to the increased competition for European 
markets by cheaply produced American sulphur from Louisiana and 
Texas mines. The historical table on page 3 shows the tremendous 
increase in recent years in the exports of sulphur from the United 
States. 

In 1922 the production of sulphur in Sicily had dwindled to 
135,000 long tons, but in 1923 it increased to 203,000 long tons, and 
in 1924 it amounted to 220,000 long tons. 

From 1880 through 1903 an average annual production of 2,800 
long tons of sulphur was made, starting with over 500 tons in 1880 
and approximating 25,000 tons in 1903. 



Sulphur produced and 



in the United States, 1904-1924 





Produced 

(long tons) 


Shipped 


Year 


Produced 

(long tons) 


Shipped 


Year 


Long tons 


Approxi- 
mate value 


Long tons 


Approxi- 
mate value 


1904 


85, 000 
220, 000 
295, 123 
188, 878 
364, 444 
273, 983 
247, 060 
205, 066 
787, 735 
491,080 
417, 690 


60, 000 
162, 000 
185, 082 
271, 859 
206, 473 
258, 203 


$1, 256, 000 
3, 305, 000 
3, 207, 000 
4, 771, 000 

3, 727, 000 

4. 782. 000 


1915 


520, 582 

649, 683 

1, 134, 412 

1, 353, 525 
1, 190, 575 
1, 255, 249 
1,879,150 
1, 830, 942 

2, 036, 097 
1, 220, 561 


293, 803 

766, 835 
1, 120, 378 
1, 266, 709 

678, 257 
1, 517, 625 

954, 344 
1, 343, 624 
1, 618, 841 
1, 537, 345 


$4, 959, 000 
12, 246, 000 
23, 987, 000 
27, 868, 000 
10, 252, 000 
30, 000, 000 
17, 000, 000 
22, 000, 000 
26, 000, 000 
25, 000, 000 


1905. 


1916 


1906.. 


1917 


1907... 


1918 


1908... 


1919 


1909. 


1 1920 


1910. 


250, 919 4. 522. 000 


1921 


1911. 


253, 795 
305, 390 
319,333 
341, 985 


4, 573, 000 
5, 289, 000 

5, 617, 000 
6, 214, 000 


1922 


1912.. 


1923. 


1913. 


1924. 


1914 









IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



The imports of " sulphur and sulphur ore 7 ' in 1924 amounted to 
1,005 long tons, valued at $40,293. The exports of sulphur or brim- 
stone from the United States in 1924 were 482,114 long tons, an 
increase of 9,589 tons, and with the exception of those in 1922 were 
the highest ever recorded. The exports of refined and sublimed 
sulphur and flowers of sulphur were 2,029 tons, making a total of 
exports of crude and refined sulphur of 484,143 tons in 1924, com- 
pared with 474,475 tons in 1923. The imports of crude sulphur 
increased from 87,837 long tons in 1880 to 188,990 tons in 1903, the 
highest recorded, and averaged 126,000 tons for the period 1880-1903. 
The exporting of sulphur did not begin until 1904. 



SULPHUR AND PYRITES 



Crude sulphur imported for consumption in and exported from the United States, 

1904-1924, in long tons 



Year 


Imports 


Exports 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


1904 . 


127, 996 
82, 961 
72, 404 
20, 399 
19, 620 
28,800 
28, 656 
24, 200 
26, 885 
15, 122 
23, 610 


"3,000 
11, 522 
22, 237 
35, 925 
27, 894 
37, 142 
30, 742 
28, 103 
57, 736 
89, 221 
98, 163 


1915 


24, 647 

21, 289 

973 

55 

77 

44 

4 

M67 

«465 

• 1,005 


37,312 
128, 755 
152, 736 
131, 092 


1905 


1916 


1906 


1917 


1907 , 


1918. 


1908 


1919 


224, 712 
477, 450 
285, 762 
485, 664 
472, 525 
482, 114 


1909 


1920 


1910... 


1921. 


1911 


1922 


1912 


1923 


1913 


1924 


1914 









• Exports of sulphur not separately classified in the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce prior 
to 1905. In Mineral Resources, 1904, p. 1079, J. H. Pratt says that in 1904 the first cargo of American 
sulphur, 3,000 tons, was exported from Louisiana to Marseille, France. 

b Composed of 130 tons of "crude sulphur," imported Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, and 37 tons of "sulphur and 
sulphur ore" imported Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 

« Classified as "sulphur and sulphur ore." 

Although the customs districts from which crude sulphur was 
cleared in 1924 are distributed around the entire border of the country, 
practically all the sulphur exported was produced by the large mines 
in Texas and Louisiana. 

Sulphur exported from the United States in 1924, by destination 



Destination 


Sulphur or 


brimstone 


Refined, sublimed, 
and flowers of 




Long tons 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


North America: 

Canada 


119, 221 

81 

7,140 


$1, 921, 585 

3,865 

116, 998 


1, 769, 984 
192, 739 

1, 428, 529 

2,435 

112,026 


$34, 807 


Central America 


5,617 


Mexico 


30, 436 




136 


West Indies and Bermuda 


2,536 


36, 875 


3,575 








128, 978 


2, 079, 323 


3, 505, 713 


74, 571 


South America: 

Argentina 


7,360 

2,131 

30 

924 


117,011 

33, 039 

1,444 

24, 681 






Brazil 


144 
117, 075 
232, 994 


11 


Colombia 


4,040 


Other 


4,713 








10, 445 


176, 175 


350, 213 


8,764 


Europe: 

Belgium 


3,502 
36, 458 
6,300 
92, 918 
79, 906 
21, 305 
1,304 
9,689 
7,627 


58, 413 

591, 424 

95, 300 

1,527,833 

1, 358, 474 

358, 059 

19, 560 

155, 353 

110, 432 






England 


14, 348 


1,331 


Finland 


France 


4,108 


112 






Netherlands 


1,510 


144 


Norway _. 




Spain . 






Other 














259, 009 


4, 274, 848 


19, 966 


1,587 


Asia 


40 


1,500 


130, 921 


2,782 






Africa: 

Algeria and Tunis 


7,550 
5,000 


121, 700 

85, 000 






British South Africa 


604 


50 








12,550 


206,700 


604 


50 


Oceania: 

Australia 


58,827 
12, 265 


882, 598 
171, 710 


443, 842 
94, 750 


11, 225 


New Zealand 


2,368 








71,092 


1, 054, 308 


538, 592 


13, 593 




482, 114 


7, 792, 854 


4, 546, 009 


101,347 



Of the total crude sulphur exported, European countries, headed 
by France, Germany, England, and Netherlands, received 54 per cent. 
Canada received 25 per cent, which was the largest amount shipped 
to any one country. Australia received 12 per cent and New Zealand 
nearly 3 per cent. Although the total exports of crude sulphur in 1924 
increased over those in 1923, the quantities exported to many of the 
leading countries showed decreases. Exports to Canada decreased 
from 127,971 to 119,221 long tons, to France from 98,827 to 92,918 
tons, and to Germany from 83,821 to 79,906 tons. Exports to Eng- 
land increased from 29,953 to 36,458 tons, to Netherlands from 8,555 
to 21,305 tons, to Australia from 50,530 to 58,827 tons, and to New 
Zealand from 10,750 to 12,265 tons. 

The exports of refined, sublimed, and flowers of sulphur went 
mainly to Canada and Mexico, which received over 3,000,000 pounds 
out of a total of 4,546,009 pounds. 

PYRITES 

The domestic pyrites market did not change in 1924. The com- 
panies that produced pyrites in 1923 continued operations in the 
same States. The combined production of California and Virginia 
was 152,309 long tons, New York produced 7,593 tons, Ohio 73 tons, 
and Wisconsin 121 tons. The total production was thus 160,096 
long tons, valued at $645,262, compared with 181,628 tons, valued 
at $661,000, in 1923, a decrease of 12 per cent in quantity and 2 
per cent in value. 

Although the production of pyrites dropped 12 per cent in 1924, 
the quantity sold and consumed by producing companies dropped 
only 6 per cent, from 170,997 tons in 1923 to 160,075 tons in 1924. 

The total sulphur content of lump and fines produced in 1924 was 
equivalent to 66,459 tons, which would indicate an average content 
of 41.5 per cent, compared with 41.3 per cent in 1923. 

The table below shows the production of pyrites since 1904. A 
study of the historical table of imports in connection with this table 
shows that both production and imports have decreased substantially 
during recent years, indicating a large decrease in the demand for 
pyrites. The production in 1924 was the smallest recorded since 
1897, except that in 1921, when 157,118 tons was produced; and the 
imports in 1924 were the smallest recorded since 1896, except those 
for the same year. In the five-year period 1909-1913 production 
plus imports of pyrites averaged 1,160,000 tons a year, compared 
with 407,000 tons in 1924. 

The production of pyrites increased from about 2,000 tons in 1880 
to more than 200,000 tons in 1903. Figures for 1904 through 1924 
are shown in the following table : 

Pyrites 'produced in the United States, 1904-1924 



Year 


Long tons 


Value 


Year 


Long tons 


Value 


1904 


207, 081 
253, 000 
261, 422 
247, 3S7 
222, 598 
247, 070 
241, 612 
301, 458 
350, 928 
341, 338 
336, 662 


$814, 808 

938, 492 

931, 305 

794, 949 

857,113 

1, 028, 157 

977, 978 

1, 164, 871 

1, 334, 259 

1, 286, 084 

1,283,346 


1915 


394, 124 
439, 132 
482, 662 
464, 494 
420, 647 
310, 777 
157,118 
169, 043 
181, 628 
160, 096 


$1, 674, 933 


1905 . 


1916 


2, 038, 002 


1906... 


1917 


2, 593, 035 


1907 


1918 


2, 644, 515 


1908. 


1919 


2, 558, 172 


1909 


1920 


1, 596, 961 


1910... 


1921 


711, 432 


1911 


1922. 


671, 241 


1912.. 


1923 


661, 000 


1913 


1924 


645, 262 


1914 











SULPHUR AND PYRITES 



In addition to the pyrites reported above for 1924, 8,756 tons of 
partly desulphurized tailings from the roasting and separating oper- 
ations of the National Zinc Separating Co.'s plant at Cuba City, 
Wis., were re- treated by auto-roasting, and the fumes were recovered 
for the production of sulphuric acid. 

In 1924 Ed. Hill and R. E. Culver, of Poland Junction, Ariz., 
shipped 3,105 pounds of pyrites, for which they received $1,617, to 
a Detroit radio company. In addition, the South Ibex Mines Co., 
of Leadville, Colo., shipped 3,417 pounds of pyrites for radio uses 
from its Garbutt and Nonie mines, for which it received $3,417. 
The names of other shippers of pyrites for radio uses, if there were 
any, are not known. 

The imports of pyrites decreased from 263,695 long tons in 1923 to 
246,737 tons in 1924. In 1884 the imports of pyrites were 16,710 
long tons, and in 1903 they had increased to 420,410 tons. The 
imports for 1904 through 1924 are shown below: 

Sulphur ore as pyrites, containing more than 25 per cent of sulphur, imported for 
consumption in the United States, 1904-1924 



Year 


Long tons 


Year 


Long tons 


1904 


422, 720 
511,946 
598, 078 
627, 985 
668, 117 
688,843 
803, 551 

1, 006, 310 
970, 785 
850, 592 

1,026,617 


1915 


964, 634 


1905 


1916 


1,244,662 
967, 340 


1906 


1917 


1907 


1918 


496, 792 
388, 973 


1908 


1919 


1909 


1920 


332,606 
216, 229 
279, 445 


1910 


1921 


1911 


1922... 


1912 


1923 


263, 695 


1913 


1924 


246, 737 


1914 









FULLER'S EARTH 



By Jefferson Middleton 



GENERAL CONDITIONS 

The fuller's earth industry in 1924, on the whole, was in a highly 
prosperous condition. The industry — a comparatively small one — 
has advanced steadily since 1912 except in one year, 1921, and the 
output of 13 operators in 6 States in 1924 was 177,994 short tons, 
valued at $2,632,342. This quantity was 19 per cent greater than 
that of 1923 and more than four times that of 1914. The value 
of the output for 1924 was also the largest ever recorded. It was 
17 per cent greater than that of 1923, 5 per cent greater than that of 
1920, previously the year of greatest value, and more than six times 
that of 1914. Since 1920 there has been a steady decline in the 
average value per ton of fuller's earth, the value in 1924 — $14.79 — 
being nearly $5 lower than that of 1920, the year of highest average. 
The average value per ton in 1924 was higher than that of any 
year prior to 1919. Imports continued to decrease and in 1924 
were the lowest in quantity since 1897. 

Notwithstanding the large growth of this industry the producers 
of natural fuller's earth are confronted with what may be serious 
competition in the peculiar claylike materials of California, Nevada, 
Utah, and possibly other far western States, which are known locally 
as bentonite, Death Valley clay, leverrierite, montmorillonite, etc., 
and which are said to be superior to the natural earth after treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid under a patented process. 

The Engineering and Mining Journal-Press of November 15, 
1924, contained a paper on the marketing of fuller's earth, by 
Arthur B. Parsons, which gives much information of general in- 
terest on the subject. This paper appeared subsequently as a chapter 
in a volume entitled "The marketing of metals and minerals." It 
includes typical analyses of fuller's earth, a list of materials on which 
the earth is used in refining, and sections on methods of use, prices, 
properties, sampling, shipping methods, specifications, tariff, uses, 
and other pertinent subjects. 

OCCURRENCE 

Fuller's earth has been reported as occurring in Alabama, Arizona, 
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massa- 
chusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New 
York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, 
Virginia, and Washington, but in 1924 it was produced only in 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Texas. 

USES 

Fuller's earth is used principally as a filtering medium in the clari- 
fying or bleaching of fats, greases, and mineral and vegetable oils. 

44839°— 27 2 7 



8 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Its original use was in the fulling of cloth, from which it derived its 
name. This use, however, at least in this country, has almost been 
abandoned. Fuller's earth is also said to be used in the manufacture 
of pigments for printing wall paper, in detecting certain coloring 
matters in some food products, as a substitute for talcum powder, 
and in medicine as a poultice and as an antidote for alkaloid poisons. 
Another suggested use is in deliming hides in the manufacture of 
leather. It has also been stated that the fuller's earth cake from oil 
mills can be used in the manufacture of hand soaps, concrete, water- 
proofing, and asphalt preparations. 1 

HISTORY 

Fuller's earth was first discovered in the United States in 1891 
near Alexander, Ark., by John Olsen. This earth was used for a 
time by the Southern Cotton Oil Co., at Little Rock, Ark., but its 
use was finally abandoned. 2 The real beginning of the industry in 
this country, however, was in 1893, near Quincy, Fla., when quite 
by accident, in an unsuccessful effort to burn brick on the property 
of the Owl Cigar Co., an employee called attention to the close resem- 
blance between the clay used and the German fuller's earth. This 
discovery in Florida caused considerable excitement, and deposits of 
fuller's earth were reported from a number of States, but the mate- 
rial in most of these deposits was found to have no value as fuller's 
earth. Production began in Florida almost immediately after the 
discovery, and in 1897-1899 fuller's earth was produced in Florida, 
Colorado, New York, and Utah, with Florida the leading producer, 
a rank that it has maintained continuously until 1924. In 1901 
Arkansas again became a producer. From 1904 to 1907 Arkansas 
was the second largest producer. Fuller's earth was found in 
Georgia soon after its discovery in Florida, but Georgia did not 
become a producer until 1907, when it was the third largest producing 
State, and it has ranked second since 1909, except in 1918 and 1919, 
when Texas was second, and in 1924, when it ranked first. In 1904 
Alabama and Massachusetts, in 1907 South Carolina and Texas, 
in 1909 California, in 1918 Nevada, and in 1922 Illinois and Penn- 
sylvania first appeared as producers. 

PRODUCTION 

Domestic fuller's earth sold in 1917-192% 



Year 


Operators 

reporting 

sales 


Short tons 


Value at mines 


Total 


Average 


1917 


11 
14 
10 
12 
12 
15 
15 
13 


72, 567 
84, 468 
106, 145 
128, 487 
105, 609 
138, 944 
149, 134 
177, 994 


$772, 087 
1, 146, 354 

1, 998, 829 

2, 506, 189 
1, 973, 848 
2, 289, 719 
2. 247, 523 
2, 632, 342 


$10. 64 


1918 


13.57 


1919 


18.83 


1920 


19.51 


1921 


18.69 


1922 


16.48 


1923 


15.07 


1924 l 


14.79 







1 Chem. and Met. Eng.. vol. 26, No. 13, p. 602, Mar. 29, 1922. 

2 Branner,, J. C, An early discovery of fuller's earth in Arkansas 
Trans., vol. 43, pp. o20-522, 1913. 



Am. Inst. Min. Eng-. 



FULLER S EARTH 



9 



The small number of producers in some States makes it impossible 
to publish totals for those States without disclosing individual op- 
erations. Nearly all the earth produced in 1924 came from the 
Southern States, but three operators reported in other States — two 
in Illinois and one in Massachusetts. For the first time since the 
inception of the industry the output of Florida was exceeded by 
that of another State — Georgia. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

The imports of fuller's earth, which at one time constituted the 
entire supply, were increasing before the World War and reached 
their maximum in 1914. Since 1914, except in 1917, 1920, and 1922, 
there has been a steady decline in imports, the quantity in 1924 being 
the lowest since 1897. Owing, however, to the higher prices pre- 
vailing in later years the value of the imports in 1924 was not so 
low comparatively but was the lowest since 1904. Wrought or manu- 
factured earth represented in 1924 about 96 per cent of the quantity 
and value of imports. 

Fuller's earth imported for consumption in the United States, 1918-1924 0, 





Unwrought or unmanu- 
factured 


Wrought or manufac- 
tured 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


1918 


1,085 
373 

1,518 
483 
607 
642 
296 


$12, 636 
4,301 
19, 793 
6,172 
7,413 
8,252 
3,385 


$11.65 
11.53 
13.04 
12.78 
12.21 
12.85 
11.44 


15, 837 
13, 500 
17, 497 
9,261 
9,962 
7,905 
7,006 


$213, 599 
185, 410 
202, 100 
113, 243 
128, 282 
105, 692 
89, 103 


$13. 49 
13.73 
11.55 
12.23 
12.88 
13.37 
12.72 


16, 922 
13, 873 
19, 015 
9,744 
10, 569 
8,547 
7,302 


$226, 235 
189,711 
221, 893 
119,415 
135, 695 
113, 944 
92, 488 


$13. 37 


1919 


13.67 


1920 


11.67 


1921 


12.26 


1922 


12.84 


1923 


13.33 


1924 


12.67 










° The figures showing imports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the United States Geological Survey, 
from records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce. 

The Department of Commerce does not report exports of fuller's 
earth, but five operators reported that about 6,300 tons of fuller's 
earth was exported to Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Ger- 
many, Great Britain, Greece, India, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, 
and South America. This is an increase of 70 per cent over the ex- 
ports in 1923, the first year for which information was obtained 
from producers concerning exports of fuller's earth. The figures 
would indicate a domestic consumption in 1924 of about 179,000 
tons, of which about 96 per cent was domestic earth. 



PEAT 



By K. W. Cottrell 



Production and sales of peat were reported by 23 companies in the 
United States in 1924, one more than in the preceding year. Others, 
not producing peat commercially, were engaged in experimental 
work. The total quantity of peat produced was 55,469 short tons, 
valued at $395,470, a decrease of 10 per cent in quantity from 1923, 
but an increase of 5 per cent in value. The average price was $7.13 
a ton, as against $6.14 in 1923 and $6.55 in 1922. The peat sold for 
use as fertilizer or as an ingredient of fertilizer amounted to 55,196 
tons, valued at $387,319, a decrease of 5 per cent in quantity from 
1923 but an increase of 10 per cent in value. The average prices per 
ton for this peat differed but little from those of all the peat sold 
during the corresponding years. The quantity of peat sold for use 
as fuel and as an ingredient in stock food was small. 

The plants reporting the production of peat in 1924 were dis- 
tributed as follows: New Jersey, 5; California, Florida, and New 
York, 3 each; Illinois, Maine, and Michigan, 2 each; Indiana, New 
Hampshire, and Pennsylvania, 1 each. 

New Jersey was the largest producer, with an output of 23,523 
tons, valued at $172,863, an increase of 28 per cent in quantity and of 
60 per cent in value. Illinois ranked second, but the State total may 
not be published, as there were only two producers. Both quantity 
and value, however, were less than in 1923. California ranked third, 
with an output of 7,084 tons, valued at- $67,952, a decrease of 13 per 
cent in quantity and of 8 per cent in value. 

Peat produced in the United States, 1920-1924, by uses 



Year 


Fertilizer and fertilizer 
ingredient 


Other products ° 


Total 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1920 


63, 272 
29, 460 
57, 747 
57, 907 
55, 196 


$773, 635 
251, 046 
369, 165 
351, 641 
387, 319 


9,932 

946 

2,933 

3,448 

273 


$148, 097 
9,073 
28, 564 
25, 19S 
8,151 


73, 204 
30, 406 

60, 680 

61, 355 
55, 469 


$921, 732 


1921 


260, 119 


1922 


397, 729 


1923. 


376, 834 


1924 


395, 470 







° Chiefly stock food; includes also fuel, moss, stable litter, and packing material. 



11 



12 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Peat moss imported for consumption in the United States, 1919-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1919. 


464 
2,762 
3,450 


$16, 345 
36, 201 
22, 754 


1922 


4,805 
5,973 
5,541 


$33, 034 


1920. 


1923 


43, 184 


1921.. 


1924 


47, 208 









° Compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the United States Geological Survey, from records of the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

The following individuals and companies reported to the Geo- 
logical Survey that they produced peat in the United States in 1924 : 

Alphano Corporation, 2 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. 

American Humus Co., Guardian Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Ammoniate Products Corporation, 2 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. 

Blaine, J. H., Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 

Chapman, I. S. & Co. (Inc.), 101 South E Street, San Bernardino, Calif. 

Craig, William N., Fishkill, N. Y. 

Dow, Fred T., Bangor, Me. 

Dundee Fertilizer Co., Tampa, Fla. 

Florida Humus Co., Zellwood, Fla. 

Green Fly Humus Co., Fishkill, N. Y. 

Humus Natural Manure Co., 1964 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Hyper-Humus Co., Newton, N. J. 

Keystone Humus Co., Hartstown, Pa. 

Loskamp, P., Stockton, Calif. 

Manito Chemical Co., Peoria, 111. 

Marcrum, J. G., Netcong, N. J. 

Moore & Berry (Inc.), Milford, N. H. 

Peat Humus Co., Huntington Beach, Calif. 

Sims, Alfred F., Sag Harbor, N. Y. 

Sodus Distributing Co., Benton Harbor, Mich. 

Standard Agricultural Chemical Corporation, 2 Rector Street, New York, 

N. Y. 
Steenburg, W. C, South Bend, Ind. 
Wiedmer Chemical Co., Pierce Building, St. Louis, Mo. 



GRAPHITE 



By Jefferson Middleton 



INTRODUCTION 

The graphite industry in the United States suffered a considerable 
setback in 1924, when the number of active operators, the output, and 
the value all decreased. In Alabama, which showed the greatest 
development in response to the war demand and was for many years 
the leading producer, the industry has almost ceased to exist. Many, 
if not most of the plants that were established there have been 
abandoned or dismantled on account of their inability to produce 
graphite in competition with the cheap foreign supply, in spite of the 
tariff of l]/2 cents a pound on imported crystalline flake graphite. 
In Texas, the only other State producing crystalline graphite, pro- 
duction was also curtailed by enforced idleness for the greater part of 
the year. The increased price of graphite in 1924 — the most interest- 
ing feature of the year in the industry — may stimulate domestic 
production, but it is doubtful whether the industry will be per- 
manently resuscitated. Imports also decreased, as did the pro- 
duction of artificial graphite. 

The Engineering and Mining Journal-Press of June 28, 1924, 
published a paper on the marketing of graphite, by Charles Pettinos, 
which gives much interesting information on that subject. This 
paper appeared later as a chapter in " The Marketing of Metals and 
Minerals." It includes descriptions of the various kinds and grades 
of graphite, methods of preparation for the market, shipping methods, 
uses, and other pertinent subjects. 

USES 

Natural graphite is used chiefly in the manufacture of crucibles, 
lubricants, pencils, foundry facing, paints, stove polish, and dry 
batteries. Small quantities are also used in electrotyping and as 
a preventive of boiler scale. The large consumption of graphite for 
the manufacture of crucibles seems to be threatened by the decreasing 
demand for crucibles through the increasing use of electric furnaces. 
The percentages of consumption in the various industries in recent 
years have been estimated as follows: Crucibles, 45 per cent; lubri- 
cants, 10 per cent; pencils and paints, 5 per cent; foundry facing and 
stove polish, 30 per cent; other uses, 10 per cent. 

PRODUCTION 

The sales of domestic graphite in the United States fell from 6,038 
short tons in 1923 to 4,971 tons in 1924, a decrease of 18 per cent. 
This decrease was entirely in the crystalline variety, which declined 
2,164,575 pounds, or 55 per cent. The amorphous variety increased 
slightly in output — 15 tons — compared with 1923. Crystalline gra- 
phite was produced in only two States in 1924, Alabama and Texas; 
in Montana only assessment work was done on the deposit near 
Dillon, Beaverhead County. 

13 



14 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Domestic natural graphite sold in the United States, 1920-1924- 



Year 


Number 
of active 
operators 
reporting 


Amorphous 


Crystalline 


Short tons 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


1920 . 


17 
8 
7 
7 
5 


4,694 
1,842 
2,200 
4,056 
4,071 


$49, 758 
20, 860 

(°) 
39, 560 
38, 533 


9, 632, 360 
1, 189, 523 
1, 849, 766 
3, 964, 900 
1, 800, 325 


$576, 444 


1921 


75, 664 


1922 


85, 242 


1923 


151,434 


1924 


48, 977 







° The United States Geological Survey was not at liberty to publish value. 
MANUFACTURED GRAPHITE 



Graphite is manufactured by the Acheson Graphite Co., at Niagara 
Falls, N. Y. The figures given below are published by permission of 
this company. 

Graphite manufactured by the Acheson Graphite Co., 1919-1924, in pounds 



1919 8, 163, 177 

1920 7, 399, 749 

1921 5, 888, 000 



1922 13, 031, 926 

1923 26, 761, 015 

1924 10, 986, 192 



PRICES 

In 1924 the average value of domestic crystalline graphite at the 
mine was between 2 and 3 cents a pound, compared with 3 to 6.4 
cents in 1923 and 4 to 5 cents in 1922. 

The following table is based on information supplied by importers 
prior to 1920. Since then the figures have been furnished by Charles 
rettinos, of New York, to whom the writer is also indebted for the 
following information concerning the foreign situation. 

Average prices of Ceylon graphite c. i. /. New York, 1915-1924 
[Cents per pound] 





Lump 


Chip 


Dust 




Year 














Remarks 




First 


Second 


First 


Second 


First 


Second 






grade 


grade 


grade 


grade 


grade 


grade 




1915 


9^-20 


8 -14 


7 -14 


6^-12 


7H-9H 


6^-9^ 


Low first half; high second half. 


1916 


20 -28 


14 -21 


13^-20 


11M-17 


9H-12 


9^-10 


Do. 


1917 


28 -32 


21 -23 


20 -23 


17 -19 


11 -13 


10 -12 


High level maintained through- 
out the year. 


1918 


1 5J4-28 y 2 


14 -22 


12H-21M 


ii -isy 2 


10J^-12 


9 -10 


High first half; low second half. 


1919 


14 -15M 


12 -13 


10 -11 


8-9 


6M- 7V 2 


5-6 


Low throughout the year. 


1920 


9 -14 


7 -11 


7 -10 


5^-7^ 


5-7 


VA- 5 


High 'first half; low second half. 


1921 


5^- 6 


4M- 5 


4^- 5 


3^-4 


3H- m 


2 -2A 


Low throughout the year. 


1922 


5-6 


4 -4H 


m-m 


m-m 


3 -3H 


2 - 2A 


Do. 


1923 


5-6 


4 -4H 


Z%-4K 


m-3% 


3-3^ 


2 -2Y 2 


Do. 


1924... . 


5M-7 


4^-6 


4-6 


3H-5 


3M-4K 


2-3 


Low first three-quarters; high 
last quarter. 



GKAPHITE 



15 



Prices remained on a low level throughout the first three-quarters 
of the year and did not reach the high level until the last quarter. 
They were lowest in the first two months of the year, but advanced 
gradually through the spring and summer. This advance was more 
or less in sympathy with the rise in price of Madagascar graphite, to 
which reference will be made. In September and October Ceylon 
graphite increased rapidly to a price that it has since maintained. 
The causes leading to the increases were as follows : 

Foreign conditions. — For several years, in fact since the armistice, 
the graphite markets in Ceylon and Madagascar have been very low, 
with prices nominal and large quantities of the old war stock on hand; 
hence there was little or no mining in either island, and the surplus 
stocks were on the market at whatever price they would bring. 
Early in 1924 the trade — especially in Europe — realized that these old 
stocks were almost exhausted and a concerted buying campaign 
began, although the demand had not increased or the business quick- 
ened. This competitive buying, especially in Madagascar, quickly 
raised prices and the old supply was promptly bought. When the 
price was high enough to make their mining profitable, some of the old 
pits were opened and graphite was put on the market in limited 
quantities. After the Madagascar supplies were exhausted similar 
conditions developed in Ceylon. The price of graphite increased 
in Madagascar in the spring and in Ceylon in the fall. 

Madagascar flake graphite sold in January and February, 1924, 
on a basis of about 800 francs for 1,000 kilos, c. i. f. New York, duty 
not included. Before the end of the year it sold as high as 1,800 
francs. Duty added brought the price to about 6 cents a pound. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

The reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce as 
to imports show only the country from which the graphite is shipped, 
which is not always the country of origin. For instance, the graphite 
entered in the table as imported from France probably originated in 
Madagascar, and that imported from Great Britain should probably 
be credited to Ceylon and possibly in part to Madagascar. The 
shipments from Japan probably consisted of graphite from Chosen. 

In 1924 the imports of graphite for consumption decreased 3,059 
tons, or 16 per cent, and $214,608, or 35 per cent, compared with 1923. 

Graphite imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924, by kinds 



Year 


Amorphous 


Crystalline chip or 
dust 


Crystalline flake 


Total 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1920 


(°) 
(°) 
( a ) 

11,252 
10, 936 


(») 

( a ) 

(«) 

$149, 831 

113, 751 


(°) 

(a) 
(») 

7,243 
3,998 


(») 

(°) 
(°) 
$426, 417 
197, 867 


( a ) 
(°) 

939 
1,441 


(") 
( a ) 
(■) 
$37, 871 
87, 893 


21, 095 

8, 183 
12, 488 
19, 434 
16, 375 


$1,711,312 
452, 076 
473, 046 


1921 

1922... 


1923 


614, 119 


1924. . 


399, 511 





; Not separately classified prior to 1923, 



16 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Graphite imported into the United States, 1919-1924 
IGeneral imports] 



Country 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Austria 






58 

2,170 

2 


$1. 195 

157, 015 

114 








1,504 


$102, 163 


687 

1 

15 

9 

51 

1,078 


$48, 035 
95 


China 








203 


Colombia 










676 


England... 


847 
1,129 
8,512 


157, 390 

166, 662 

1, 000, 000 


1,354 
2,243 


190, 414 
167, 580 


5, 241 


France.. . 


67, 506 
3 


French-Indo China 


Germany 


30 

11 

156 

7,694 

137 

810 

2,467 

3,659 


2,502 
601 

36, 547 

850, 329 

5,072 

29, 936 
118, 803 
131, 832 






(») 


10 


(°) 

(°) 
2,259 
47 
632 


4 


India: 

British.. 


22 


Other British East 

Italy 


8,604 

22 

126 

375 

5,506 

1 


1, 372, 891 

663 

3,948 

38, 688 

135, 464 

217 


194, 177 
1,019 


Japan. ... 


14, 942 


Madagascar. . 




Mexico 


3,404 


120, 153 


Panama 






304 


19, 370 
2 






Scotland 






















26, 626 


2, 978, 096 


21, 095 


1,711,312 


8,183 


452, 076 



Country 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Aden . 






111 

59 

893 

7,244 


$1, 489 

1,364 

37, 384 

392, 350 












5 

1,137 

3,632 

253 

251 


$180 




533 
7,114 


$17, 392 
324, 826 


58, 628 


Ceylon- 


171, 804 


China. . 


3,905 


Chosen.. 






1,705 

1 

8 

843 

4 

67 

298 

474 

2,106 

183 

5,765 


24, 262 

50 

1.400 

32, 176 

389 

600 

23, 059 

7,487 

34, 912 

5,146 

41, 339 


2,768 


Denmark 








England 


144 

1,305 

6 


7,369 

52, 275 

425 


9 

851 

2 


1,450 


France 


57, 009 
282 


Germany 


Greenland. 




India (British) 


102 
35 

1,171 


6,852 

1,045 

29, 819 


171 
155 
479 
429 
8,984 


8,450 


Italy 


3,204 


Japan . 


8,362 


Madagascar. _ . . ... 


11,145 


Mexico 


2,196 

(a) 


40, 954 
4 


70, 380 


Netherlands. 




Siam 


56 


2,929 






Switzerland .. 






17 


1,944 
















12, 606 


480, 961 


19,817 


606, 336 


16, 375 


399, 511 



° Less than 1 ton. 

Notwithstanding the decreased production of graphite in 1924, the 
exports of unmanufactured graphite, which amounted to 21 per cent 
of the output, increased 13 per cent in quantity and 4 per cent in 
value compared with 1923. The average value at the port of export 
declined from 7.63 cents a pound in 1923 to 7.05 cents in 1924. The 
value of manufactured graphite (exclusive of crucibles) exported 
decreased 25 per cent. 

The exports of lead pencils and pencil leads are not included in the 
table showing the value of manufactured graphite, nor are exports of 
crucibles included after 1921. Exports of pencils (other than refill- 
able pencils) and pencil leads in 1924 were 10,623,782 dozen, valued 
at $1,641,895. The official classification for export statistics contains 
the group, " Crucibles, clay and graphite," and exports under this 



GRAPHITE 



17 



heading for 1924 were 548,893 crucibles, valued at $96,001. The 
corresponding figures for 1923 were 463,265 crucibles, valued at 
$132,228. No separate figures for exports of graphite crucibles are 
available. 

Graphite ex-ported from the United States, 1919-1924 



Year 


Unmanufactured 
graphite 


Manufac- 
tures of 
graphite 


Year . 


Unmanufactured 
graphite 


Manufac- 
tures of 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


graphite 


1919 


1, 258, 040 
1,213,616 
1, 841, 578 


$90, 185 
112,771 
95, 998 


$788, 755 
610, 261 
679, 359 


1922 


1, 138, 708 
1, 815, 292 
2,043,411 


$78, 094 
138, 542 
144, 108 


« $255, 019 
a 335, 778 


1920 


1923 


1921 


1924 


« 250, 957 









a Exclusive of crucibles, figures for which are not available. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION 

The following table, prepared by W. I. Whiteside, shows, as far 
as figures are available, the production of graphite throughout the 
world. The most striking features of this table are the continued 
decrease in production in Austria and the large increase in production 
in Italy (more than 200 per cent compared with 1923). In Ceylon 
and Madagascar, the chief sources of supply for this country, the 
production averaged about the same as in 1923. 

World's production of natural graphite, 1920-1924-, in metric tons 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Africa: 

Kenya Colony 


66 

41 

13 

11, 543 

1,987 

9,353 

22, 925 

18, 228 

27 

272 

20, 639 

' 1, 380 

102 

5,398 

1,133 

14, 425 

2,992 

10 

6,315 

7 

4,258 
4,369 


254 
43 


38 
51 


54 


(°) 


Union of South Africa 


50 


Australia: 

New South Wales. 




Western Australia b 






( a ) 


Austria- . 


13, 280 
850 

4,419 
13, 522 

8,002 


14, 034 
590 
11,024 
10, 500 
19, 330 


9,403 
1,010 

10, 840 
9,873 

14, 776 


5,820 


Canada..- 


(°) 


Ceylon 6 .. . 


9,779 


Czechoslovakia 


( a ) 


Chosen* .. . 


( a ) 


Finland 






1,100 

24, 565 

2,000 

25 

5,233 

900 

6,220 

2,911 




20, 856 
60 


(a) 


Germany 


32, 342 
432 
20 
4,546 
1,046 
6,675 
2,054 


(a) 


Greenland ... 


53 


India (British) . 


( a ) 


Italy 


5,691 

801 

10, 768 

5,489 


17, 590 


Japan 


(°) 


Madagascar 


11, 556 


Mexico ... 


8,023 




( 3 ) 




2,772 


530 










( a ) 


United States: 

Amorphous 


1,671 
540 


1,996 
839 


3,680 
1,798 


3,693 


Crystalline 


816 







Data not available. 
1 Exports. 
: Estimated by United States Geological Survey. 



FELDSPAR 



By Jefferson Mtddleton 



GENERAL CONDITIONS 

The feldspar industry in 1924 was exceedingly prosperous on the 
whole, and made notable progress in output and in the better prepa- 
ration of material for the market. The quantity and value of crude 
spar were by far the largest ever recorded. The quantity was 41 
per cent greater than that of 1923 and 69 per cent greater than that 
of 1914. The value was 43 per cent higher than that of 1923 and 
140 per cent higher than that of 1914. The greatly increased pro- 
duction of crude feldspar, especially in North Carolina, is explained 
by the fact that some grinders of feldspar found themselves late in 
1923 with low stocks of crude spar which they were unable to replace 
during the winter. The desire to avoid similar conditions in 1924-25 
led to increased production in 1924, hence the mills had large stocks 
on hand at the close of the year. 

Imports of feldspar increased in even greater proportion than did 
production, but as they constituted less than one-sixth of the total 
supply in 1924 the domestic industry does not seem to be menaced. 

Notwithstanding the large increase in production and imports the 
sales of ground feldspar increased but little, probably because the 
pottery industry was not so active in 1924 as in previous years. The 
sales might have been even smaller but for the glass industry, as 
manufacturers of bottles and preserving jars are now large users of 
feldspar. 

PRODUCTION 

Statistics of production of feldspar are presented separately in 
tabular form as crude feldspar for mine and quarry output, and as 
ground feldspar for mill output. The crude feldspar is reported in 
tons of 2,240 pounds and the ground feldspar in tons of 2,000 pounds, 
according to the common practice in the industry. The average value 
of crude feldspar in 1924 at the mine or the shipping point nearest 
thereto was $7.37 a long ton — 8 cents higher than that of 1923. The 
average value of domestic ground feldspar was 46 cents a short ton 
higher than in 1923, and that of Canadian spar ground in the United 
States was $1.04 a ton higher. The average values of crude spar as 
reported by individual producers ranged from $2 to $16.74 a long 
ton. For New England the range was from $3.73 to $16.74; for 
Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, from $3 to $8.93; 
for North Carolina, from $2 to $8.86; and for Arizona, California, and 
Colorado, from $5.60 to $10.08. 

19 



20 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



CRUDE FELDSPAR 

Crude feldspar was reported from 12 States in 1924, an addition of 
one (South Dakota) to the 1923 list. Notwithstanding the large 
increase in total output, five States — mostly the smaller producing 
ones — showed decreased output. 

Crude feldspar, produced in the United States, sold in 1917—1924 



Year 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Long 
tons 


Value 


1917.. 


126, 715 
88, 498 
63,441 

135, 551 


$474, 767 
429. 989 
347, 992 
851, 123 


1921 . 


91, 865 
117, 127 
145, 004 
204, 772 


$617, 652 


1918 


1922 


844, 568 


1919 


1923 


1, 057, 595 


1920 


1924 


1, 509, 339 









Crude feldspar, produced in the United States and sold in 1923 and 1924, by States 



State 



Arizona. 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Maine 

Maryland 

New Hampshire. 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

Pennsylvania 

South Dakota 

Virginia 

Undistributed.,. 



1923 



Long 
tons 



(») 

9,297 

( b ) 

8, 780 
25, 029 

2, 750 
23, 220 
15, 161 
57, 622 

2, 069 



1,076 



Value a 



Total 



CO 
$62, 499 

( b ) 

75, 379 
230, 122 

17, 010 

171. 789 

127, 477 

360, 636 

6,355 



( b ) 



328 



145, 004 



1, 057, 595 



Average 



$0. 00 
6.72 
5.00 
8.59 
9.19 
6.19 
7.40 
8.41 
6.26 
3.07 



6.26 



7.29 



1924 



Long 
tons 



0) 

8,027 

( 6 ) 

6,572 
29,912 

4, 854 
39, 425 
13, 839 
97, 075 

1,481 

( b ) 

( b ) 

3,587 



204, 772 



Value 



Total 



(") 
$62, 344 

( b ) 

51, 422 
271,354 

25, 020 
324, 638 
108, 751 
640, 403 
4, 763 

(") 

(") 

20, 644 



Average 



$7.41 
7.77 
5.60 
7.82 
9.07 
5.15 
8.23 
7.86 
6.60 
3.22 
4.48 
6.00 



1, 509, 339 



".37 



Value at mine or nearest shipping point. 
Included under "Undistributed." 



GROUND FELDSPAR 

Probably all the feldspar consumed industrially, except that used 
for facing cement work, for covering prepared roofing, for ' k chicken 
grits," and like purposes, is prepared by fine grinding. Even for such 
uses the spar is at least crushed to small sizes and more or less graded 
by screening, but it has not been possible to canvass all users of 
feldspar to determine the amounts ground and used by them. All 
known merchant mills or grinders — that is, those who quarry or 
purchase crude spar and grind it for sale to other establishments — 
have been canvassed for statistics of ground feldspar during the last 
3 years. 

For 1924, 30 mills in 13 States reported 189,780 short tons of 
ground feldspar, an increase of 4 mills and 2 States (Illinois and 
North Carolina) compared with 1923. Of these mills 26 worked on 
domestic spar and 6 on Canadian spar, 2 mills grinding both domestic 
and Canadian spar. Of the total quantity 86 per cent (163,905 tons) 
was domestic spar, and 14 per cent (25,875 tons) was Canadian 



FELDSPAR; 



21 



spar — the same percentages as for 1923. The average value per 
ton of all ground domestic feldspar f. o. b. mills in 1924 was $16.84, 
an increase of 46 cents compared with 1923; and of Canadian spar 
$20.21, an increase of $1.04 compared with 1923. Direct comparison 
of values is misleading, however, as the figures for Canadian spar 
generally relate to high-grade material at mills near points of con- 
sumption, whereas the figures for domestic spar cover all grades at 
various points, some of which are distant from consuming centers. 
The average value of domestic spar ground in Ohio was $19.26; in 
New Jersey, $21.08; and in Tennessee, $13.28. Values reported by 
producers in New Jersey and Ohio ranged from $14.50 to $22.42; in 
New England, from $14.15 to $20; in North Carolina and Tennessee, 
from $11.13 to $16; and in California, from $20.13 to $22.36. 

Three new mills for grinding feldspar were established during 1924, 
two in California and one in Illinois. The Kingman Feldspar Co., 
Kingman, Ariz., is also equipped for grinding spar but did not report 
any ground spar for 1924. 

Ground f elds-par sold by merchant mills' 1 in the United States, 1922-1924 





Num- 
ber 
of 

opera- 
tors 


Domestic 


Canadian 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


1922.. 

1923 

1924 


20 
26 
30 


107, 969 
151, 855 
163, 905 


$1, 790, 305 
2, 486, 810 
2, 760, 286 


$16. 58 
16.38 
16.84 


19, 075 
25, 374 
25, 875 


$364, 082 
486, 546 
522, 884 


$19. 09 
19.17 
20.21 


127, 044 
177, 229 
189, 780 


$2, 154, 387 

2, 973, 356 

3, 283, 170 


$16. 96 
16.78 
17.30 



Does not include potters and others who grind for consumption in their own plants. 

Ground feldspar sold by merchant mills' 1 in the United States in 1924 



State 


Number 

of 
operators 


Domestic 


Canadian 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


California _. . . 


3 
3 
3 
3 

4 
4 
4 
6 


2,180 
2,741 
24,411 
30, 602 
( b ) 
( b ) 

52, 571 
51, 400 


$46, 387 
46, 927 

465. 107 

645. 108 
(») 

( b ) 

697, 962 
858, 795 






Connecticut 






Maine 






New Jersey _ . 






New York . . 


22, 150 
3,725 


$445, 757 


Ohio 


77, 127 


Tennessee . . 




Undistributed c ... 














30 


163, 905 


2, 760, 286 


25, 875 


522, 884 



° Does not include potters or others who grind for consumption in their own plants. 
b Included under "Undistributed." 

c Includes Delaware, Illinois, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania. 

THE INDUSTRY BY STATES 

The production of crude feldspar in 1924 was reported from 12 
States, which were, in the order of their output, North Carolina, New 
Hampshire, Maine, New York, California, Connecticut, Maryland, 
South Dakota, Pennsylvania, Arizona, Virginia, and Colorado. 



22 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

This relative order is practically the same as that of 1923, the excep- 
tions being the advance of New Hampshire to second place and the 
appearance of South Dakota as a producer. Feldspar was ground 
by merchant mills in each of these States except Arizona, Colorado, 
South Dakota, and Virginia. In addition, mills were operated in Del- 
aware, Illinois, New Jersey, Ohio, and Tennessee. 

Arizona. — The deposit of feldspar near Kingman, Mohave County, 
was operated by G. I. Taylor early in the year. He was, however, 
succeeded by the Kingman Feldspar Co. in March, 1924. The mate- 
rial from this deposit finds its market in the California ceramic 
industries. 

California. — Seven operators in Riverside and San Diego Counties 
reported the production of crude feldspar in 1924. The quantity and 
value showed small decreases compared with 1923. Most of the spar 
was sold crude. Two new grinding mills were established in this 
State, and the quantity and value of ground spar increased con- 
siderably. 

Colorado. — Colorado has been an intermittent producer of feldspar 
in small lots. For 1924 production was reported by one operator in 
Jefferson County. The material was used in the ceramic industry. 

Connecticut. — Ten operators in Connecticut reported sales of crude 
feldspar in 1924, an increase of two compared with 1923. The out- 
put, however, decreased 25 per cent in quantity and 32 per cent in 
value. The chief producers, Louis W. Howe, Eureka Flint & Spar 
Co., and Golding Sons Co., reported nearly three-fourths of the out- 
put. The product of the Howe quarry was ground in a mill operated 
by Mr. Howe. The greater part of the output of other quarries was 
shipped to mills in East Liverpool, Ohio, and Trenton, N. J., where 
it was ground for use in the ceramic industries. 

Delaware. — The only feldspar mill in Delaware in 1924 was that of 
the Golding Sons Co., at Wilmington. This mill was destroyed by 
fire in 1924 and will not be rebuilt. 

Illinois. — A mill operated by the Isco-Bautz Co. (Inc.) was estab- 
lished at Murphysboro in 1924 for grinding feldspar from South 
Dakota. 

Maine. — In 1924 Maine ranked third among the States in output 
of crude feldspar and showed an increase of 20 per cent in quantity 
and 18 per cent in value compared with 1923. Fifteen operators in 
Androscoggin, Cumberland, Lincoln, Oxford, and Sagadahoc Coun- 
ties, an increase of seven operators compared with 1923, reported the 
output. The largest quantity was produced by the Maine Feldspar 
Co., which is also the largest producer of ground spar in the State. 
Maine also ranked third in the quantity of domestic ground feldspar 
sold in 1924. 

Maryland. — The production of crude feldspar in Maryland in 1924 
showed an increase of 77 per cent in quantity and 47 per cent in value 
compared with 1923. This material was produced by a compara- 
tively large number of small operators who sell to the only mill in the 
State — the Seaboard Feldspar Co., of Baltimore, which succeeded 
the Product Operating Co. during 1924. 

New Hampshire. — New Hampshire was the second largest producer 
of crude feldspar in 1924, displacing Maine, and showed the second 
largest actual increase in quantity and value — 16,205 tons, or 70 per 
cent, and $152,849, or 89 per cent, compared with 1923. The Golding- 



FELDSPAR 23 

Keene Co. and the Standard Feldspar Co. were the largest producers. 
The latter was organized in 1924 by the consolidation of three other 
companies. New Hampshire's product was used in the ceramic and 
soap industries. The Golding-Keene Co. was the only operator of a 
mill in the State and ground mainly its own crude material. 

New Jersey. — New Jersey's connection with the feldspar industry 
is through its mills, as it is not a feldspar-producing State. At Tren- 
ton are the mills of the Eureka Flint & Spar Co., the Golding Sons Co., 
and the Trenton Flint & Spar Co. These mills reported nearly one- 
fifth of the domestic ground spar sold in 1924. Trenton is therefore 
both one of the principal feldspar markets and one of the principal 
centers of feldspar consumption by reason of its very large pottery 
industry and the large capacity of the mills. 

New York. — This State ranks fourth in the quantity of crude feld- 
spar produced and fifth in the production of ground spar from domes- 
tic material. It is the larger grinder of spar from Canada and ranks 
second in the total production of ground spar. Its crude spar is pro- 
duced in Essex, St. Lawrence, and Westchester Counties by the 
Adirondack Spar Mining Co., the Green Hill Mining Co., and the 
Bedford Mining Co., respectively. There were four mills in the State 
for grinding feldspar — that of the Bedford Mining Co., at Bedford, 
for domestic spar; those of the Dominion Feldspar Corporation and 
the Genesee Feldspar Co. (Inc.), at Rochester, for Canadian spar; 
and that of the New York Feldspar Corporation, at Rochester, for 
domestic and Canadian spar. 

North Carolina. — This State was the largest producer of feldspar 
in 1924, as it has been for several years. Its output showed an 
increase of 39,453 tons, or 68 per cent, and $279,267, or 78 per cent, 
compared with 1923. North Carolina's output constituted 47 per 
cent of the total quantity and 42 per cent of the total value for 1924. 
This output was made by numerous small operators who sell or 
barter the spar to some central distributing agency. Some of the 
larger buyers and distributors are the Erwin Feldspar Co. (Inc.), 
Clinchfield Products Corporation, Carolina Mineral Co., and J. C. 
Pitman. Most of the spar was produced in Mitchell and Yancey 
Counties along the line of the Clinchfield Railroad Co. Develop- 
ments in Avery County during 1924 indicate that this county will 
also be an important producer of feldspar. The mill of the North 
State Feldspar Corporation, at Micaville, was the only one in opera- 
tion in the State in 1924. 

Ohio. — No feldspar is produced in Ohio, but as this State and 
adjacent territory in Pennsylvania and West Virginia produce more 
than one-half of the high-grade pottery made in the United States, 
the region is a large consumer of feldspar. The potteries are partly 
supplied by the mills within the State operated by the Cleveland 
Feldspar & Products Co., at Cleveland; the Golding Sons Co. and 
the Potters Mining & Milling Co., at East Liverpool; and the Rock 
Products Co., at Silica, near Toledo. The Golding Sons Co. ground 
only domestic spar in 1924, the Potters Mining & Milling Co. and 
Rock Products Co. ground only Canadian spar, and the Cleveland 
Feldspar & Products Co. ground both domestic and foreign spar. 

Pennsylvania. — Three operators reported the production of feld- 
spar in Pennsylvania in 1924, but two of the operations were very 

44839°— 27 3 



24 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



small. The American Feldspar Co. operated the only mill in the 
State, at Toughkenamon. 

Tennessee.— The feldspar industry in Tennessee is represented only 
by grinding mills, of which four were in operation in 1924. The 
mills of the Clinchfield Products Corporation, Erwin Feldspar Co. 
(Inc.), and Golding Sons Co. are at Erwin, and that of the Tennessee 
Mineral Products Co. is at Bristol. The Willms Co. was succeeded 
during the summer of 1924 by the Golding Sons Co. Tennessee is 
the leading feldspar-grinding State; nearly one-third of the total 
output of domestic ground spar was produced there in 1924. 

Virginia. — In 1924 sales were made from two feldspar quarries in 
Virginia — from that of the Moneta Mineral & Mining Co., at Moneta, 
Bedford County, and that of the Vicama Mica Co., at Axton, Henry 
County. The former has gone out of business and the quarry is 
now being operated by or for the Seaboard Feldspar Co., of Baltimore; 
the latter has been abandoned. 



IMPORTS 

The foreign trade of the United States in feldspar is small and 
limited largely to imports from Canada. Before the tariff act of 
1922 imports of feldspar were not specifically classified in the official 
records and are therefore unknown. The following table, taken 
from records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
shows the imports since then. 

Crude feldspar imported for consumption in the United States, 1922-1924 





Year 


Long tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 


1922 (Sept. 22-Dec. 31) 


7,549 
24, 271 
35, 139 


$60, HI 
184, 924 
284, 716 


$7.96 


1923 


7.62 


1924 


8.10 







FOREIGN PRODUCTION 

A considerable part of the supply of feldspar annually available for 
the ceramic and other feldspar-consuming industries in the United 
States is mined in Canada. According to reports of the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics the Canadian shipments — all from Ontario and 
Quebec — amounted in 1924 to 38,411 short tons, valued at $299,174, 
or $7.79 a ton, an increase of 31 per cent in quantity and 26 per cent 
in value compared with 1923. Of the total quantity 37,869 tons (99 
per cent) was exported, most of it to the United States. The sales 
of Canadian spar ground in the United States in 1924 constituted 
14 per cent of all ground spar sold in this country in that year, which 
was the same percentage as in 1923. 



FELDSPAR 
r, produced in Canada, sold in 1917-1924 



25 



Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1917 


19, 462 
18, 782 
14,679 
37, 873 


$89, 826 
112, 728 
86, 231 
280, 895 


1921 


29, 868 
27, 727 
29, 225 
38,411 


$230, 754 


1918 


1922 


248, 402 


1919 


1923 


237,601 


1920 


1924.... 


299, 174 









The following table, prepared by Miss W. I. Whiteside, of the 
Bureau of Mines, shows the most recent figures for the production of 
feldspar in foreign countries. Besides the United States and Canada, 
Sweden, Norway, and Germany are the chief producing countries. 
Although the United Kingdom has an immense pottery industry, it 
appears to be a small producer of feldspar. Cornwall stone rather 
than feldspar is extensively used as a flux in the British pottery 
industry. 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Australia: 

New South Wales .. - 




25 


25 


13 
20 


15 


South Australia- .. .. . . ... 


4 




Western Australia (exports). . 


1 

27, 096 
957 
4, 625 
7,249 
2,460 

(a) 

9,348 

673 

20, 169 

1,107 
93, 339 


61 

25, 153 

1,322 

2,000 

6,080 

2,790 

16, 051 

11,833 

685 

22, 371 

843 

119, 007 


(") 




34, 358 
55 
4,400 
5,850 
2,600 
(«) 

6,397 

426 

12, 049 

3,419 

137, 727 


26, 512 
(») 

(a) 

8, 996 
5,070 

(a) 

13, 073 

(a) 

16, 857 

3,298 

147, 331 


34, 846 


Finland. 






(a) 


Germany (Bavaria) .. 


(a) 


Italy 


(a) 


Japan . . 


( a ) 


Norway ____.__. ... ... 


( a ) 




fa) 


Sweden.. 


(a) 


United Kingdom . . . 


(") 


United States.. .. . . ._ . 


208, 059 







Data not available. 



POTASH 



By George Rogers Mansfield and Leona Boardman 



INTRODUCTION 

The year 1924 was marked by continued low-price levels for foreign 
potash and was particularly noteworthy because of the signing in 
August of the Franco- German potash agreement, which virtually 
reestablished the German- Alsatian potash monopoly. The American 
industry, however, not only held the place it had gained during the 
previous year but made substantial gains. This was largely due to 
the work of the American Trona Corporation, which was the principal 
producer. 

The number of plants reporting potash production in the United 
States was 11, one less than in 1922 and 1923. 

Interest in the Texas potash field was sustained, as a larger number 
of wells in an increasing number of counties furnished data on potash 
resources. Among these wells was one in a salt dome in Matagorda 
County, which furnished the first evidence of potash in connection 
with such a structural feature in the United States. An interesting 
find was also reported from Grand County, Utah, and an increasing 
interest developed in the brines of the Salduro Marsh, in northwestern 
Utah. More detailed statements regarding these developments are 
given on pages 45-46. 

PRODUCTION AND SALES 

The production and sales of potash in the United States in 1924 
are summarized in the following table with as much detail as is 
possible without revealing individual reports that must be considered 
confidential. 

1 Since 1910 a chapter on potash has appeared annually in Mineral Resources. Extensive bibliographies 
and lists of United States patents that cover processes for the extraction of potash from silicate rocks have 
been included in most of these chapters. The chapter for 1910 contained a brief account of the German 
potash deposits, the chapter for 1915 gave simple tests for potash, those for 1916 and 1917 included descrip- 
tions of the sources of potash in this country and brief statements concerning efforts to produce potash from 
other sources, and the chapter for 1918 included descriptions of refined potassium salts. 

27 



28 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Potash produced, sold, and in stock in the United States in 1924, by sources 



Organic 



Molasses 
distillery 



Steffens 
water from 
beet-sugar 
refineries 



Mineral ° 

(natural 

brines, dust 

from cement 

mills and 

blast 
furnaces) 



Total 



Production: 

Number of plants reporting 

Crude potash short tons 

Available content of KsO: 

Short tons 

Percentage of total 

Sales: 

Number of plants reporting 

Crude potash short tons 

Available content of K2O.. do.. 

Value f. 0. b. plant 

Stocks on hand Dec. 31, 1924: 

Number of plants reporting 

Crude potash short tons 

Available content of K2O do.. 



1 
10, 302 

3,430 
15 

1 

947 

315 

$19, 055 

1 

27, 749 
9,238 



1 
600 



72 



1 
600 

72 
$4,800 



32, 817 

19, 394 
85 

7 
35, 945 
21, 493 
518, 763 

9 

4,596 
1,507 



11 

43, 719 



22, 896 
100 



37,492 
21, 880 

$842, 618 

10 
32, 345 
10, 745 



Of the plants reporting on potash from mineral sources two obtained it from natural brines and the 
rest from cement-mill or blast-furnace dust. 

The production in 1924 shows an increase of 12 per cent in crude 
potash and of 13 per cent in the available potash (K 2 0) content. 
The average percentage of available potash was 52.4, as compared 
with 51.8 per cent in 1923. 

The sales of crude potash were 7 per cent greater and the available 
potash content of the material sold 13 per cent greater than in 1923. 
The total value of the potash sold in 1924 was 7 per cent more than 
in 1923, but the value per unit (20 pounds of K 2 0) was only 39 cents, 
as compared with 41 cents in 1923. 

Potash produced and sold in the United States, 1916-1924 





Number of plants 


Production 


Sales « 


Year 


Total 


Exclu- 
sive of 

produc- 
ers of 

wood-ash 
potash 


Crude 
potash 
(short 
tons) 


Avail- 
able con- 
tent of 
K 2 
(short 
tons) 


Crude 
potash 
(short 
tons) 


Avail- 
able con- 
tent of 
K2O 
(short 
tons) 


Value 
f. 0. b. 
plant 


1916 


70 
95 
128 
102 
66 
20 
12 
12 
11 


25 
46 
77 
67 
49 
19 
12 
12 
11 


35, 739 
126, 961 
207, 686 
116, 634 
166, 834 
25, 485 
25, 176 
39, 029 
43, 719 


9,720 
32, 573 
54, 803 
32, 474 
48, 077 
10, 171 
11,714 
20, 215 
22, 896 


35, 739 
126, 961 
140, 343 
166, 063 
139, 963 
10, 337 
22,028 
35, 164 
37, 492 


9,720 
32, 573 
38, 580 
45, 728 
41, 444 

4,408 
11, 313 
19, 281 
21, 880 


$4, 242, 730 


1917 


13, 980, 577 


1918.. 


15, 839, 618 


1919 


11, 271, 269 


1920__ 


7, 463, 026 


1921 


447, 859 


1922 


463, 512 


1923. 


784, 671 


1924. _ 


842, 618 







Production and sales were practically the same in 1916 and 1917, and no distinction was made between 
them. 



A comparison of the figures for 1924 with those for 1918, when 
domestic production was at its height, shows that in 1918 the crude- 
potash production was over four and one-half times as great as in 
1924, whereas the available potash (K 2 0) content of the material 
produced in that year was only about two and one-half times that 
for 1924. 



POTASH 29 

Potash produced in the United States in 1924, by States 



State 



California 

Maryland 

Indiana 

Pennsylvania 



Number 

of 

plants 



Crude 
potash 
(short 
tons) 



32, 121 

10, 302 



43, 719 



Available content of 
K 2 



Short tons 



19, 361 
3.430 



105 



22, 896 



Percentage 
of total 



84.6 
15.0 



100.0 



In only two States was potash produced in 1924 in more than two 
plants. California was still by far the largest producer, as in 1923. 
The greatest increase in production was made in Maryland. The 
figures for Indiana and Pennsylvania are combined in order to avoid 
revealing confidential information. 

Domestic potash sold in the United States, 1923-24 





Crude 
potash 
(short 
tons) 


Available content of K2O 


Material sold 


Per cent 


Short tons 


Percentage 
of total 


1923 
Chloride . . 


30, 079 

4,036 

1,000 

44 

5 


44-59 

0. 75-33 

25 

25 

30 


17, 734 

1,285 

250 

11 

1 


92.0 


Dust from cement mills and blast furnaces 


6.6 




1.3 


Sulphate ° 


I 


Carbonate 








35, 164 




19, 281 


100.0 








1924 
Chloride... 


34, 187 

1,758 
947 
600 


46-61 

0. 75-33 
33 
12 


20, 935 

558 
315 

72 


95.7 


Dust from cement mills and blast furnaces (mostly sul- 
phate) 


2.6 


Mixed salts 


1.4 


Carbonate 


.3 








37, 492 




21, 880 


100.0 









Exclusive of sulphate produced from dust from cement mills and blast furnaces. 

The material sold in 1924, as in 1923, consisted chiefly of chloride. 
The dust from cement mills and blast furnaces was largely sold in 
the form of sulphate with a little muriate. 

IMPORTS 2 

The imports of potash materials are shown in the following tables. 
The materials are classified into salts used chiefly in the fertilizer 
industry and those used chiefly in the chemical industries. The 
former class, which includes kainite, manure salts, muriate, and sul- 
phate, constituted 93.4 per cent of the total imports. 



1 Figures relating to imports and exports obtained from the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



30 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 



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POTASH 



31 



In 1913, the last normal year before the war, the United States 
imported 272, 457 short tons of K 2 0. In 1924 the total imports were 
200,365 tons, or 74 per cent of that amount. This was 9,585 tons, 
or 4.6 per cent, less than the imports in 1923, but practically the 
same as the imports in 1922. 

Potash (K 2 0) imported for consumption in the United States, 1913-1924, in short 

tons 



1913 272,457 

1914 207,089 

1915 48,867 

1916 7,885 



1917 8, 100 

1918 7,957 

1919 39,619 

1920 224, 792 



1921 78,698 

1922 201,415 

1923 209, 950 

1924 200, 365 



The following table indicates the amount of potash imported in 
1924 from each country. Germany and France supplied direct, 
respectively, 57 and 37 per cent of the total imports of crude potash 
and 62 and 31 per cent of the K 2 0. 



32 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 






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3,910 

145, 317 
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619, 514 

251, 485 

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3, 617, 959 

7, 760, 564 

263 

393 

20, 817 

379 

230,472 

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127, 543 

63, 429 

2,476 

115,431 

25. 351 

79,654 


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POTASH 
EXPORTS 



33 



Some potash materials in the form of refined potassium salts are 
exported from the United States. In 1924 the value of the salts 
exported was only 60 per cent of the corresponding value in 1923. 

Potassium salts exported from the United States, 1923-24 





1923 


1924 


Salt 


Gross 
weight 
(short 
tons) 


K 2 

(short 
tons) 


Value 


Gross 
weight 
(short 
tons) 


K2O 

(short 
tons) 


Value 




1,631 

100 
2,266 


522 

38 

997 


$295, 751 
21, 995 

188, 091 


585 

281 

1,057 


187 
107 

465 


$100, 017 
31, 577 


Potassium chlorate 


All other potassium salts 


169, 442 








3,997 


1,557 


505, 837 


1,923 


759 


301, 036 



CONSUMPTION OF POTASH IN THE UNITED STATES 

The consumption of potash in the United States in 1924, as meas- 
ured by the quantity imported and the quantity sold here, was 
729,742 short tons of crucle material, containing 222,245 short tons 
of K 2 0, valued at $14, 210, 745. This was a decrease of 3 per cent in 
quantity of K 2 and of 12 per cent in value as compared with 1923. 
Of the quantity consumed 5 per cent of the crude material, con- 
taining 10 per cent of the K 2 and representing 6 per cent of the 
total value, was produced in this country. About 94 per cent of 
this supply was used in the manufacture of fertilizers. 

MARKET CONDITIONS 

The market conditions affecting potash in 1924 were little changed 
from those of the preceding year. As cotton and tobacco are the 
chief potash-consuming crops, the States east of Mississippi River 
and south of Ohio River and the Mason and Dixon line are the chief 
users of potash, although in the Northeastern States some potash is 
applied to potatoes and truck-farm products. On the basis of K 2 0, 
90.2 per cent of the potash consumed in the United States in 1924 was 
imported. Germany and France supplied most of the imported 
material (see p. 32), but small amounts came from other countries. 
The low prices at which foreign potash has been available have con- 
tinued to curb American production and particularly to discourage the 
launching of new enterprises. 

PRICES 

Prices of potash in the United States in 1924 were virtually con- 
trolled by quotations on imported potash made by the Potash Im- 
porting Corporation of America and the United States bureau of the 
Societe Commerciale des Potasses d' Alsace, representing respectively 
the German and French potash-producing interests. The range in 
price was $31.09}^ to $34.55 a ton for 80 per cent muriate and $41,263^ 
to $45.85 a ton for 90 per cent sulphate. 3 

* Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, Mar. 26, 1925, p. 94. 



34 MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 PART H 

The higher figures given above, announced under the new agree- 
ment between French and German producers, are those for the last 
quarter of the year and the early part of 1925 for material in bags. 
The corresponding prices per ton for other grades of salts were as 
follows : 

Sulphate of potash, magnesia, or double manure salts, 48 per cent, in bags. $26. 35 
Manure salts, 30 per cent{}£ £jjg \% ^ 

Manure salts, 20 per cent{P £*g Jg. 55 

Kainite, 14 per cent{£ felllE^ ^ 25 

Kainite, 12.4 per centjP ^f §• ?£ 



in bulk 7.75 

All quotations were made c. i. f. eastern United States ports. 

Discounts ranged from 5 per cent on purchases of 50 tons of pure 
potash (K,0) to 10 per cent on purchases of 500 tons. The previous 
schedule did not differ greatly in prices quoted, but it did not offer the 
10 per cent discount to buyers of less than 10,000 tons of pure potash. 
This feature was favorable for the small or moderate buyers and 
tended to greatly reduce the resales. When the new schedule was 
announced an additional rebate of 5 per cent was offered to buyers 
who placed their orders in the hands of the importing company before 
October 1, when the schedule was to go into effect. 

In the spring of 1925 the two importing organizations issued a 
price list of potash salts for shipment from Europe between May 1 
and September 30, 1925. The prices were quoted per ton of 2,000 
pounds net weight, c. i. f. Atlantic and Gulf ports. 4 All the salts 
are sold on foreign weights, tares, and analyses. Discounts similar 
to those above cited but graded according to quantity ordered and 
rebates graded from 6 to 2 per cent according to date of order are 
offered. Prices are subject to change on notice but are guaranteed 
until April 30, 1926. The prices of goods in bags are the same as 
those cited above except that 30 per cent manure salts are cited at 
$19.50 instead of $19.03, and 20 per cent manure salts, at $13 instead 
of $12.55. The bulk prices are as follows: Muriate, 80 per cent 
KC1, $33.30; sulphate, 90 per cent, K 2 S0 4 , $44.60; manure salts, 
30 per cent K 2 0, $17.50; manure salts, 20 per cent K 2 0, $11 ; kainite, 
prices unchanged. 

GERMAN-ALSATIAN POTASH AGREEMENT 

The outstanding feature of the year affecting the potash situation 
both in Europe and in America was the signing on August 14 of an 
agreement made retroactively effective from May 1, 1924, between 
the German potash syndicate and the Societe Commerciale des 
Potasses d' Alsace, establishing a basis of cooperation between the 
two organizations in sales of potash to consumers in the United States. 
According to a consular report 5 this agreement, which virtually 
reestablished the German-Alsatian potash world monopoly, is to 
continue three years. 

Of the total sales of pure potash to that country [the United States] the German 
potash mines are to enjoy 62^2 per cent and the Alsatian 373^ per cent. However, 
^he German percentage increases to 68.8 owing to the preference of sulphates. 

* American Fertilizer, Apr. 18, 1925, p. 29; May 2, 1925, p. 29. 

• Ravndal, C. M. (United States consul in charge, Frankfort-on-the-Main), report dated Aug. 27, 1924. 



POTASH 35 

It was estimated, on the basis of sulphate sales to the United States in 1923, 
that Germany will deliver 35,000 metric tons and Alsace 5,000. In the same 
manner, with a total sale of 200,000 metric tons of pure potash, the quota will be 
131,500 metric tons and 68,500 metric tons, respectively. Any deliveries in 
excess of this will be made in the above proportion. If either of the contracting 
parties should fail to deliver its full quota, the other party will take over the 
remaining sales after conceding 15 per cent. 

It is officially announced 6 that an agreement holding out the 
prospect of a lasting fusion of interests has been concluded between 
the Alsace potash mines and the German Kaiisyndikat for the market- 
ing abroad of their respective outputs. The terms of the agreement 
are not disclosed, but it is reported that whereas the previous arrange- 
ment was limited to the American and Swedish markets, the new 
agreement applies to every country. There are no quotas fixed in 
advance, but the shipments of the two contracting parties are based 
on the consumptive capacity of the several countries and the orders 
they have placed hitherto. It is stated further that, instead of 
seeking to maintain prices at the present level, the contracting parties 
will endeavor to reduce them by developing existing markets and 
finding new ones, especially in countries in which artificial fertilizers 
are most in favor. 

LOCAL AGREEMENT 

According to advices from Baltimore 7 the Associated Fertilizer 
Manufacturers of America at a meeting held in that city decided 
to contract with the Societe Commerciale des Potasses d' Alsace, the 
French potash syndicate, for about 75 per cent of their requirements 
in potash. The remainder is to be purchased direct from the U. S. 
Industrial Chemical Co., of Baltimore, which produces potash as a 
by-product from molasses distillery waste. 

AMERICAN POTASH INDUSTRY 

As shown on page 27, the number of producing plants in 1924 was 
one less than in 1923, though the pure potash (K 2 0) content of the 
product was greater and there was a slight improvement in the 
average quality of the product. Of the operating plants all but 
one produced potash as a by-product, and at that one, the plant of 
the American Trona Corporation, a valuable by-product, borax, 
was obtained. Six of the plants were blast furnaces in which potash 
was recovered from flue dusts and sold chiefly in the form of sulphate. 
Two plants obtained potash from natural brines; in 1923 there were 
three such plants. Of the other plants one made mixed potash salts 
from molasses distillery waste; one made a carbonate solution from 
Steffens (beet sugar) waste water; and one made a sulphate from 
cement dust. The names and locations of the producing plants were 
as follows : 

Blast furnaces : 

Carnegie Steel Co., Lucy Furnaces, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Isabella Furnaces, Etna, Pa. 
Carnegie Steel Co., Neville Furnace, Pittock, Pa. 
Lavino Furnace Co., Sheridan, Pa. 
La vino Furnace Co., Marietta, Pa. 
Lavino Furnace Co., Lebanon, Pa. 

« Min. Jour. (London), May 16, 1925, p. 396. 

J Commercial Fertilizer, vol. 29, No. 4, p. 54, November, 1924. 



36 MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Salines: 

American Trona Corporation, Searles Lake, Calif. 

Whitney Chemical Co., Leslie (San Mateo post office), Calif. 
Molasses distillery waste: 

U. S. Industrial Chemical Co., South Baltimore, Md. 
Steffens waste water: 

Holland-St. Louis Sugar Co., Decatur, Ind. 
Cement dust: 

Santa Cruz Portland Cement Co., Davenport, Calif. 

The American Trona Corporation, the principal producer, made 
increases of 11.5 and 10 per cent, respectively, in the output of ite 
chief products, potash and borax. There was also a noteworthy 
improvement in the quality of its potash, which was already excep- 
tionally high. Practically all of the output and of the accumulated 
stock was sold, comparatively little stock being left on hand at the 
end of the year. 

The other producing companies, which made lower-grade material 
at higher costs, sold what they could of their product at rates per 
unit of K 2 ranging from 1.5 to 5.4 times as much as the rate charged 
by the American Trona Corporation, which in turn was somewhat 
higher than the rate for imported 80 per cent muriate. Naturally 
sales at the higher prices were small, and most of the companies 
accumulated stocks in considerable excess over those of the preceding 
year. Nevertheless, because of the activities of the American Trona 
Corporation the total stocks reported at the end of 1924 were less than 
those for 1923 by 2,449 short tons of crude material, or 1,618 tons 
of K 2 0, reductions of 7 and 13 per cent, respectively. 

OTHER OPERATIONS 

CALIFORNIA 

Burnham Chemical Co. — The Burnham Chemical Co., with office 
at 212 Nevada State Life Building, Eeno, Nev., and plant at Searles 
Lake, Calif., reports no production of potash in 1924 but says that 
it completed its borax unit. Much of the energy of the company 
seems to have been devoted to selling stock. In view of the market 
conditions affecting potash and of the uncertainties regarding markets 
for other salts that the company plans to produce, the whole project 
must still be considered as in the highest degree speculative. 8 

California Kelp Co. 9 — The California Kelp Co., with offices in 
the Exchange Building, Los Angeles, has been organized under the 
laws of California with a capitalization of $1,000,000 for the purpose 
of manufacturing potash, iodine, decolorizing carbons, and am- 
monium sulphates, as well as organic distillates. It has taken a 
lease for 20 years on a factory site at National City, on San Diego 
Bay, where it will erect a plant with a daily capacity of 200 tons to 
treat kelp for the manufacture of the chemicals named. The officers 
are Andrew Brown, president; Carl Schultz, vice-president; Dan 
W. Knoll, secretary and treasurer; and these men with Thomas 
Humphreys and James A. Bovee, board of directors. 

Inyo Chemical Co. — In addition to its holdings at Deep Springs 
Valley the Inyo Chemical Co. has acquired rights in a plant at 

8 For editorial comment on the activities of the Burnham Chemical Co. see Chemical and Metallurgical 
Engineering, Aug. 8, 1924, pp. 295-297; Sept. 15, p. 436; Nov. 24, pp. 804, 805. 

9 Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 4, p. 27, Aug. 23, 1924; Commercial Fertilizer, vol. 29, No. 3, p. 50, October, 
1924. 



POTASH 37 

Cartago, on Owens Lake, Owens Valley, and to the Dolbear process 
of extraction of potash and other salts from Searles Lake brine. 
(See p. 39.) No production has yet been reported to the Geological 
Survey, which collected the statistics on which this chapter is based. 

MARYLAND 

U. S. Industrial Chemical Co. 10 — The addition to the plant of the 
U. S. Industrial Chemical Co., in the Curtis Bay section of Baltimore, 
Md., was recently completed at a cost of $750,000. The company 
plans to develop its full capacity. The works produce potash, 
ammonium sulphate, and kindred chemical products, using as raw 
material the refuse of the neighboring plant of the U. S. Industrial 
Alcohol Co., an affiliated organization that manufactures alcohol 
under a special process from molasses. It is the only potash produc- 
ing works in this section of the country and the only one of its kind 
reporting production to the United States Geological Survey. In 
1924 it produced 10,302 short tons of crude material averaging 
33.3 per cent K 2 0. 

NEBRASKA " 

The Standard potash plant at Lakeland, Nebr., has been sold at 
auction by order of the Federal court. Max Grimes, of Denver, was 
the successful bidder, at $20,000. Upon confirmation of the sale the 
structures will be dismantled and the residences sold. This plant was 
originally organized by Omaha and Council Bluffs capitalists and 
was considered one of the best among the plants in the potash fields 
of western Nebraska. 

UTAH 

Considerable activity has been shown in prospecting and acquiring 
lands in the Great Salt Lake Desert, of Utah, which is underlain 
by potash-bearing brines. In 1917 the production of potash was 
begun at Salduro, in this region, by the Solvay Process Co. In 1918 
this company turned over its interests to the Utah-Salduro Potash 
Co., a subsidiary, which continued production until 1921, when, 
owing to changes in the parent company, the plant was shut down. 
In 1920 the Utah-Salduro Potash Co. was the largest individual 
potash producer in the United States. The plant was on the Western 
Pacific Railroad 60 miles west of Great Salt Lake. The deposit 
from which the potash was extracted has been described in Mineral 
Resources, 1916-1920. The brine is similar in composition to 
the artificial brines of the German potash works. Solar evaporation 
produces crude salts containing potassium, sodium, and magnesium 
chlorides. These crude salts may be boiled with hot brine and on 
cooling yield high-grade potassium chloride. Solar evaporation 
permits a great saving of fuel. 

It was felt by many that abandonment of this project by the 
parent company was not justified by the conditions then prevailing. 
New interest has been aroused by the attempts of groups of 
persons with patent or permit rights to raise funds to renew opera- 
tions in the region on a larger scale. 

» Am. Fertilizer, vol. 60, No. 12, p. 29, June 14, 1924; Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 4, p. 166, July 28. 
1924. 
u Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 1, p. 3C, July 12, 1924. 



38 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART H 

There is little doubt that the quantity of available brine is large 
and that the technology of extracting chlorides from it is relatively 
simple. The question seems to be largely whether the cost of pro- 
duction can be made so low that when transportation charges to 
eastern markets are added the product can be sold in competition 
with imported potash salts. There would seem to be some justifi- 
cation for the view that if operations are undertaken on an appropriate 
scale this result may be accomplished. The outcome of the proposed 
developments will be awaited with interest. 

G. M. Winkleman, of the Aluminum Potash Co. of America, has 
been conducting a series of experiments, in cooperation with the 
station of the Bureau of Mines at Berkeley, Calif., looking to the 
recovery of potash and aluminum salts from Utah alunite. It is 
reported that he has bought an old plant at Bay Point, Calif., where 
experiments on a larger scale are now under way. 

POTASH-BEARING SHALES IN MINNESOTA 

Harrison A. Schmitt 12 in a recent article calls attention to the 
Decorah shale as a source of potash. This formation, which is of 
Ordovician age, lies just below the Galena formation, which itself 
contains layers rich in potash. The whole area underlain by the 
Decorah shale is covered with glacial drift, thickly populated, well 
farmed, and accessible to railways and good roads. At St. Paul the 
formation is 60 feet thick, including 50 feet of green clay shale and 
10 feet of limestone low in magnesia (MgO). The limestone layers 
increase in number and thickness toward the top, where they merge 
with the Galena formation, which is about 40 feet thick and consists 
about half of limestone and half of shale of the same character as the 
Decorah, rich in potash (K 2 0). 

After discussing various processes for the extraction of potash from 
silicates and numerous tests and experiments made to study the 
characteristics of the shale, Schmitt concludes: 

The Decorah shale in Minnesota is an extensive potash-rich shale (6 to 8 
per cent K 2 0). 

The potash is in two states of combination, about 60 per cent of it more easily 
available than the rest. 

Much potash can be obtained from this shale by heat treatment with sodium 
salts equivalent in amount to the K2O and with a slight excess of CaCC>3. 

The potash in the Decorah shale can be rendered soluble and volatilized in 
part from bricks where salt and CaCC>3 have been added to the raw shale. 

The Decorah shale is favorably situated for use with sand if a by-product from 
potash extraction is suitable for sand-lime brick, as in a greensand process already 
patented. 

The Decorah shale is also situated near some limestone which may be suitable 
for Portland cement. The Decorah is probably suitable for use in a cement mix. 

The Decorah is being tried, without preliminary heat treatment, with con- 
siderable promise of success, as a fertilizer for potash-deficient soils which are 
common near some of its outcrops. 

Although the time does not seem to be ripe in this country for the 
successful extraction of potash from potash-bearing silicates, the 
location of an apparently abundant source of this material in Minne- 
sota is not without economic interest. 

12 Schmitt, H. A„ Possible potash production from Minnesota shale: Eeon. Geology, vol. 19, pp. 72-83, 
1924. 



. POTASH 39 

PROCESSES FOR POTASH EXTRACTION 

DOLBEAR PROCESS FOR TREATING SEARLES LAKE BRINE 

C. E. Dolbear has devised a process for treating Searles Lake brine 
that involves the crystallization of the crude salts by solar evapora- 
tion and their subsequent treatment with hot brine. The potassium 
chloride and borax of the crude salts are dissolved by the brine, but 
the other contained salts are not affected and may be separated in 
centrifugal machines. The hot brine is then cooled in a quiescent 
state, thus allowing the potassium chloride to crystallize out, while 
the borax remains in supersaturated solution. If the cooled brine is 
agitated the borax crystallizes out, making an unusually complete 
separation. The potassium chloride and borax are washed in centrif- 
ugal machines, and a product of great purity is obtained. The brine 
may be used again for the treatment of more salts. 

The process includes the separation and recovery of the sodium 
chloride, sodium sulphate, and sodium carbonate of the leached salts 
first by treatment with a solution of sodium chloride to dissolve the 
sodium carbonate and the sodium sulphate. The sodium chloride of 
the salts remains undissolved, and may then be separated out in a 
centrifugal machine in highly pure form. Very little washing is 
needed. The sodium carbonate of the remaining solution is next 
precipitated in the form of sodium bicarbonate by the addition of 
carbon dioxide gas. It is then centrifuged and calcined to soda ash. 
The remaining brine containing sodium chloride and sodium sulphate 
is treated with ammonia gas, and sodium sulphate is precipitated in 
an anhydrous condition and is separated from the brine in a closed 
centrifugal machine. 

The ammoniacal sodium chloride brine is heated in a still, and the 
ammonia is distilled off for further use in precipitation of another 
batch of sodium sulphate; the sodium chloride solution is saved for 
treating a new batch of the leached salts. 

This process, which is controlled by the Inyo Chemical Co., of 
Reno, Nev., was demonstrated in Detroit before representatives of 
the Detroit section of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 
in April and May, 1924. The above account is based on a statement 
published after the demonstration. 

The process as described is covered in its essentials by patents 
Nos. 1496152 and 1496257, 13 issued to C. E. Dolbear June 3, 1924. 

It is claimed by Mr. Dolbear that the adoption of this process will 
result in large savings over that now employed in the commercial 
extraction of potash and borax at Searles Lake, especially if the crude 
salts obtained by solar evaporation are shipped for treatment to the 
Pacific seaboard, where labor and fuel may be had more cheaply. 

UTILIZATION OF ALUMINUM-POTASSIUM SILICATES 

The problem of utilizing silicates containing potassium and alu- 
minum still continues to command attention. During the World 
War emphasis was placed only on the extraction of potash, but it is 
now realized that if the potash is to be extracted on a profitable 

» Bragg, C. T., and Putnam, W. P., Conquering natural brines for commerce: Chem. and Met. Eng., 
VOL 31, No. 12, pp. 468, 469, Sept. 22, 1924. 

14839°— 27 4 



40 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

basis the alumina and perhaps other constituents must also be uti- 
lized to distribute costs and to procure other marketable products. 
Recent experiments on this problem have been conducted by 
C. Montemartini and L. Losana/ 4 who treated mixtures of alu- 
minum-potassium silicates with carbon at high temperatures in a 
current of nitrogen, with these results: (1) All the potassium dis- 
tills, and a small part changes to cyanide. The proportion of cyanide 
formed is influenced by the quantity of carbon added to the mixture 
and by the mass of the mineral matter. (2) The residue that does 
not distill fixes perceptible amounts of nitrogen (about 13 per cent), 
forming nitrides. The amount of nitrogen fixed is in excess of that 
necessary to form a nitride with all of the aluminum; hence some 
nitride of silica is also formed. (3) The quantity of carbon added 
to the mineral has an influence upon the general course of the 
reaction in addition to that upon the formation of the cyanides. 
(4) The nitrogen may be set free from the nitrides of aluminum and 
silicon by heating them at about 1,000° in a current of dry gaseous 
hydrochloric acid (HC1) with the formation of chlorides of ammonia, 
aluminum, and silicon. 

PROCESS FOB OBTAINING SOLUBLE POTASSIUM AND SODIUM 
SALTS FEOM INSOLUBLE MATERIALS 

According to a letter to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce from James F. Hodgson, United States commercial 
attache at Prague, a new process for the recovery of potash from 
insoluble materials has been discovered by Otto Lederer and Walther 
Stanczak, who are holders of the patents for the process. The fol- 
lowing account is taken from a translation kindly furnished by the 
bureau : 

It has been found that alkali sulphates may be obtained from insoluble minerals 
without the necessity of resorting to [previous] heating and thereby incurring 
large expense; furthermore, repeated crushing of the mass is avoided. * * * 
The finely crushed mineral, mixed with alkaline earth, oxides, or carbonates, 
or with magnesium compounds, also with any kind of sulphate and ammonium 
carbonate, is stirred with water and heated while the mixture is being stirred, 
under pressure, if necessary, as a result of which the potash and sodium are 
changed into sulphates which may be obtained through filtering and washing. 

Example: 6 kilograms of feldspar containing about 8 per cent K2O and 3 per 
cent Na 2 0; 18 kilograms of calcium oxide, or the proper amount of limestone; 
3 kilograms of gypsum raw; 1 kilogram of ammonium carbonate. 

This mixture is treated in the manner described above. The dissolved lime 
is precipitated with carbonic acid, while the ammonia separates the silicic acid 
and the clay that have been dissolved. 

The product amounts to about 90 per cent of the total quantity of alkalies 
that were contained in the material treated. The escaping ammonia is recovered. 
The residue left after washing is used in the ordinary way for the production of 
cement. Instead of using ammonium carbonate, the mixture may also be made 
with carbonic acid. 

POTASH FROM CEMENT DUST 

Potash in volatilized form has long been recognized as a con- 
stituent of the dust that ordinarily escapes from cement mills. 
During the World War considerable amounts of this potash were 
recovered by electric precipitation and by washing. In 1918, the 
year of greatest production, 12 cement plants produced 12,652 short 

14 Montemartini, C, and Losana, L., Gior. chim. ind. applicata, vol. 5, pp. 487-495, 1923. 



POTASH 41 

tons of crude salts containing 1,549 tons of potash (K 2 0), or 3 per 
cent of the total production For that year. With the reimportation 
of foreign potash and the resulting drop in prices most of these ce- 
ment mills found it unprofitable to continue the recovery of potash, 
and in 1924 only one such mill reported production to the Geological 
Survey. 

Experiments designed to promote the resumption of this activity 
by the cement mills and the recovery of potash at lower costs have 
been conducted by E. J. Fox and C. W. Whittaker, of the Bureau 
of Soils, 15 who have undertaken the fractional separation of cement 
dusts by air separation. Some of the results of this work are cited 
below. 

Fractions of cement dusts, the potash contents of which are approximately 
double those of the original materials, were obtained by air separation. In no 
instance was all the potash obtained in one fraction of the material, regardless 
of the size of the fraction. 

In all the fractions of a given sample the potash content decreased as the 
size of the particles increased. 

The potash is apparently present on the surface of the dust particles, and the 
distribution of the potash over all surfaces is apparently equal. 

The concentration of the potash was apparently due to the increase in the 
aggregate surface obtained in the finer fractions. 

Differences between acid-soluble and water-soluble potash con- 
tained in dusts from coal-burning kilns are thought to be due to the 
adsorption of a portion of the potash by carbon residues in such 
dusts. These residues have had their volatile constituents driven 
off and are thought to be porous. Potash fume is doubtless deposited 
in the pores and becomes practically inaccessible to water. Acid, 
however, will dissolve certain of the water-insoluble compounds 
that may coat the carbon particles, and the potash contained in the 
particles will thereby be exposed. 

GOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES 

Potash is typical of those subjects which have to be considered by 
the Government from different viewpoints and therefore involve the 
activities of more than one branch of the Government service. In 
1924 five bureaus were concerned with the subject of potash, but 
although the work of these bureaus was closely related, there was 
little if any overlapping or duplication of effort. 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

The activities of the Geological Survey in 1924 relative to potash 
were concerned chiefly with the Texas potash field. (See p. 45.) 
Walter B. Lang, the Survey's representative, with field headquarters 
at Midland, Tex., visited all available wells, interviewed drillers, 
and procured samples of cuttings and brines, which were analyzed 
at the laboratories of the Survey in Washington. 

In addition G. F. Loughlin examined a tract of alunite-bearing 
land near Marysvale, Utah, for which application for patent had 
been made. This deposit is briefly described on page 46. 

18 Fox, E. J., and Whittaker, C. W., Potash from cement dust: Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, vol. 16, No. 10, 
pp. 1044-1046, October, 1924. 



42 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 

Samples from a well in Grand County, Utah, forwarded to the 
Survey, were also analyzed at the laboratory in Washington and 
were found to contain potash. This interesting occurrence is 
reviewed briefly on page 46. 

Publications during the year included the annual chapter on potash 
in Mineral Resources for 1923 and Press Notice No. 18209, Potash 
in the Cowden well, Crane County, Tex. 

BUREAU OF MINES 

The Bureau of Mines, which was charged with the administration 
of leases under the potash leasing law, was actively occupied during 
the year with that work. The bureau has kept in touch with potash 
activities in general but did not in 1924 initiate any investigations 
relating to the subject. In April, 1925, however, the bureau co- 
operated with the Geological Survey and the General Land Office in 
a survey of leasable potash lands in northeastern Utah. 

According to tabulations reported through H. I. Smith, March 
31, 1925, a total of 483 permits and leases, covering 1,097,396 acres, 
had been granted to mine potash on the public domain. The terms 
of these permits and leases provide for an initial investment of 
approximately $2,926,470 and the payment of a royalty to the 
Government on all potash produced. The distribution of these 
permits and leases by States is as follows: Utah, 302; California, 83; 
Nevada, 72; New Mexico, 10; Arizona, 4; Nebraska, 4; Colorado, 3; 
Montana, 2; Idaho, 1; Oregon, 1; Wyoming, 1. Practically no 
production has thus far resulted from these leases. 

BUREAU OF SOILS 

The Bureau of Soils has continued its researches in technologic 
processes for the extraction of potash as a by-product both from in- 
dustrial wastes and from natural raw materials. The following 
account taken from a letter to the writer from J. W. Turrentine, 
scientist in charge of the bureau's potash investigations, outlines the 
general scope of the work. The activities of the bureau in the 
development of methods of extracting potash from kelp have already 
been described in technical journals and have been referred to in 
previous volumes of Mineral Kesources. 

American potash resources, it is now established, are enormous in extent and 
are practically inexhaustible. For the most part, however, due to the lack of 
technical knowledge of processes of extraction they can not be successfully 
exploited in competition with European potash. To secure cheap potash from 
these raw materials methods must be employed which make possible the recovery 
of any other ingredients of value which they contain, so that the cost of extracting 
the potash may be reduced proportionately. This is the fundamental problem 
with which this bureau is now engaged. Substantial progress has been made to 
date, more than is represented by the present American industry, although that 
industry as now operated produces 44,000 tons of potash salts per annum, repre- 
senting 10 per cent of our requirements. * * *. 

But the two greatest known resources among the natural potash carriers and 
industrial wastes, respectively — namely, greensands and blast-furnace dust — are 
not yet under successful exploitation, and it is to these materials particularly that 
the present greatly restricted potash researches of this bureau are being applied. 

Greensand deposits cover large areas in the States of New Jersey, Delaware, 
and Maryland and are ideally situated from the commercial point of view. 
According to the Geological Survey they contain potash enough to supply Ameri- 
can agriculture for a thousand years. The solution of the problem of extracting 



POTASH 43 

potash therefrom, accordingly, might mean the solution of the American potash 
problem. The problem is one of by-products, and the work has now progressed 
to the point where all the constituents of the raw material — potash, alumina, 
iron oxide, and silica — are rendered into valuable commodities by a simple and 
inexpensive process. 

The extraction of greensand with sulphuric acid, under proper conditions, we 
have just disclosed, leaves siliceous skeletons of the original grains which have 
high adsorptive properties, similar to those of silica gel, and which apparently 
will prove a valuable material for the purification of petroleum products and 
various other materials purified by adsorptive methods. 

Since it was already believed that with only alumina and iron oxides as by- 
products the extraction of potash from this mineral was commercially feasibfe, 
in view of the great contribution to the values obtainable which this new siliceous 
product represents, it is believed that the present development will prove the 
solution of the problem of the profitable extraction of potash from greensand. 

All the products here obtainable are marketable in large tonnage, so that any 
industry established on this basis can grow to large dimensions before the satura- 
tion point of the market is approached. 

Researches now in progress on this problem are designed to further improve 
the siliceous product and methods of applying it, particularly to oils, and to 
further perfect the separation of the other products from one another in a state 
of increased purity, the development of ochers from the iron compounds obtained, 
and the recovery of by-product sulphuric acid. 

The recovery of potash from blast-furnace dust is being studied. Here is a 
potential source of potash capable of supplying some 200,000 tons K 2 annually, 
approximately enough to supply American agriculture at the present rate of con- 
sumption. Dry methods of cleansing blast-furnace gases, which make potash 
recovery a simplified matter, stand on their own economic basis, due to the great 
conservation of heat and enhanced efficiency which they afford, in view of which 
their general adoption seems inevitable. The application of the Cottrell precipi- 
tator to this use, after a period of experimentation, has now been perfected and 
appears the ideal solution of the problem. It yet remains to be shown how the 
potash-bearing dust may best be treated to effect a further concentration of the 
potash. While it can be marketed direct as a low-grade potash carrier, high 
freight rates and the increasing demand that fertilizer ingredients be in con- 
centrated form make it highly desirable that the blast-furnace industry be 
shown how best to manipulate this product for fertilizer use. 

Cement dust, as a source of potash, has received a good deal of attention in 
this bureau for some years past. Surveys have shown some 85,000 tons K2O to 
be available annually from this source, and dust recovery enforced by other con- 
siderations has brought potash recovery closer to realization. Recent new 
developments in the Cottrell precipitator, increasing its efficiency and greatly 
reducing its cost of installation and operation, have given fresh impetus to this 
activity. 

The concentration of the potash of the dust appears to be a relatively simple 
matter. The application of air-elutriation methods, as recently shown in this 
laboratory, effects a doubling of potash content at a minimum of expense and 
installation and without the use of water solution and the complexities attendant 
thereon. But this is not the complete solution of the problem, and it is hoped 
that the related researches on potash extraction from blast-furnace dust can be 
made to apply also to cement dust. 

Another mineral deposit ideally situated with respect to agricultural areas, the 
Georgia shales, contains large supplies of potash in workable concentration. 
Experimentation with this material indicates that it can be made a commercial 
source of potash with the aid of alumina as a by-product. Methods developed 
in this research should be applicable also to the feldspars. 

The Italians are now successfully producing potash from leucitic lavas. There 
are large surface deposits of such in America which may be found to be workable 
by a similar process, although other mineral deposits more advantageously situated 
with respect to the fertilizer market should receive earlier attention. 

In the case of all potassium-aluminum silicates the solution of the economical 
recovery of potash lies in the recovery of alumina as the main product. This 
valuable ingredient has heretofore been largely ignored. Approached from this 
angle the problem appears much simplified, and the recovery of potash from sili- 
cates appears entirely feasible. 

The establishment of an adequate American potash industry is yet to be 
realized, but the progress made to date and the new results now in hand promising 



44 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

the early exploitation of new great sources of potash can not be considered as 
anything less than highly encouraging. American potash of superior grade is 
now underselling the inferior European commodity. American potash will 
mean cheap potash, because it will be by-product potash and because it will be 
produced close enough to the farms where used to greatly reduce transportation 
costs. The small industry now established not only successfully meets the most 
ruthless European competition but stands ready to expand in response to any 
increase in price exacted by the European monopoly. 

It is our purpose to contribute information on such critical points as will aid 
the development of the American industry to the point where, from the great 
wastage now occurring daily and the great mineral deposits now lying idle, Ameri- 
can potash will be produced to provide liberal and cheap supplies for the use of 
the American farmer. 

BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE 

The Department of Commerce was granted during the year 1924 
a special appropriation of $500,000 to investigate essential raw- 
materials that are more or less under foreign monopolistic control. 
When the Franco-German potash agreement was signed (see p. 34), 
the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce determined to make a 
survey of potash under the terms of this appropriation. According 
to a letter to the writer from C. C. Concannon, chief of the chemical 
division — 

The work was actually undertaken beginning about the end of the year, and a 
mass of documentary material is now being worked into shape for ultimate 
release as a special bulletin on the subject of potash. This will be a historical 
resume of the developments within the potash syndicate from the inception of 
the potash industry and will bring the story up to date in as much detail as 
possible. * * * We shall, of course, confine ourselves largely to the economic 
and commercial aspects of potash. 

BUREAU OF STANDARDS 

In the course of their study of wastes from the beet-sugar industry 
members of the Bureau of Standards have been experimenting upon 
the recovery of potash from waste water obtained through the 
Steffens lime process. For some years past this waste water has 
been utilized by certain factories for the recovery of small amounts 
of potash. In 1919, according to figures reported to the Geological 
Survey, a maximum of 12,423 short tons of crude material, containing 
3,601 tons of K 2 and comprising 11 per cent of the total potash 
production for the year, was produced by 11 plants, but with the 
decline in prices accompanying the renewal of importations the 
number of plants has been greatly reduced and in 1924 there was only 
a single plant, which reported a small tonnage. The work of the 
Bureau of Standards has in view the perfection of methods by which 
the potash now annually wasted in the manufacture of beet sugar, 
estimated at about 12,000 tons of K 2 0, may be recovered at a profit. 
A briei paper 15 describing preliminary experiments shows a possible 
yield of 227 pounds of crude salt, or 199 pounds of recrystallized salt, 
from each ton of concentrated waste water produced. 

w Geldard, W. J., and Chase, W. D., A lesson in waste recovery: Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 32, No. 5, 
pp. 196-197, Feb. 2, 1925. 



POTASH 45 

INVESTIGATIONS BY THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

TEXAS 

The most significant results of the year in Texas were obtained 
from the Cowden well, in Crane County; the Mid-Kansas Harris 
Bros, well, in Crockett County; the Texon No. 1 (group 1) well, in 
Reagan County; and the Gray No. 1 well, on the Markham dome, 
in Matagorda County 

The Cowden well was described in Press Notice No. 18209, released 
January 26, 1925. Sampling was done perhaps more carefully at 
this well than in any well previously tested by the Geological Survey. 
Although the best sample contained only 7.40 per cent of potash 
(K 2 0), the physical character of the material at two horizons was 
such as to suggest that by simple methods of concentration under 
ordinary methods of mining it might be possible to improve the grade 
of the material. Had this well been core drilled, information would 
have been available about the thickness of individual beds and the 
possibility of concentration by hand sorting. 

The Mid-Kansas Harris Bros. No. 1 well supplied 13 samples, two 
of which from depths of 1,260-1,310 and 1,350-1,390 feet yielded upon 
analysis 8.92 and 8.35 per cent of K 2 0, respectively. These samples 
were not only richer than the others, but their physical character 
suggests the presence of well-bedded deposits of polyhalite. The 
samples, however, are random samples taken from a large interval; 
hence they can not be considered representative. 

The Texon well No. 1, group 1, in section 1, block 8, Reagan 
County, furnished 51 samples from depths of 1,220 to 1,840 feet, 
chiefly at intervals of 10 feet. The best sample, containing 9.56 
per cent K 2 0, equivalent to 16.03 per cent in the soluble salts, was 
taken between 1,405 and 1,415 feet. Other samples contained the 
amounts of potash here specified: 1,340-1,350 feet, 6.41 per cent in 
sample, equivalent to 7.8 per cent in soluble salts; 1,370-1,380 feet, 
4.40 per cent in sample, equivalent to 4.72 per cent in soluble salts; 
1,580-1,600 feet, 4.46 per cent in sample, equivalent to 5.38 per cent 
in soluble salts; 1,650-1,660 feet, 7.80 per cent in sample, equivalent 
to 9.21 per cent in soluble salts. There were 10 other samples dis- 
tributed fairly well through the set that contained more than 1.50 
per cent of K 2 0. 

An interesting discovery of potash is reported 17 to have been 
made in the Markham salt dome, near Markham, Matagorda County, 
Tex. (Gray No. 1 well). The potash was found in a core of salt 
taken at a depth of 4,800 feet. The sample contained about 15 
per cent of K 2 in the form of chloride. Preliminary study shows 
that the potash mineral is probably sylvite, a common potash mineral 
of the Alsatian field. 

Both wildcatting and drilling for oil in the producing fields have 
increased the number of wells from which potash has been recovered. 
There are now about 20 counties and more than 30 wells that have 
furnished potash data. 

It seems probable that the region extending in a southeasterly 
direction from Lea County, N. Mex., to western Crockett County, 

17 De Golycr, E., New light on the origin of North American salt domes: Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 
6, p. 82, February, 1925. 



46 MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Tex., is likely to prove the most favorable area for potash explora- 
tion. The available cuttings from wells in this region show that it 
is underlain by many potash-rich horizons. A fuller account of the 
Geological Survey's explorations in Texas in 1924 is given in a 
bulletin by W. B. Lang, now in preparation. 

UTAH 

Alunite. — On September 13 and 14, 1924, G. F. Loughlin and 
V. C. Heikes, of the Geological Survey, made an examination of 
land in sections 21, 20, 17, and 8, T. 26 S., R. 4 W., near Marys- 
vale, Utah, in connection with the patent application of J. G. Pierce. 
Check samples were taken at several places. As reported by Mr. 
Loughlin the results of the examination are discouraging, for the 
quantity of high-grade alunite that can be mined on a commercial 
scale is too small. The potash content of two of the three samples 
analyzed in the Survey laboratory, in which both potash and soda 
were determined, is less than the soda content, showing that con- 
siderable soda alunite is present and suggesting that in former analy- 
ses of samples from these claims the soda and potash may not have 
been separately determined. The largest deposits, where consid- 
erable development work had been done, have a fairly large gross 
tonnage but are below commercial grade and are shallower than 
their prominent outcrops would lead one to expect. 

Carnallite. — Salts submitted to the Geological Survey and reported 
to have been taken from a depth of 3,150 feet in the Crescent Eagle 
oil well, 7 miles west of Thompsons, Grand County, Utah, have 
proved to be carnallite. This is one of the principal potash minerals 
of the German potash field, and so far as known to the writer the 
occurrence here is the first reported for this mineral in the United 
States. The potash content of the sample submitted was 13.9 per 
cent, as compared with 14.1 per cent for pure carnallite. 

A second occurrence of potash salts has been reported in the same 
well at a depth of 3,910 to 3,917 feet. In physical appearance these 
salts, as submitted to the Survey laboratory, closely resemble those 
from the higher level, but the potash content is much greater, being 
49.05 per cent. This high percentage of K 2 appears to indicate a 
mixture of carnallite and sylvite, as no sulphate is present. These 
occurrences are described in greater detail in the bulletin by W. B. 
Lang above mentioned. 

The presence of these salts in this well is not yet understood. 
Fortunately other wells are being drilled in the same general region, 
and it is hoped that data may be obtained from them that will assist 
in the solution of the problem. 

Brines. — Private activities at Salduro, in northwestern Utah, have 
already been referred to (p. 37). At the request of the Secretary of 
the Interior, to assist the department in administering leases in this 
region, the Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of 
Mines and the General Land Office, began in April, 1925, a survey 
of the Great Salt Lake Desert, including Salduro, in order to delimit 
leasing ground from prospecting ground. This work, which in- 
volves boring many shallow holes and the taking and analyzing of 
many samples, is being done by T. B. Nolan, of the Geological Survey. 



POTASH 47 

OTHER INVESTIGATIONS 

In addition to the work already described the Geological Survey 
is receiving and analyzing samples of materials supposed to be 
potash-bearing in the form of brines, salts, and rocks from many 
parts of the country. Little of public interest has been found in 
these examinations. 

PROPOSED LEGISLATION 

During 1924 and until the adjournment of Congress on March 4, 
1925, considerable interest was maintained in two bills affecting 
potash exploration and the disposal and operation of public lands 
containing potash. The first bill (S. 3047), introduced by Senator 
Sheppard, of Texas, provided for the expenditure by the Geological 
Survey of $500,000 annually for five years for the exploration of 
natural potash salts in the United States. The bill also provided for 
the expenditure by the Bureau of Soils of $50,000 annually for the 
same period for the investigation of by-product potash production 
from industrial wastes and refractory natural materials such as 
greensand and leucite. One purpose of this bill was to provide 
adequately for core drilling in the Texas potash field. 

The other bill (S. 3005), introduced by Senator Ladd, of North 
Dakota, was designed to correct certain abuses that have arisen in 
connection with the present potash-leasing law. It would have 
done away with the provision permitting the issuance of a patent 
for a quarter of the land covered by a prospecting permit and would 
have made the provisions for leasing and operating potash lands the 
same as those for coal, phosphate, oil, oil shale, gas, and sodium lands. 

Both bills made rapid headway for a time but finally failed of 
enactment. 

TARIFF READJUSTMENT 

On April 11, 1925, President Coolidge ordered an increase in the 
tariff duty on potassium chlorate from 1^ cents to 234 cents a 
pound. The President's action was in accord with the "flexible" 
provisions of the tariff act, which authorize him to change rates to 
a maximum of 50 per cent — the increase here granted. It was based 
on a unanimous report recommending a higher duty submitted by 
the Tariff Commission, which stated that the increase was needed 
to equalize the cost of production in the United States with that in 
Germany, the principal competing country. The product is used in 
the manufacture of matches and fireworks, as an oxidizing agent in 
cloth printing, and for medicinal purposes. 

NOTES ON FOREIGN POTASH 

GERMANY 

General market conditions .—-Aside from a short-lived domestic 
boom at the beginning of the year and a period of slow recovery 
during the last quarter, the year 1924 in Germany was one of financial 
stringency, general liquidation, and severe unemployment. Local 
price levels were above world levels, a difference that restricted 
foreign trade to a considerable extent and reduced domestic con- 
sumption. This transition period was unavoidable, as the cost of 



48 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

stabilization of the currency and the balancing of the budget was 
met by extremely high taxation and a policy of violent credit 
restriction. 

The sales of German potash in 1924 amounted to 824,000 tons of 
pure potash (K 2 0), compared with 885,942 tons in 1923, 1,295,579 
tons in 1922, and 1,110,369 tons in 1913. The year was an ex- 
tremely poor one for the potash industry, sales at home and 
abroad being adversely affected by money tightness and credit 
shortage and by the poverty of the agricultural industries throughout 
the world. At one time during 1924 the industry had only about 
50 shafts in operation, and some of these were on part time. The 
conclusion of the Franco-German potash pact on August 14 stimu- 
lated the industry generally and put a stop to cutthroat competition 
between the two groups selling to the United States market. 18 

According to Trade Commissioner W. T. Daugherty, 19 of Berlin, 
exports of potash fertilizers, amounting to but 337,400 tons of pure 
potash in 1924, reached only 66 per cent of the corresponding sales 
of 506,087 tons in 1913. The decrease is attributable to postwar 
competition by France, which under the peace treaty acquired 
former German potash mines in Alsace-Lorraine. There is scarcely 
any doubt, however, that this industry will expand its export sales 
in large measure in coming years. Direct by-products from the 
German potash mines and electrochemical products from waste 
liquors of potash, or from sodium chloride, which is abundantly 
present in the potash deposits, will be sold in greater quantities in 
export markets in the future. Germany's potash deposits are 
unquestionably the nearest approach to a monopoly that that country 
has in chemical production. 

Improvement in conditions in 1925 has already been observed. 
The German potash syndicate sold 201,867 metric tons of K 2 in 
February, making the total sales in January and February 367,863 
tons. During January and February, 1924, sales aggregated only 
112,908 tons. According to Mr. Daugherty orders booked indicated 
that business in March would probably be very satisfactory. 

Winter shall group. — According to a report from United States 
Consul F. T. F. Dumont, at Frankfort on the Main, dated January 
15, 1925, the Wintershall group in the potash syndicate continues 
to support its policy of cheap prices as the only one suited to improve 
and stabilize conditions in the potash industry. Since the conversion 
of its capital to a gold basis and the final settlement of its Swiss-franc 
debts, the concern has shown renewed activity and is attempting to 
enlarge its group, which already has a 42 per cent allotment of the 
total sales of the syndicate. Apparently these efforts are addressed 
to two organizations — the Burbach concern and the Prussian 
Bergfiskus (Prussian State Mine Administration), of which the 
former participates in the syndicate's total sales to the extent of 
8.7 per cent and the latter 5.9 per cent. By gaining control of these 
two organizations, or reaching an agreement with them, the Winter- 
shall group would have a majority in the syndicate and could follow 
out its policy unimpeded by small works that have relatively poor 
deposits and high costs of production and are consequently interested 

i 8 Commerce Repts., Jan. 5, 1925, p. 18; Mar. 9, p. 556. 

»• Commerce Repts., Apr. 6, 1925, p. 23; also Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Special Circ. 94, Apr. 21, 1925. 



POTASH 49 

in selling at high prices. Operations would be concentrated in mines 
that have easily accessible, rich deposits, a policy which would greatly 
cheapen the costs of production and allow a reduction in prices. It is 
stated that a friendly understanding has been reached with the Bur- 
bach concern and that an agreement has been drawn up ready for the 
signature of the Prussian Bergfiskus and the Kali Industrie A. G. 
(the Wihtershall holding company). This agreement states that it 
is intended to " insure cooperation in certain questions concerning 
the potash industry, to facilitate the exchange of opinions concern- 
ing mining operations and price policy. " 

The Wintershall group was the first to advocate the understanding 
with Alsatian potash producers. Herr Rosterg, the leader of the 
group, stated at the general meeting of the Deutsche Kaliwerke that 
it would have been better for both parties if the agreement had 
been reached much, earlier. He claims, however, that the foreign 
market quota assigned to the Upper Alsatian mines is too high. It 
seems probable that once the cost of production in Germany is lowered 
and sales increase, German efforts will be made to reduce this quota. 

In regard to the American influence in the Wintershall mining com- 
pany, which is the leading company in the group of that name, it 
appears that only 200 or 300 shares belong to the Zimdin-Dollar 
group and that a, pooled majority of the remaining shares is owned by 
Germans. Mr. Zimdin, however, was lately made a member of the 
managing committee of the Wintershall mining company. 

The question of the acquisition of increased influence by the 
Wintershall group 20 is one of incalculable importance, not only to 
the potash syndicate, but the German national industry as a whole. 
It is not to be doubted that the Prussian Government will be unwilling 
to acquiesce in a seizure of power by a member of the syndicate, 
particularly inasmuch as a drastic change of policy is involved. Ger- 
man industrialists are agreed that a cautious advance toward a 
gradual transition is more suitable to the needs of the potash industry 
at the present time than an about-face engineered by an ambitious 
group which appears to be concerned principally with its own inter- 
ests. In the last analysis it is the Prussian Government which must 
take steps, if necessary, to prevent the formation of a potash trust 
under the leadership of the Wintershall group. 

German holdings of Virginia- Carolina Chemical Co. — It is reported 21 
that with the approval of Judge William N. Runyon in the Federal 
court at Newark, N. J., receivers for the Virginia- Carolina Chemical 
Co. in February disposed of the Prinz Adelbert potash mines, in 
Germany, for $2,052,000, of which 10 per cent was in cash. The 
purchaser was Herbert M. May, who declined to divulge the identity 
of his principals. It was reported in trade circles, however, that the 
buyer was the Wintershall group of Germany. 

Magnesium waste liquor from German potash. 22 — On the basis of 
pre-war production of potash in Germany 700,000 to 800,000 tons of 
magnesium chloride and 80,000 to 100,000 tons of magnesium sulphate 
are going to waste annually in the waste liquors from potash-refining 
plants. The possible recovery and marketing of these substances as 
an adjunct to the potash industry constitutes an important problem. 

2 Report of United States Vice Consul Paul Bowerman. Berlin, Jan. 19, 1925. 

21 Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, p. 20, Feb. 23, 1925. 

»» Daugherty, W. T., cited in Am. Fertilizer, vol. G2, No. 2, pp. 28, 29, Jan. 24, 1925. 



50 MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

A small amount of this material is recovered and sold. Thus in 1923 
Germany produced and sold about 58,000 tons of specially prepared 
magnesium chloride. The thermal decomposition of 800,000 tons 
of magnesium chloride would yield about 335,000 tons of magnesia 
and about 1,840,000 tons of 20° Baume hydrochloric acid, but the 
total pre-war production of hydrochloric acid in Germany amounted 
only to about 300,000 tons. It is impossible to load the world 
market with such quantities of either magnesia or hydrochloric acid, 
though the magnesia made as a by-product from the potash industry 
is more readily absorbed than the hydrochloric acid. 

Evaporation of this waste liquor throws down crystallized and 
"melted" magnesium chloride, mixed with minor quantities of other 
salts. The crystallized magnesium chloride sells for about 5.50 
marks per 100 kilograms, exclusive of packing, and the melted 
product for 5.25 marks. This by-product of potash could be made 
more profitable commercially if the capacity of certain industries 
for consuming it could be increased, such as the textile industry, 
the industry of wood preserving, or the manufacture of "hard wood," 
(Steinholz). The crude magnesium chloride liquor can be used as 
a dust layer on streets, as a spray, as a binder in the manufacture of 
briquets, or as a mineral lubricant. 

The modern development of the waste-liquor refining process 
involves dehydration of the melted magnesium chloride to form the 
preferred so-called "four" and "two concentrates (MgCl 2 .4H 2 
and MgCl 2 .2H 2 0, respectively), because these are more effectively 
handled bulk products. The pyrogenous decomposition of these 
hydrates forms concentrated hydrochloric acid and makes easier the 
production of "hard wood " and the electrolytic winning of magnesium 
metal. The making of artificial magnesite is also considered. If 
successful this process would emancipate Germany from a relatively 
large importation of magnesite (chiefly from Austria, Czechoslovakia, 
and Greece), amounting in 1922 to 61,308 metric tons and in 1923 
to 30,769 tons. 

New potash mine in Baden. — According to a letter from John E. 
Kehl, United States consul at Stuttgart, dated November 26, 1924, 
boring for potash began in 1911 at Buggingen, a village situated in the 
Lorrach district, between Mannheim and Constance, Baden. It is 
believed that the Alsatian deposits reach into the State of Baden 
and that a nominal production may be realized at Buggingen. The 
government at Baden holds a one- third interest in this prospect; 
the remaining two-thirds is privately owned. 

At the outbreak of the war operations ceased, and no further 
work was done until 1922, when work was again made possible 
through financial assistance given by the State of Baden, which 
entered into the project solely for the promotion of agriculture. 

From the beginning difficulties were encountered in boring and 
sinking the shaft, but it has now been made waterproof with cast- 
iron tubing down to & depth of 420 feet and thence down is fortified 
by masonry work measuring 16)^ feet in diameter. 

At the time the communication was written the shaft was down 
1,600 feet, but it was expected that the potash bed, shown by borings 
to be 14 feet thick and of high grade, would be reached in the summer 
of 1925 at a depth of 2,460 to 2,780 feet. In order to insure safety in 



POTASH 51 

mining operations and to increase the output a second shaft is being 
sunk at a distance of 200 feet from the first shaft. 

FRANCE 

Production. — The production of potash in France in 1924 (see 
world table, p. 57) was 271,624 metric tons of K 2 0, as compared with 
248,528 tons in 1923 and 211,675 tons in 1922, thus showing a steady 
increase. The production in 1924 might have been still greater had 
it not been for labor troubles. Conditions at the mines are said to be 
satisfactory, and a further increase in production is expected for 1925. 

Government 'purchase of mines. — It is announced from Mulhouse 23 
that a decision has been made by the French Government to take over 
the Alsatian potash mines. The Government becomes the owner of 
the mines through a payment of 20,000,000 francs, to be liquidated 
in 20 years. These mines were formerly the property of the German 
Government and German industrialists. The management of the 
property has been turned over to an exclusively French corporation. 
It is proposed to require that certain proportions of the potash put 
on the market shall be at the disposal of French farmers. 

The law permitting the purchase of the sequestrated potash mines 
of Alsace was passed on March 26, 1921, but the sale did not take 
place until May 24, 1924. 24 A decree dated August 22, 1924, pub- 
lished in the Journal Officiel of August 31, 1924, provides (article 1) 
that until the promulgation of the law fixing the conditions of ex- 
ploitation of these mines their operation shall be assured by a director 
appointed by the Minister of Public Works and acting under his 
authority. Article 2 provides for an advisory council to consist of 
three members representing the public works administration, two 
members designated by the Minister of Finance, two members desig- 
nated by the Minister of Agriculture, one member designated by the 
Minister of Labor and Public Health, two representatives of agri- 
cultural associations, one representative of the chambers of commerce, 
and one technician of the mining industry. Article 3 provides for the 
establishment of an annual budget and for supplementary credits. 
Article 4 makes the director responsible for receipts and disbursements 
and provides for accounting. Article 5 provides for a scale of wages, 
salaries, and for accessory advantages to the personnel. 

Present situation of Alsatian mines. 2 * — The potash mines in Haut- 
Rhin, near the city of Mulhouse, are divided into two groups so far 
as concerns their legal and administrative situation. The first 
group is known as the Mines Kali Sainte-Therese and was formed in 
1910 with French and what was then Alsatian capital. This group 
was reincorporated in 1919 as a French corporation. The second 
group consists of those mines operated or owned by German capital 
and are known as the "mines formerly under sequester." It is this 
group which has been purchased by the Government. 

At present the Mines Kali Sainte-Therese can produce 2,000 tons 
daily, and in a short time they will be able to produce 2,500 tons. 
The "mines formerly under sequester" can produce 9,000 tons daily 
and may later reach 12,000 tons. This productive capacity is more 

a Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. Trade Bull. 28-E, June 6, 1924. 
" Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. Trade Bull. 45-E, Oct. 20, 1924. 
" Report from United States ConseE Chester W. Davis, Strasbourg, France, Oct. 24, 1924. 



52 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

than double the sales in 1923, in which about 1,600,000 tons were 
extracted from the basin. 

The use of potash for fertilizer is not as general in France as it 
is in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States, although an 
extensive propaganda in its favor has been carried on among French 
farmers. Nevertheless, the French consumption has increased as 
shown in the following figures: 1921, pure K 2 0, 54,474 tons; 1922, 
66,287 tons; 1923, 80,928 tons. 

The United States is the largest foreign buyer of Alsatian potash, 
having purchased during 1923 more than 80,000 tons of pure potash 
(K 2 0) in the form of chlorides and 5,000 tons of sulphate. Satisfac- 
tion is expressed in France about the German-Alsatian potash agree- 
ment. The shipment of Alsatian potash to the United States forms 
an important item in the traffic of the port of Strasbourg and the 
Rhine. This route is preferred because of lower freight rates to the 
point of embarkation on trans- Atlantic steamers. Comparative 
freight rates per ton of sylvinite are cited as follows : 



Destination 


Transporta- 
tion by 
cars of 15 
tons each 
(francs) 


Transporta- 
tion by 
complete 
trains 
(francs) 


Antwerp by the Rhine by way of Strasbourg... 


25.65 
38.05 
41.60 


24.00 


Dunkirk 


34.05 


Le Havre.. 


36.90 







Labor troubles. — Strikes have interfered to a certain extent with 
potash production in Alsace. A request for an advance in wages 
was refused, but an agreement was finally reached between representa- 
tives of the miners' union and the management of the potash mines 
on the following basis: (1) Recognition of the union; (2) observance 
of the 6 and 8 hour day; (3) no reprisals against strikers; (4) a 
new scale of wages to be drawn up. 26 

Potash deposits in southern France. 27 — In the Pyrenees district of 
southern France, at Castagnede, near Salies-de-Bearn, in a locality 
where traces of petroleum were recently discovered, potash deposits 
that are thought to be of considerable importance have been found. 
The layer of potash salts lies at a depth of 180 meters and is about 
90 meters thick. Analysis of a sample from a boring at a depth of 
213 meters, made by the Compredon Laboratory, at Nantes, showed 
11.94 per cent of potassium chloride. The deposit is considered 
commercially workable, and plans for exploitation are already under 
way. 

OTHER COUNTRIES 

Australia. — At the seventeenth, biennial congress of Australian 
commercial bodies, held at Adelaide, it was resolved that a potash 
survey of Australia should be undertaken by the Institute of Science 
and Industry, through the state committees of the institute. 28 

26 Mining Jour. (London), vol. 147, No. 4660, pp. 964, 967, Dec. 13, 1924. 

" Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 32, No. 4, p. 158, Jan. 26, 1925; Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 3, p. 64, Feb. 7, 
1925. 
! 'Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 11, p. 33, Nov. 29, 1924. 



POTASH 53 

Canada. 29 — At Malagash, in Nova Scotia, salt deposits have been 
developed within recent years. Potassium chloride occurs in a len- 
ticular deposit in the form of crystalline masses of pink and yellowish- 
green sylvite in a matrix of halite. Potash zones have been pene- 
trated at two points 30 feet apart and range in thickness from a few 
inches to 5 feet. The potash content is variable; in the zone near 
the top of the salt bed a 4-foot seam yielding an analysis of 1.16 per 
cent of potash was encountered; and about 30 feet lower strati- 
graphically a much richer potash zone was exposed, a full shot from the 
face in one place running 8.73 per cent of potash. Although it would 
seem at present unlikely that the Malagash deposits themselves will 
become an economic source of potash, other beds may be found in that 
region which will have enough for commercial purposes. Potash is 
also reported to occur between Weyburn and Halbrite, in Saskatche- 
wan, on the Canadian Pacific K airway; here efflorescences of white 
salts appear on the surface of the ground, but the presence of soluble 
salts in the drift does not necessarily mean that similar salts will be 
found in commercial quantities in the strata beneath. Potash is 
reported from the northeastern part of Saskatchewan, and the water 
at Quill Lake, at Wynyard, contains an appreciable amount of 
potassium chloride. 

The high potash content of numerous deposits of feldspar in eastern 
Canada may some day become a source of supply, if the problem of 
commercial recovery of potash from silicates can be technically and 
economically solved. 

Chile. 30 — In the April issue of Caliche, the official organ of the 
Instituto Cientifico e Industrial del Salitre, an interesting account is 
given of investigations recently carried out at the plant of the Liver- 
pool Nitrate Co. (Ltd.), at Mapocho, Chile. It has been demon- 
strated that a maximum yield of potash is achieved during treatment 
of the raw material by using liquids at the highest possible density 
and temperature. In accordance with the methods of hot leaching 
that are successfully practiced at the Du Pont Delaware plant, 
external heating of the solutions and finer grinding of the caliche 
resulted satisfactorily; high densities and temperatures, with slime- 
free solutions, were obtainable, with insignificant evaporation, the 
net result being an increased extraction of potash as well as of nitrate. 
An interesting development was the saving in fuel needed as com- 
pared with that required by the Shanks machine, estimated at 25 
per cent. Furthermore, owing to the more efficient displacement of 
solutions, the amount of water needed was so much less that with 
caliche of 20 per cent grade no external evaporation was necessary. 

Czechoslovakia. 31 — According to press notices a price agreement has 
been concluded between French and German potash producers 
regarding the sale of 15,500 to 20,000 tons of potash to purchasers 
in Czechoslovakia, who are free to choose between French and German 
products. As early as November, 1924, the German press announced 
a similar agreement, but the report was denied later. 

Italy 32 — The Vulcania Co., founded in 1923, has acquired ex- 
tensive beds of leucite in the volcanic area of Monte Cimino, about 

29 Potash situation in Canada (1922), Canadian Pacific Ry. Co., Montreal. 

» Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 6, p. 215, Aug. 11, 1924. 

81 Dumont, F. T. F., United States consul, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, report dated Jan. 15, 1925. 

u Potash from leucite in Italy: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 10, p. 58, May 16, 1925. 



54 MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

40 miles north of Kome. For the separation of potash contained 
in this leucite it has erected works that can handle 60,000 tons of 
rock a year and is now building a factory -with an initial annual 
output of 3,000 tons of nitrate of potash, obtained by a process 
patented by Antonio Meerschmit. This process consists in heating 
the pulverized leucite rock, mixed with a solution of sodium salt, 
to 200° C, thus converting it into a silicate of aluminum and of 
sodium, while all the potash enters into solution as a nitrate. When 
the concentrated solution cools, about 90 per cent of the nitrate of 
potash content separates in crystals; the liquid solution, to which 
a further quantity of sodium nitrate and crushed leucite is added, is 
again subjected to the process. Valuable fertilizers can be obtained 
by mixing potassic phosphates with the nitrate of potash thus 
produced. 

Another process for utilizing leucite rock is that patented, after 
long years of experimental work, by Gian Alberto Blanc and used 
by the Societa Italiana Potassa, which has erected works in the 
Province of Caserta to utilize the leucite lava of Roccamonfina. 
The ever-growing importance of aluminum to metallurgy and 
electrotechnology makes it a matter of great importance for Italy 
to produce this metal from leucite, which is a metasilicate of alumina 
and potash. Doctor Blanc's process makes it possible to split 
leucite into its three constituents — alumina, potash, and silica — all 
three in serviceable form. The alumina, indeed, is obtained so 
free from iron and silica that it can be used without further treat- 
ment for the manufacture of aluminum. The leucite is enriched 
by a new system of separation based on the magnetic properties 
of the particles of lava gangue which must be eliminated. With 
this end in view the leucite rock is reduced to a sand consisting of 
fragments of nonmagnetic leucite crystals and of r ^-rietic basaltic 
gangue. This sand is submitted to a process under x *ch it yields 
leucite granules containing 18 per cent of K 2 0, 23 p r ' gt fjLA'UQsi 
and 55 per cent of Si0 2 . These granules are tn< ., \> (4) a 
strong solutions of hydrochloric or nitric acid, and at' the 
of the process the products are pure chloride of potash; hjdraoipf 
aluminum practically free from iron and silicates and readily soluble 
in sulphuric acid for the production of sulphate of aluminum, and 
pure silicate suited to several important industrial uses. 

Netherlands. — A new company ; by the name of N. V. Kali 
Syndikaat, with a capital of 100,000 florins (100 shares of 1,000 
florins par), has been started in the Netherlands by representatives 
of the German potash syndicate and of Maximilian Klempner, 
Berlin. Of the capital 50,000 florins is paid and 50,000 florins is 
covered by the plant and real estate in the Onstwedde Stadskanaal 
belonging to the German syndicate. According to the statutes 
of the company its purpose is the "mining of potash and sale of 
potash and other fertilizers and by-products, as well as the running 
of mines and factories," but it is thought that it will be a holding 
company for the potash syndicate's foreign interests, a rather im- 
portant matter. 

Norway. — Deposits of a potash mineral, presumably carnallite, 
have been discovered in the Province of Sondre Trondhjem, Norway. 

» Dumont, F. T. F., United States consul, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, report dated Jan. 15, 1925. 



POTASH 55 

The mineral beds are reported to be extensive and to average around 
14 per cent K 2 0. 34 (See also Sweden.) 

Palestine. — According to an Associated Press report from Jeru- 
salem, dated September 26, 1924, recent investigations indicate 
that the Dead Sea water contains potash, which, by a simple process, 
can be extracted at an expense oi $5 a ton. Including transporta- 
tion charges and governmental tax the product can be delivered at 
the port of Haifa at a cost of $15 a ton. 

Poland. — The production of potash salts in Galician Poland dur- 
ing the first six months of 1924 was greater than during the cor- 
responding period of any previous year, according to statistics com- 
piled by the Polish Ministry of Commerce. 35 The output of 81,000 
tons for 1924 was 32 per cent more than during 1923 and almost 35 
times the output in 1913. 

In 1923, according to the Polish Bureau of Monopolies, 36 Poland 
produced 61,503 tons of potash salts, of which 22,128 tons was 
kainite and the remainder sylvinite. 

Russia. 37 — Russian potash salts have been described in a number of 
reports, but without important results. There are, however, potash 
deposits in the Ural district that have not hitherto been investigated. 
Such salts have been found in Novobagatinsk, Akat-Kul, Satep Addi, 
Dossor, Iskine, and Kara Tchungule. The quantity of chloride of 
potash, according to analyses by Ya V. Samoilof, ranges in general 
from 2 to 4 per cent, but exceptionally, as at Akat-Kul, it rises to 5.5 
per cent. The content of magnesia and sulphuric acid is insignificant, 
so that the deposits of the Ural districts are analogous to the sylvinite 
deposits of Solikam. 

Potash has also been found in the brine of Indersk Lake. Analysis 
of this brine M r ,I. Ph. Schroder showed 26.59 per cent total salts, 
including 19 , per cent Na CI, 4.57 per cent MgCl 4 , 1.74 per cent 
Kg, 0.36 - ^ent MgS0 4 , and 0.33 per cent CaS0 4 . The specific 

. t! ash; salts of the Ural district have been investigated only 
.... sarnies found at random. The necessity of further geologic 
and chemical investigation, together with careful drilling, is pointed 
out. 

Spain. — The potash deposits of Spain are, it seems, soon to come 
upon the market. 38 It is said that the Union Espanola de Explosivos, 
successor to the Sociedad General de Industria y Comercio, after 
some drilling in the salt deposit of Cardona, acquired this property 
and will soon begin installing a plant for its exploitation. It is added 
that the Sociedad la Minera, the Fordina Co., and other concessionaires 
give indications of approaching activity. 

The Minas Potasicas de Suria Co., a subsidiary of the Solvay Co., 
has already made substantial progress on a comprehensive plan of 
development. A shaft 20 feet in diameter has been sunk 1,220 feet, 
and at the bottom is h hopper designed to hold 3,000 tons of mineral. 
The preparatory work already done includes a number of galleries 
driven at different levels, communicating by means of inclines. The 

3< Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, vol. 106, No. 24, p. 64, Dec. 1, 1924. 

35 Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. Trade Bull. 48-E, Oct. 8, 1924. 

36 Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, vol. 16, No. 5, p. 526, May, 1924. 

37 Russian research for potash in the Ural: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 10, pp. 34-36, May 16, 1925. 
»8 Spanish potash coming on the market: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 35, 36, Jan. 10, 1925, 

44839°— 27 5 



56 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

sections cut in the mineral confirm the previously announced richness 
of the deposit, which consists of sylvite and carnallite. An important 
electrical installation has been completed, large iron surface buildings 
are now being put up, and the scale of the developments in general is 
based on an intended production of several thousand tons a day. 
The building for the treatment of sylvite is already complete. A 
railroad 8.7 miles long with a 1 -meter gauge and with bridges and 
tunnels has been built from Suria to Manresa. At Barcelona, 
whence the potash will be shipped, an imposing quay has been con- 
structed. Workmen already engaged in different departments of the 
project number about 600. 

Sweden. — Swedish producers of caustic potash and potash lye 
complain that Germany has been dumping such commodities in 
their home market. According to the Svenska Dagbladet, the 
Swedes are being crowded out of their natural sales district by Ger- 
mans, who quote much lower prices than those prevailing in neigh- 
boring countries. This complaint is supported by facts, for until a 
few years ago the German price for potash lye in Sweden was 27 
krone, whereas now it is only 16.90 krone. Swedish manufacturers 
have tried to reach an agreement with German producers by offering 
them 30 per cent of the Swedish quota, but the Germans refuse to 
consider this proposition. Their reason for so doing is that their 
policy can not be termed dumping, as they are merely competing in 
a territory which, until a short time ago, they had always dominated. 39 

The first Swedish installation employing the Jungner process of 
manufacturing potash as a by-product in the manufacture of cement 
was recently put into operation. The Jungner patents are owned and 
controlled by Aktiebolaget Jungner-Kali (the Jungner Potash Co., 
Ltd.), Stockholm, Sweden. 

The big cement plant at Slite, on the island of Gothland, is now 
using the process to great advantage. The product, which is ob- 
tained in the Cottrell-Moller apparatus, is an excellent potash fer- 
tilizer containing 34.27 per cent K 2 0, of which 98.4 per cent is soluble 
in 4 per cent HC1, 95.9 per cent in 2 per cent HC1, and 89.6 per cent 
in water, all at room temperature. 

Jungner potash is also manufactured at the Dalen Portland Cement- 
fabrik, Norway. The raw materials are a potash-bearing granite 
and lime. The cement is here, as well as at Slite, of excellent quality, 
and a considerable amount of potash fertilizer is produced. 40 

SUMMARY OF WORLD PRODUCTION 

In the following table, compiled by Miss W. I. Whiteside, are listed 
the countries which in the last few years have produced potash, 
together with the available figures for their production of crude salts. 
The countries here listed diner to some extent from those given in 
the table of imports (p. 32), because in that table some of the 
countries from which the imports came were not themselves pro- 
ducers but received their supply from other countries. In both 
tables, however, the predominance of Germany and Alsace as pro- 
ducers of potash is clearly shown. 

»• Dumont, F. T. F., U. S. consul general, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Special 
Circ. 94, Apr. 21, 1925. 

49 Potash as a by-product in the manufacture of cement in Sweden: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 7, p. 40, 
A.pr. 4, 1925. 



POTASH 



57 



Although the figures for crude salts produced in France in 1924 
are not available, the following quantities of salts of the grades given 
are reported: Sylvinite, 12-16 per cent, 355,299 metric tons; sylvinite, 
20-22 per cent, 414,714 metric tons; sylvinite, 30-40 per cent, 118,187 
metric tons; chloride, 171,693 metric tons. 



World' 



production of potash minerals and content of K 2 0, 1913, 1920-1924, in 
metric tons 



Country and mineral 



Abyssinia, chloride of potash 

Australia: 

New South Wales, alunite 

South Australia, alunite - 

Austria (Galicia), kainite and sylvi- 
nite.. 

Canada, natro-alunite - 

China ° 

France (Alsace), crude salts 

Germany, crude salts. 

India, British: 

Nitrate of potash 

Other salts 

Italy: 

Alunite 

Leucite.. 

Japan, alunite 

Poland: 

Kainite 

Sylvinite 

Spain, nitrate of potash 

Unites States, crude salts. 



1913 



Output 



2.271 



2,344 



( rf ) 
<* 11,956,528 

14, 694 



5, 976 
1,600 
( a ) 

(') 
(') 
(•) 

(0 



K2O 

content 



(•) 



(•) 



(■') 



(•) 
(«) 

( a ) 

(0 
(0 

(■) 

(0 



1920 



Output 



1,087 



644 
20 



w 



542 

1,221,925 

11, 390, 166 

17, 145 
51 

3,445 
8,200 
(•) 

2,300 
7,993 
C) 

151,348 



K 2 

content 



544 



« 



(•) 

194, 355 

( a ) 



368 
( a ) 
(•) 

230 
800 
(•) 

43, 614 



1921 



Output 



528 
15 

( k ) 

27 

608 

884, 140 

9, 241, 179 

16, 149 



1,171 
14, 805 
« 

182 
15, 329 
(•) 
23, 119 



KjO 

content 



(•) 



45 



(») 
<•) 
(•) 

144, 836 
1, 066, 849 

6,460 






125 



(•) 



18 
1,550 



9,227 





1922 


1923 


1924 


Country and mineral 


Output 


K2O 
content 


Output 


K2O 

content 


Output 


K2O 
content 


Abyssinia, chloride of potash 

Australia: 

New South Wales, alunite. 


(•) 

188 
97 

(») 

45 

493 

1,326,859 

13,012,320 

11, 673 


w 

\ 23 

« 
(•) 
(«) 

211,675 
1, 509, 850 

4,744 


w 

1 1,014 


« 

82 


( a ) 

(•) 

(<•) 

(») 
(•) 
( a ) 
(») 
(«) 

(•) 
(•) 

(°) 

1,850 

(•) 

81, 000 

( a ) 
39, 661 


C) 

(") 
(°) 


Austria (Galicia), kainite and sylvi- 


(») 

14 

479 
* 1, 568, 000 
( a ) 

8, 092 


(») 
(•) 
(•) 

248, 528 
• 885, 942 

3,542 


ft 


Canaria., nat.rn-a.lnnit.p. . 


China c 


(°) 


France (Alsace), crude salts ... 


271,624 


Germany, crude salts. _ 


•' 824, 000 


India, British: 

Nitrate of potash... _ 


(«) 


Other salts 


(") 


Italy: 

Alunite 






135 
8,720 
W 

f 22, 128 

\ 39, 375 

76 

35, 406 


C) 
(«) 
(•) 

\ 29,404 

51 
18, 339 


(°) 


Leucite.. 


18, 000 
1,178 

2,520 
43, 563 
(•) 

22, 839 


C) 

100 

} 15, 479 

(•) 

10, 627 


(*) 


Japan, alunite 


C°) 


Poland: 

Kainite 


(•) 


Sylvinite 


Spain, nitrate of potash ._ 


( a ) 


United States, crude salts 


20, 771 







Data not available. 

* Included under Poland. 
« Exports. 

* Production of Alsace in 1913 included under Germany. 

* For sales of pure potash (K2O) see p. 48. 
/ Included under Austria. 

* Figures not available; production unimportant. 

* Reported as sylvinite, but believed to be crude salts 
»' Figures relate to sales. 



58 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

RECENT PATENTS 

The following patents on the recovery of potash from various 
sources have been issued recently : 

UNITED STATES 

Alexander, C. M., No. 1522091, January 6, 1925. Orthoclase or similar 
potassium-bearing minerals are pulverized and injected with fuel and air into 
a combustion and reaction chamber in order to obtain soluble potassium 
compounds. Steam is injected into the materials after they are highly 
heated. 

Dolbear, C. E., No. 1496152, June 3, 1924. Salts (such as those of the brine of 
Searles Lake, Calif.), one at least of which does not increase in solubility 
with increase in temperature, are mixed with a relatively cold saturated 
solution of all the salts to be treated, the mixture is heated, and the hot 
solution is separated from the undissolved salts. The hot solution is cooled 
while quiescent to effect deposition of salts such as KCJ and borax. The 
cooled solution separated from the precipitated salts is used as the saturated 
solution for repetition of the process with additional mixed salts. 

Dolbear, C. E., No. 1496257, June 3, 1924. A mixture of residual salts from 
the brine of Searles Lake, Calif., or similar salt mixture which may contain 
chlorides, borates, carbonates, and sulphates of potassium and sodium, is 
leached to dissolve potassium chloride and borax — for example, b}^ use of 
a saturated cold residue solution subsequently treated. The remaining salts 
are dissolved in H 2 0, Na 2 C0 3 is separated from the solution by use of C0 2 to 
precipitate NaNC0 3 , and Na 2 S0 4 is precipitated by use of NH 3 . 

Friend, R. O., Nos. 1522112 and 1522113, January 6, 1925. Describe process of 
treating glauconite or greensand. 

Giordani, F., No. 1496264, June 3, 1924. After treating leucite rocks with HC1 
for the recovery of KC1 the solution obtained is neutralized — for example, 
with KOH — and settling of silica is effected to remove it from the solution. 

Halvorsen, B. F., Oslo, Norway, and others, assignors to Norsk Hydro-Elektrisk 
Kvaelstofaktieselskab, Oslo, No. 1531336, March 31, 1925. Leucite is 
dissolved in dilute nitric acid, and the solution is neutralized, evaporated, 
and cooled, so that mixed crystals of potassium nitrate and aluminum nitrate 
are precipitated. 

LaRue, L. B., and Scofield, S. W., No. 1494029, May 13, 1924. Silicates such 
as amorphous (crushed and calcined) potash feldspar are converted into 
alkali metal silicate and aluminate by treatment with caustic alkali — for 
example, with a 90 per cent KOH solution at a temperature of about 275° to 
325° with potash feldspar — and the solution is then treated with C0 2 under 
pressure without heating to produce K 2 C0 3 , KHC0 3 , and Al(OH) 3 . The 
Al(OH) 3 may be converted into alum. 

Scofield, S. W. See LaRue, L. B. 

Silsbee, J. L., No. 1505295, August 19, 1924. Natural brines and calcareous 
muds — for example, those of the western United States— after evaporation 
by solar heat are free from the NaCl and KC1 which separate. The mother 
liquor remaining, containing MgCl 2 , is treated with MgO to form a solid 
mixture, which is then roasted to produce HC1 and MgO. The HC1 is used 
to treat a fluid mixture of mud and brine, thus producing C0 2 , and the latter 
is used to treat an aqueous mixture of MgO and KC1 and produce a double 
salt of potassium and magnesium carbonate and MgCl2. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

Michael, J., & Co., No. 208114, July 27, 1923. KN0 3 is obtained by treating 
boiling K 2 S0 4 solution with excess of NaN0 3 in solution. The Na 2 S0 4 
precipitated is removed while hot, and the mother liquor is cooled to 17° to 
yield KN0 3 . K 2 S0 4 and NaN0 3 are dissolved in the remaining liquor, and 
the cycle is continued. The Na 2 S0 4 recovered contains a small quantity of 
K 2 S0 4 , which is removed by treatment with a saturated solution of Na 2 S0 4 . 

NORWAY 

Norsk Hydro-Elektrisk Kvaelstofaktieselskab, No. 39013, March 3, 1924. 
Easily decomposable potash-containing rocks are treated with HN0 3 of 
such a concentration that the reaction product will form a solid pulverizable 
mass. 



POTASH 59 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

1924. Mansfield, G. R., and Boardman, Leona, Potash in 1923: Mineral 

Resources, 1923, pt. 2, pp. 167-204. 

1925. Mansfield, G. R., Potash in Crane County, Tex.: Press Notice 18209, 

Jan. 26. 

GENERAL PAPERS 

1924. Allison, R. V., Availability studies upon high potash nitrates: Am. Soc. 

Agron. Jour., vol. 16, pp. 26-30. 
Geller, A., Salztektonik und Salzmetamorphose: Kali, vol. 18, No. 20, 

pp. 297-301, Oct.. 15. 
Lormand, C, The potash industry (from Paris letter): Ind. and Eng. 

Chemistry, vol. 16, No. 6, p. 650, June. 
Mansfield, G. R., and Boardman, Leona, Potash in 1923: U. S. Geol. 

Survey Mineral Resources, 1923, pt. 2, pp. 167-204. 
Teeple, J. E., The development of a potash industry: Chem. Bull. 

(Chicago), vol. 11, pp. 62,63. 
Turrentine, J. W., Should we have a potash industry? Chem. and Met. 

Eng., vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 14, 15, July 7. 
What will potash cost the farmer? Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, 

No. 5, pp. 191, 192, Aug. 5. 
American potash — a progress report: Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, 

vol. 16, No. 11, p. 1192, November. 
Wells, R. C, Bailey, R. K., and Fairchild, F. G., Note on the Hicks 

method of determining potassium: Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, vol. 16, 

No. 9, p. 935, September. 
Anon., Potash as a fertilizer: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 30, 31, 

Aug. 23. 
■ The new potash prices: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 6, pp. 33, 34, 

Sept. 20. 
■ Potash purchasers: Com. Fertilizer, vol. 29, No. 4, p. 54, Novem- 
ber. 

Past and present of American potash: Eng. and Min. Jour.-Press, 



vol. 118, No. 22, p. 854, Nov. 29. 
1925. MacDowell, C. H., Review of potash industry in 1924: Eng. and Min. 
Jour.-Press, vol. 119, No. 3, p. 100, Jan. 17. 
Turrentine, J. W., Potash readily obtainable from American sources: 
Manufacturers Record, vol. 87, pp. 69, 70, Apr. 23. 

PROCESSES OF EXTRACTION 

1923. Montemartini, C, and Losana, L., Utilization of aluminum-potassium 

silicates: Gior. chim. ind. applicata, vol. 5, pp. 487-495. 
Rossi, Carlo, Potassium from leucite: Cong. naz. chim. pura applicata 
Atti, pp. 198-211. A historical description of various processes for 
obtaining potassium from leucite. 

1924. Bragg, C. T., and Putnam, W. P., Conquering natural brines for com- 

merce: Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 468, 469, Sept. 22. 
Fox, E. J., and Whittaker, C. W., Potash from cement dust: Ind. and 

Eng. Chemistry, vol. 16, No. 10, pp. 1044-1046, October. 
King, J. G., Carbonization of seaweed as a preliminary to the extraction 

of iodine and potassium salts, 16 pp., H. M. Stationery Office. Review 

in Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, vol. 16, p. 985. 
Robinson, S. C, Recovery of potash from kelp: Sci. Agr., vol. 4, pp. 

314-321. 
Schmttt, H. A., Possible potash production from Minnesota shale: Econ. 

Geology, vol. 19, pp. 72-83. 

1925. Geldabd, W. J., and Chase, W. D., A lesson in waste recovery (Steffens 

water from beet-sugar refineries) : Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 32, No. 5, 
pp. 195-197, Feb. 2. Editorial, p. 191. 



60 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

TEXAS 

1925. DeGolyer, E., New light on the origin of North American salt domes: 

Min. and Met., vol. 6, p. 82, February. 
Mansfield, G. R., Potash in Crane County, Tex.: U. S. Geol. Survey 

Press Notice 18209, Jan. 26. 
Mitchell, G. E., Potash — a newly found natural resource: Am. Forests 

and Forest Life, vol. 31, No. 375, pp. 157-159, 190, March. 
Simpich, F., Texas fights the Franco-Germans: Country Gentleman, vol. 

90, No. 2, pp. 12, 36, Jan. 10. 
Anon., Polvhalite — a source of potash: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 2, p. 

37, Jan. 24. 

PUBLICATIONS ON FOREIGN POTASH DEPOSITS 
PRANCE 

1924. Bucherer, Louis, Development of potassium chloride factories along the 

upper Rhine since 1919 and their present problems: Soc. ind. Mulhouse 

Bull., vol. 90, pp. 426-441. 
Horst, Camille, Composition of sylvinite and of manufactured potassium 

chlorides (at the Alsatian potash mines) : Soc. ind. Mulhouse Bull., 

vol. 90, pp. 497-503. 
Jones, C. L., France — Potash: Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. Trade 

Bull. 28-E, June 6. 
Masuret, E. A., Decree regulating the exploitation of the French domanial 

potash mines: Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. Trade Bull. 45-E, 

Oct. 20, 1924. 
Van Werveke, L., tJber eine Fehlbohrung auf Kalisalze bei Allschwil in 

der Nahe von Basel und liber die Herkunft des Tertiarmeeres und der 

Kalisalze im Rheintalgraben: Kali, vol. 18, pp. 345-348, December. 
Anon., Technik der Chlorkaliumgewinnung in der elsassischen Industrie: 

Kali, vol. 18, pp. 354-356, December. 
Changes in ownership of Alsace potash mines: Chem. and Met. 

Eng., vol. 31, No. 7, Aug. 18, p. 279. 
Strike in Alsace potash industry: Min. Jour. (London), vol. 147, 

No. 4660, Dec. 13, pp. 964, 967. 

1925. Anon., New potash deposits in the Pyrenees district of south France: 

Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 32, No. 4, Jan. 26, p. 158; Am. Fertilizer, 
vol. 62, No. 3, Feb. 7, p. 64. 

GERMANY 

1924. Daugherty, W. T., Depressed conditions in German potash industry: 

Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. Trade Bull. 34-E, July 19. 
Klaas, Heykes, Einige Bemerkungen zu "Studie iiber die Entstehung 

der Kalilagerstatten des deutschen Zechstems" von Ernst Fulda: 

Kali, vol. 18, No. 19, pp. 281-283, Oct. 1. 
Anon., Depression in the German potash industry: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, 

No. 1, July 12, pp. 58, 60. 
German potash industry improving: Eng. and Min. Jour.-Press, vol. 

118, No. 17, Oct. 25, pp. 677, 678. 
1925 Daugherty, W. T., Magnesium waste liquor from German potash: Am. 

Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 28, 29, Jan. 24. 
The German chemical industry in 1924: — potash industry aided by 

Franco-German pact: Commerce Repts., Mar. 9, p. 556. 
Fulda, E., Survey of the salt deposits of Germany: Kali, vol. 19, pp. 

17-24, Jan. 15. 
Rubinfeld, J., The copper, zinc, and potash situation in Germany: Eng. 

and Min. Jour.-Press, vol. 119, No. 2, p. 79, Jan. 10. 
Anon., Potash production allotments revised by German syndicate: Oil, 

Paint, and Drug Reporter, vol. 107, No. 2, p. 44, Jan. 12. 
German potash mine of Virginia-Carolina sold: Oil, Paint, and 

Drug Reporter, vol. 107, No. 8, p. 20, Feb. 23. 

Rival groupings in the German potash industry: Am. Fertilizer, 



vol. 62, No. 5, pp. 62, 64, Mar. 7. 



POTASH 61 

1925. Anon., German potash news: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 6, p. 74, Mar. 21. 

■ Current German trade in some chemicals — Salt and potash mines 

yield wealth: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 9, pp. 32, 33, May 2. 

FRANCE AND GERMANY 

1924. Concannon, C. C., Franco-German potash agreement: Bur. For. Dom. 
Commerce Chem. Trade Bull. 38-E, August. 
Anon., French and German interests sign potash agreement: Chem. and 
Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 9, Sept. 1, p. 357. 

Potash market accord to be probed by United States: Oil, Paint, 

and Drug Reporter, vol. 106, No. 9, p. 19, Sept. 1. 

German-French potash agreement: Eng. and Min. Jour. -Press, vol. 



118, No. 10, p. 388, Sept. 6. 

Price fluctuations deferred Franco-German potash accord: Chem. 



and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 15, p. 598, Oct. 13. 

What the potash pact means to American industries: Chem. and 



Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 23, pp. 891, 892, Dec. 8. 
1925. Anon., German producers say potash agreement favors Alsatians: Chem. 
and Met. Eng., vol. 32, No. 2, p. 68, Jan. 12. 

OTHER COUNTRIES 

1924. Boker, H. E., Kalisalzgewinnung in Russland: Kali, vol. 18, No. 19, 

pp. 283-287, Oct. 1. 
Fonrodona, Francisco, Estado de las minas pot&sicas de Catalufia: 

Rev. min. met. y de ing., year 75, No. 2952, pp. 650, 651. 
Gourley, L. H., Poland — potash salts: Bur. For. Dom. Commerce Chem. 

Trade Bull. 40-E, September. 
Anon., Economical production of Chilean potash and nitrate: Chem. and 

Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 6, p. 215, Aug. 11. 
Research work at the nitrate mines [relative to most efficient 

method of recovering potash from the Chilean nitrate]: Am. Fertilizer, 

vol. 61, No. 4, p. 68, Aug. 23. 

The Spanish potash deposits: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 11, p. 74, 



Nov. 29. 

Potash discovered in Norway: Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, vol. 



106, No. 24, p. 64, Dec. 1 (brief note), 

Spain will become exporter of potash: Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 

31, No. 26, p. 1019, Dec. 29. 
1925. Anon., Spanish potash coming on the market: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, 
No. 1, pp. 35, 36, Jan. 10. 

Potash as a by-product in the manufacture of cement in Sweden: 

Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 7, p. 40, Apr. 4. 

Russian research for potash in the Ural: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, 



No. 10, pp. 34-36, May 16. 

Potash from leucite in Italy: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 10, p. 58, 



May 16. 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 



By Hubert W. Davis 



FLUORSPAR 

Fluorspar, or fluorite, is a nonmetallic crystalline mineral that 
usually occurs in glassy transparent cubes or cleavable masses. Less 
commonly it is granular or fibrous in structure, and occasionally is 
banded. Fluorspar has a specific gravity of 3.2, is brittle, has a 
hardness of 4, and can easily be scratched by a knife. Chemically 
it consists of calcium and fluorine in the proportion of 51.1 to 4S.9. 
In color fluorspar ranges, according to purity, from a clear colorless, 
or slightly bluish, glasslike substance through various brilliant hues, 
of which purple and green are most common; much of it is white and 
opaque. 

FLUORSPAR MINED AND SHIPPED 

The shipments of fluorspar from domestic mines in 1924 amounted 
to 124,979 short tons, valued at $2,451,131, an increase of 3 per cent 
in quantity but a decrease of 2 per cent in total value as compared 
with 1923. The general average price per ton f. o. b. mines or ship- 
ping points for all grades in 1924 was $19.61, a decrease of $1.07 from 
the average in 1923. The highest average price in 1924 was reported 
from Illinois and the lowest in Colorado. Kentucky and Colorado 
were the only States that showed an increase in shipments in 1924. 
The shipments of fluxing grade fluorspar to steel plants and to foun- 
dries showed an increase of about 11 per cent in 1924, but the ship- 
ments of the higher grades of fluorspar recorded a decrease of about 
28 per cent. 

The exact quantity of crude fluorspar mined can not be ascertained, 
because at most of the smaller mines only the cleaned material is 
weighed. The total quantity of merchantable fluorspar recovered 
by mining and milling in 1924 decreased nearly 2 per cent from 1923. 

Merchantable fluorspar recovered in the United States, 1923 and 1924, by States 





1923 


1924 


State 


Short tons 


Percentage 


Number of 
producers 


Short tons 


Percentage 


Number of 
producers 


Illinois 


93, 845 

44, 483 

6,252 

4,438 

97 


62.93 

29.83 

4.19 

2.98 

.07 


12 

26 

6 

6 

1 


54, 896 
73, 720 
15, 195 

2,887 


37.38 

50.20 

10.35 

1.97 


11 


Kentucky. 


20 


Colorado 


12 


New Mexico 


7 






Utah 


102 

48 


.07 
.03 


1 


Texas 








1 














149, 115 


100. 00 


51 


146, 848 


100.00 


52 



63 



64 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Fluorspar produced a in the United States, 1880-1924 





Illinois 


Kentucky 


Other States 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1880-1901 


(») (») 

986, 334 $6, 404, 498 
132,798 2,887,099 
92,729 2.430.361 


CO 

« 310, 498 
87, 604 
32, 386 

46, 091 
15, 266 
52, 484 
45, 441 

47, 847 


« $2, 336, 737 
2, 069, 185 
883, 171 
1, 246, 942 
294, 513 
970, 059 
945, 402 
988, 940 


(») 

« 62, 575 
43, 415 
13, 175 
20, 388 
7,217 
5,257 
10, 702 
15, 065 


(») 

« $482, 553 
509, 197 
212, 042 
374, 838 
113, 814 
67, 918 
116, 927 
173, 881 


178, 117 
1, 359, 407 
263, 817 
138, 290 
186, 778 
34, 960 
141, 596 
121, 188 
124, 979 


$1, 067, 655 


1902-1917 


9, 223, 788 


1918 


5, 465, 481 


1919 


3, 525, 574 


1920 


120, 299 
12, 477 
83, 855 
65,045 
62, 067 


3, 096, 767 
315, 767 
1, 493, 188 
1, 443, 490 
1, 288, 310 


4, 718, 547 


1921 


724, 094 


1922 


2, 531, 165 


1923 _ 


2, 505, 819 


1924 


2, 451, 131 




















2, 549, 132 


32, 213, 254 



















• Beginning with 1906 figures represent shipments from mines. 

* Figures by States not available. 

« Small quantity from Colorado and Tennessee included with Kentucky. 



Such details of the shipments of fluorspar from 1921 to 1924, by 
States, as may be published without revealing, except by permission, 
the statistics of individual producers, are given in the following 
table: 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 



65 



i a coo 

i CM i -■ 

JOJI 

l«Hi 



r~- co cm 

(M 10 OJ t^ -<jJ 



C5 m ■* O CO 

CO i-l 03 CO _| 

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i»MOOO 
i-c Tfi CS UO lO 






1-1 go oo 

CO">-H 



C7> CJ -H 

C5 CO OJ 
O COOT 



ooowoo 

NOOOOOCM 



O -t O 10 N 
05 r- Tti tJ( r*- 



coco-^oi-- 

■<*< O ^H 10 CO 
rHcMNOm 



NOOtTNOO 



O100O1MN 
COCCOOliO 



o >o 00 c 
CO 00 •<*< . 



OIHCOOM 
O lO GO <M "O 

HHOMCO 



OMOOOO 
WOCOOO 

(M""coio>-r ° 



OOtN 
t-ic3> O 
t~ Tf -*> 



i-ic3)Offl >0 



OS CO "O o 
lO ■«»< Tf >o 



t*< lO .-H 00 CM 00 



N*0 

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f~05 CM 00 (M i 



CM •*! <M t- 



f~<35 ■* O 

ic »r oi ■* 
Oi cm CO iC 

co ofoTco 



c .rt O) CD CD 



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0--2 <P CD t» 



3 



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<M*CNl>rcM 



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r^ o co co 



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CO-HCT5© 
GO ■"*• © CM 
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.—I ift rf< 



o • -a cu cp ^3 



66 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

FLUORSPAR INDUSTRY, BY STATES 

Colorado. — The shipments in 1924 amounted to 12,301 short tons, 
an increase of 104 per cent over the shipments in 1923. The min- 
eral was obtained from Cowdrey, Jackson County; Wagon Wheel 
Gap, Mineral County: Jamestown, Boulder County; Ouray, Ouray 
County; and in Custer County, near Cotopaxi. About 36 per cent 
of the shipments from Colorado in 1924 went to the steel plant of the 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., at Pueblo, Colo., and the greater part of 
the remainder was sold to steel plants in the Chicago, 111., district. 

Development work at the mine near Cowdrey went on continu- 
ously during 1924, and two levels were opened up for stoping. It 
is reported that a new vein, parallel to and 40 feet west of the old 
vein, was developed ready for stoping. A new tunnel was started 
at the south end of the claims to run directly under the old workings, 
giving a depth of 600 feet. New installations at this mine in 1924 
included a pump plant, a pipe line from Pinkham Creek to the mill, 
a distance of 6,000 feet, three jigs with sizing trommels and a classifier, 
and a crusher. 

The mine at Wagon Wheel Gap was acquired on July 15, 1924, by 
the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., the largest consumer of fluorspar in 
the West, and the purchase will probably largely eliminate this 
company as a buyer of fluorspar. 

Illinois. — The productive deposits of fluorspar in Illinois are in 
Hardin and Pope Counties, in the extreme southern part of the 
State. The principal mines are near Rosiclare, Elizabethtown, and 
Cave-in-Rock, small towns on the Ohio River, in Hardin County. 
The largest deposit yet discovered, known as the Rosiclare-Fairview 
vein, is in Hardin County and occurs in a fault fissure. The country 
rock is limestone and sandstone. The flourspar occurs in lenticular 
masses in the vein, which pinches laterally and vertically. At 
Cave-in-Rock fluorspar occurs in flat-lying tabular masses, locally 
called " blanket" formations. A detailed report on the southern 
Illinois district has been published by the Illinois Geological Survey. 1 
This report describes the chief mines and prospects, discusses the 
mining and milling methods, and offers suggestions for prospecting. 
It contains topographic and geologic maps which show the location 
of the fluorspar mines. 

The shipments of fluorspar from Illinois in 1924, 62,067 short tons, 
showed a decrease of 5 per cent from those in 1923. Labor conditions 
in the fluorspar field were satisfactory; there were no strikes and 
practically no changes in wages in 1924. 

The Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar Mining Co. obtained its output 
from its Daisy and Empire mines. The Empire mine was worked 
under lease from the Pierce Fluorspar Co. The Daisy mine is under 
active development at the 180-foot and 412-foot levels. Three new 
ore bodies were developed in 1924. The Rosiclare mine is flooded 
and according to reports will not be unwatered in 1925. 

The mines and mill of the Fairview Fluorspar & Lead Co. were 
purchased on November 17, 1924, by the Franklin Fluorspar Co., a 
subsidiary of the Aluminum Co. of America. This company also 
acquired the Hamp mine, near Karbers Ridge. 

1 Weller, Stuart, and others, The Geology of Hardin County: Illinois Geol. Survey Bull. 41, 1920. 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 67 

The mines of the Hillside Fluor Spar Mines were slightly less active 
in 1924. 

A small quantity of fluorspar was produced at the Du Bois mine, 
near Eichorn. A log washer was installed in 1924 and it is planned 
to sink two shafts during 1925 and to complete a jig mill. 

Development work was continued at the Douglas property, in 
Pope County, and some fluorspar of fluxing grade was shipped. 

Kentucky. — The fluorspar deposits thus far developed in western 
Kentucky are in Crittenden, Livingston, and Caldwell Counties, 
but the mines of Crittenden County include not only the largest 
producers but the largest number of productive veins. Commercial 
deposits of fluorspar also occur in central Kentucky, but no produc- 
tion has been reported during the past few years. A study of the 
fluorspar deposits of the western and central Kentucky districts has 
been made by Currier. 3 

The quantity of fluorspar shipped from Kentucky in 1924 amounted 
to 47,847 short tons, an increase of 5 per cent as compared with 1923. 
Labor conditions were satisfactory. It is reported that labor is 
better employed at higher average wages than at any previous time 
in this part of the fluorspar district. 

The mines near Mexico, Ky., that are controlled by the Lafayette 
Fluorspar Co., a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation, 
were considerably developed during 1924, and a railroad was built 
from Mexico to the mines. Extensive plans were made for a modern 
mill, a power plant, and other buildings. Erection started in Novem- 
ber and was to be completed in the early part of 1925. Road im- 
provements were made around the mines, and construction of a 
narrow-gauge railroad between the four operating mine shafts on the 
property was begun. This company has taken over the properties of 
the Big Four Fluorspar & Ore Co., about 8 miles from Marion, Ky. 
The Big Four is considered to be one of the best fluorspar mines in 
Kentucky, although it is only partly developed. 

All of the properties of the Kentucky Minerals Holding Co. were 
sold the latter part of 1924 to the Franklin Fluorspar Co., a subsidiary 
of the Aluminum Co. of America. These include the Susie Beeler, 
near Crayne, and the Beard,- Mary Belle, Brown, Ada Florence, 
Union, and Ben Mack mines near Marion, which were operated under 
lease to the Kentucky Fluorspar Co. The Franklin Fluorspar Co. 
has also purchased the Franklin and Hoover mines, near Marion, and 
it owns the Haffaw mine, at Mexico, and the Memphis mine, near 
Marion. 

At the Macer mine, near Marion, on the La Rue vein, develop- 
ment work continued during part of 1924, and it is reported that this 
mine will soon reach the productive stage. 

Trommel washers, a picking belt, classification bins, and a new 
power plant were installed at the Blue and Marble mine, at Mexico, 
Ky. it is reported that four shafts are ready for operation, includ- 
ing a cross cut to the vein at the 300-foot level from Shaft No. 1, 
which will become the main working level across the property. 

The fluorspar property of about 60 acres, known as the Keystone 
mine, about 6 miles from Marion, was purchased in 1924 by the 
Hillside Fluor Spar Mines, which expects to develop the property 

» Currier, L. W., Fluorspar deposits of Kentucky: Kentucky Geol. Survey, 6th ser., vol. 13, 1923, 



68 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

during 1925. The company already has two producing mines and a 
modern fluorspar mill at Rosiclare, 111. 

The Davenport mine, near Salem, Ky., made its initial production 
in May, 1924. A log washer was installed during the year. 

The Roberts Fluorspar Co., operating a mill at Marion at which 
grinding equipment was installed in 1923, reported good sales of 
ground fluorspar. This company was succeeded on December 15 by 
the Kentucky Fluorspar Co., a continuation in name only of the old 
Kentucky Fluorspar Co. 

At the Klondyke mine, near Smithland, Livingston County, a 
modern mill was reported completed the latter part of 1924, and the 
owners report that the mine was developed to a capacity of 40 tons 
a day. 

New Mexico. — The shipments of fluorspar from New Mexico in 
1924 amounted to 2,580 short tons, a decrease of 40 per cent from 
those in 1923. Some of this mineral was shipped to steel plants in 
the West, but the greater part went to eastern consumers. 

The Tortugas mine, at Mesilla Park, Dona Ana County, was the 
largest producer in New Mexico in 1924. It is reported that the 
main shaft has been sunk 291 feet, at which depth the ore is said to be 
about 6 feet wide. 

A small quantity of fluorspar was mined from claims about 15 miles 
from Separ, in Grant County. No one property was developed or 
equipped to make regular shipments, but it is said that considerable 
fluorspar can be produced in a year. 

A few carloads of fluorspar were shipped from the Caballos Moun- 
tains district and some was shipped from the Nakaye mine, near 
Derry. 

Texas. — What is believed to be the first production of fluorspar in 
the State of Texas was made in 1924 from a prospect about 7 miles 
from Hot Wells, Hudspeth County. No fluorspar was shipped in 
1924. The fluorspar is reported to contain 88.4 per cent of calcium 
fluoride and 7.8 per cent of silica. 

Utah. — A small production was reported from the Silver Queen 
mine, near Clive, Tooele County, most of which was shipped to steel 
plants. A small shipment to be used for test work in lead refining 
was reported. 

STOCKS OF FLUORSPAR 

According to the reports of producers the total quantity of fluorspar 
in stock at the mines or at shipping points at the end of 1924 amounted 
to 69,580 short tons, an increase of 45 per cent over 1923. These 
stocks consisted of about 29,200 tons of crude fluorspar (which must 
be milled before it can be marketed), 32,700 tons of gravel fluorspar, 
6,600 tons of lump fluorspar, and 1,100 tons of ground fluorspar. As 
the quantity of fluorspar in stock piles must be partly estimated, 
there are variations in the mine reports from year to year that pre- 
vent an absolute balance between the quantity mined and the quan- 
tity shipped and in stock. Indeed, when the stocks on hand in Illi- 
nois at the end of 1923 were shipped they proved to have been con- 
siderably overestimated. In the following table the figures that rep- 
resent stocks in Illinois for 1923 have been adjusted accordingly. 
The stock at the end of 1924 amounted to 56 per cent of the total 
quantity shipped from the mines in 1924, and represented a rather 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 



69 



high ratio to the total output of fluorspar. Data on consumers' 
stocks, noted under consumption (p. 71), which show large stocks, 
indicate so large a surplus that a decided curtailment in output may 
be expected in 1925. 

Stocks of fluorspar at mines or shipping points in the United States, 1923-24, 

by States, in short tons 



State 


1923 


1924 




400 

1,480 

« 38, 971 

6,387 

530 

160 


400 


Colorado. - 


4,374 




30, 662 
33, 101 


Kentucky. 




530 




465 


Texas 


48 


Utah 




82 












» 48, 010 


69, 580 



• Revised figures. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 3 



The total imports of fluorspar into the United States in 1924 
amounted to 51,043 short tons and were the largest ever recorded. 
The next largest total on record was in 1910, when 42,488 tons were 
imported. The imports in 1924 showed an increase of 21 per cent in 
quantity and 29 per cent in value over those of 1923. The value at 
the foreign mines averaged $10.89 a ton. The cost to the consumers 
in the United States includes, in addition to the duty of $5 a ton, the 
cost of transporting the fluorspar from the mines to the docks, 
loading charges at the docks, the ocean freight charges, and other 
small charges, besides the freight charges from the docks to manufac- 
turers' plants. 

The imports were equivalent to about 41 per cent of the domestic 
shipments of fluorspar, as compared with about 35 per cent in 1923. 

England continues to be the chief source of imported fluorspar, 
supplying four-sevenths of the total in 1924. Most of the English 
fluorspar is of fluxing grade and the cost to the consumers in the 
United States is reported to have ranged between $16.75 and $20 a 
short ton, duty paid, at tidewater for material containing 85 per 
cent of calcium fluoride and 5 per cent of silica. According to reports 
of importers of 17,500 tons of English fluorspar, the selling price of 
this quantity at tidewater, duty paid, averaged $18.09 a short ton in 
1924. 

The imports of German fluorspar showed a decrease of 20 per 
cent in quantity in 1924. Some high-grade fluorspar is being im- 
ported from Germany. According to reports of importers of 6,600 
tons of German fluorspar, the selling price of this quantity in the 
United States in 1924 ranged between $17 and $27 a short ton, 
duty paid, at tidewater, and averaged $19.25. 

The class rate on fluorspar from Baltimore, Md., to Pittsburgh, 
Pa., is $4.29 a short ton ($4.80 a long ton). There is a commodity 

» The statistics of imports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce; those of exports were supplied by the producers. No exports 
of fluorspar are recorded by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



70 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



rate on fluorspar, however, from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh of $3.02 
a long ton (about $2.70 a short ton). As the freight rate on fluorspar 
from the Illinois-Kentucky district is $5.25 a long ton, or about 
$4.69 a short ton, the sellers of foreign fluorspar have an advantage 
over the domestic sellers. 

More than one-fifth of the 1924 imports came from British South 
Africa. All of the fluorspar from this source is of " acid" grade and 
is used in the manufacture of hydrofluoric acid. The imports from 
Italy increased from 268 tons in 1923 to 1,585 tons in 1924. Most 
if not all of this fluorspar was of fluxing grade and the cost to con- 
sumers was about $18 a short ton, duty paid, at tidewater. 

By the tariff act of 1922 the import duty on fluorspar was increased 
from $1.50 a long ton ($1.34 a short ton) to $5.60 a long ton ($5 a 
short ton). 

The distances that domestic fluorspar must be transported by rail 
from mines to steel plants in the Lehigh and Susquehanna Valleys of 
Pennsylvania are generally much greater than the distances that 
foreign fluorspar must be moved from the ports of entry to these 
plants; moreover, a large part of the imported material is carried as 
ballast, making possible a lower market price than would have to be 
charged if it were carried as a primary cargo. Except when ocean 
freight rates are moderate, however, foreign fluorspar is not in a 
position to enjoy much advantage in American markets, for the rea- 
son that it is not generally of so high a grade as the mechanically 
cleaned domestic product. As fluorspar is of value chiefly according 
to its purity, purchasers should compare the American fluorspar with 
foreign fluorspar not on the basis of price per ton but on metallurgical 
efficiency. 

Producers of fluorspar reported exports in 1924 amounting to 617 
short tons, valued at $14,489, or $23.48 a ton, as compared with 
1,144 tons, valued at $25,312, or $22.13 a ton, in 1923. All the 
exported fluorspar went to Canada. 



Fluorspar imported into the United States, 1923-24, by countries 
[General imports] 







1923 




1924 


Country 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Va 


lue 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


Afiica: 

British South 


10, 380 


$157, 625 


$15. 19 


10, 585 

540 

6 

213 

506 

29, 089 

232 

6,834 

1, 585 

1,177 

276 


$134, 959 

13,018 

75 

3,216 

5, 089 

296, 662 

2,782 

69, 357 

14, 804 

13, 951 

1,729 


$12. 75 


Portuguese. 


24.11 


Belgium _ 


35 

w 

90 
22, 862 


712 

5 

1,183 

202, 548 


20.34 


12.50 




15. 10 


China 


13.14 
8.86 


10.06 


England. 


10.20 


France 


11.99 


Germany 


8,580 

268 

11 


67, 595 

2,471 

180 


7.88 
9.22 
16.36 


10.15 


Italy 


9.34 


Netherlands.. 


11.85 


Scotland 


6.26 














42, 226 


432, 319 


10.24 


51,043 


555, 642 


10.89 



• Quantity not recorded. 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 71 

CONSUMPTION AND USES 

The market for the bulk of fluorspar sold in the United States 
depends on the condition of the steel industry, and the demand 
fluctuates with the rise and fall in the production of basic open- 
hearth steel. From 80 to 85 per cent of the fluorspar produced in the 
United States is used as a flux in basic open-hearth steel furnaces. 
For this purpose steel makers require that the fluorspar be in pieces 
not larger than three-cjuarters inch and that it show on analysis at 
least 80 per cent (preferably more) calcium fluoride and not more 
than 6 per cent silica. This flux is used chiefly for giving fluidity to 
slags, but it also facilitates the passage of impurities such as sulphur 
and phosphorus into the slag. 

Fluorspar is also used extensively in the manufacture of ceramic 
products, such as enameled and sanitary ware, opalescent glass, 
lacing for bricks, and vitriolite, and in the manufacture of hydro- 
fluoric acid. For ceramic products and glass manufacture a ground 
fluorspar analyzing 92 to 98 per cent calcium fluoride and from 1 to 
4 per cent silica is demanded. For the manufacture of hydro- 
fluoric acid fluorspar is sold either in lump form or pulverized and is 
usually guaranteed to contain not less than 98 per cent calcium 
fluoride and not over 1 per cent silica. In the manufacture of hydro- 
fluoric acid fluorspar is treated with sulphuric acid, and the presence 
of impurities such as calcium carbonate and silica, is very detrimental. 
Calcium carbonate neutralizes sulphuric acid, and its presence to the 
extent of 1 per cent or more causes considerable foaming on mixing. 
Silica, if present, forms hydrofluosilicic acid in such proportion that 
for every part of silica nearly four parts of fluorspar and more than 
five parts of sulphuric acid of 66° B. are wasted, because for practi- 
cally all applications of hydrofluoric acid the content of hydro- 
fluosilicic acid is useless. Thus for 1 per cent of silica, 10 per cent 
should be deducted from the value of the fluorspar, 4 and so on. 

Fluorspar also finds use as a flux in some blast-furnace operations 
and in iron and brass furnaces; in the smelting of gold, silver, and 
copper ores; in the refining of copper, antimony, and lead; in carbon 
electrodes; in the manufacture of sodium fluoride used as a wood 
preservative and insecticide; and in connection with the extraction 
of potash from feldspar and from flue dust of Portland cement works. 

Data furnished by steel manufacturers who produced 28,746,260 
long tons of basic open-hearth steel in 1924, or 94 per cent of the 
total made by all steel manufacturers, show that they consumed 
111,419 short tons of fluorspar in 1924 and had stocks on hand 
amounting to 60,207 short tons on January 1, 1925. If the few 
steel companies from whom no reports were received consumed a 
like proportion of fluorspar, the figures given indicate a total con- 
sumption in all steel plants of about 119,800 tons and total stocks of 
about 64,000 tons on January 1, 1925. Similar information indi- 
cated a consumption of about 140,000 tons (revised) for all plants 
in 1923 and stocks of about 49,900 tons on January 1, 1924. 

« Information according to J. E. Foster, General Chemical Co., published in Illinois Geol. Survey Bull. 41, 
1920. 

44839°— 27 6 



72 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Estimated consumption and stocks of fluorspar at basic open-hearth steel plants^ 

1920-1924 



Production of basic open-hearth 
steel long tons.. 

Consumption of fluorspar in 
basic open-hearth steel pro- 
duction (estimate) short tons.. 

Consumption of fluorspar per 
ton of steel made... ...pounds.. 

Stocks of fluorspar on hand at 
steel plants at end of year 
(estimate) short tons.. 



1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


31, 375, 723 


15, 082, 564 


28, 387, 171 


34, 665, 021 


« 125, 500 


• 61, 800 


« 105, 000 


» 140, 000 


8.0 


8.2 


7.4 


8.1 


66, 600 


30, 000 


65, 000 


49, 900 



1924 



30, 719, 523 
119, 800 



7.8 
64,000 



• Revised figures. 

The consumption of fluorspar per ton of steel made varies widely 
from year to year. That for 1924 ranged from a low of 3.3 pounds 
to a high of 24.9 pounds and averaged 7.8 pounds; the range in 1923 
was from 4.5 to 24.2 pounds and averaged 8.1 pounds. Comparison 
of the reports furnished by certain manufacturers who make about 
70 per cent of the total steel produced shows that the average con- 
sumption of fluorspar per ton of steel made will vary considerably 
from year to year, as illustrated by the figures in the following table: 

Average consumption of fluorspar per ton of steel, 1921-1924, in pounds 



1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


18. 644 


18. 476 


16. 176 


19. 295 


4.843 


7.113 


8.973 


7.409 


7.633 


6.552 


6.416 


6. 857 


9.578 


8.804 


7.780 


5. 365 


7.086 


5.308 


5.799 


5.383 


9.224 


7.051 


6.475 


7.652 


11. 578 


9.331 


9.880 


8.747 



CONSUMERS OF FLUORSPAR 

The consumers of fluorspar include manufacturers of iron, alu- 
minum, steel, brass, and other metals and alloys, metal products, 
chemicals, glassware, enameled ware, and Portland cement. Some 
of these users buy fluorspar direct from the producers, but most of 
it is handled through established brokers. The following list con- 
tains the names of manufacturers who purchase more than 95 per 
cent of the fluorspar used in the basic open-hearth steel industry. 
The complete list of purchasers for other uses is not known. 

Consumers of fluorspar in the basic open-hearth steel industry 

Name of manufacturer Office address 

Alan Wood Iron & Steel Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Alleghany Steel Co Brackenridge, Pa. 

American Rolling Mill Co Middletown, Ohio. 

Andrews Steel Co Newport, Ky. 

Atlantic Steel Co Atlanta, Ga. 

Bethiehem Steel Co Bethlehem, Pa. 

Bourne Fuller Co Cleveland, Ohio. 

Central Iron & Steel Co Harrisburg, Pa. 

Central Steel Co Massillon, Ohio. 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 



73 



Name of manufacturer Office address 

Colorado Fuel & Iron Co Denver, Colo. 

Cromwell Steel Co Cleveland, Ohio. 

Crucible Steel Co. of America Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Donner Steel Co Buffalo, N. Y. 

Eastern Steel Co Pottsville, Pa. 

Follansbee Brothers Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Gulf States Steel Co Birmingham, Ala. 

Inland Steel Co Chicago, 111. 

Interstate Iron & Steel Co Chicago, 111. 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Keystone Steel & Wire Co Peoria, 111. 

Kokomo Steel & Wire Co Kokomo, Ind. 

Laclede Steel Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Lukens Steel Co Coatesville, Pa. 

Mansfield Sheet & Tin Plate Co Mansfield, Ohio. 

McKinney Steel Co Cleveland, Ohio. 

National Enameling & Stamping Co Granite City, 111. 

Pacific Coast Steel Co San Francisco, Calif. 

Penn Seaboard Steel Corporation Philadelphia, Pa. 

Phoenix Steel Co Phoenixville, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Crucible Steel Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Steel Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Republic Iron & Steel Co Youngstown, Ohio. 

Scullin Steel Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Sharon Steel Hoop Co Sharon, Pa. 

Trumbull Steel Co Warren, Ohio. 

United Alloy Steel Corporation Canton, Ohio. 

United States Steel Corporation New York, N. Y. 

Weirton Steel Co Weirton, W. Va. 

West Penn Steel Co Brackenridge, Pa. 

Wheeling Steel Corporation Wheeling, W. Va. 

Wickwire Spencer Steel Corporation Buffalo, N. Y. 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co Youngstown, Ohio. 

SHIPMENTS, BY USES 



The great dependence of the fluorspar industry on the steel industry 
is shown by the fact that by far the greater part of the fluorspar 
shipped is taken by steel manufacturers. There is considerable 
variation in the average value per ton of the fluorspar shipped to 
the several industries. The high value of fluorspar for hydrofluoric 
acid and glass and enameled ware is due to the high quality demanded. 



Fluorspar shipped from mines in the United States, 1923-24) oy uses 





1923 


1924 


Use 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


Steel.. 


79.80 
3.09 
8.89 

5.76 

1.52 


96, 713 
3,748 
10, 768 

6,976 
1,S39 


$1, 762, 602 

79, 452 

389, 515 

210, 596 
38, 342 


$18. 23 
21.20 
36.17 

30.19 
20.85 


83.49 
5.71 
7.65 

2.52 
.13 


104, 349 
7,138 
9,565 

3,150 
160 


$1, 849, 073 
159, 533 
335, 243 

89, 413 
3,380 


$17. 72 


Foundry 


22.35 


Glass and enamel ware 

Hydrofluoric acid (includ- 
ing fluorspar used in 
manufacture of alumi- 
num and refining of lead) 
Miscellaneous 


35.05 

28.39 
21.13 








Exported to Canada 


99.06 
.94 


120, 044 
1,144 


2, 480, 507 
25, 312 


20.66 
22.13 


99.50 124,362 
.50 617 


2, 436, 642 
14,489 


19.59 
23.48 




100.00 


121, 188 


2,505,819 


20.68 


100.00 ; 124,979 


2,451,131 


19.61 



74 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

PRODUCTION, BY COUNTRIES 

Fluorspar produced by countries, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Australia: 
New South Wales, 


1,213 

613 

13 

10, 192 

8,997 

6,272 

2,918 

7, 339 

55, 561 

810 

(«) 

416 

169, 441 








(°) 




545 

199 

5, 025 

5,776 

7,210 

4,763 
11,989 
23, 508 

1,600 

C) 

176 
31,715 






1,894 


Victoria 








Canada _ __ 


4,085 
9,251 

13, 221 

5,493 

8,630 

33, 343 

1,395 

36 

392 

128, 453 


126 
(») 

10, 543 
(«) 

10,810 
49, 818 

3,362 

(•) 


5 


France 


( a ) 


Germany: 


(") 




(°) 




(°) 


Great Britain 


(°) 


Italy 


6,831 


Japan ... 


(°) 


Spain 


634 


United States 


109, 939 


113,378 







Figures not available. 



CRYOLITE 



Cryolite occurs in commercial quantities and is mined only in 
Greenland, at Tvigtut. Formerly two-thirds of the product was 
sold to the Pennsylvania Salt Co. and the other third went to Copen- 
hagen, but at present these relative proportions are reversed. Of 
the cryolite shipped to the United States the greater part is now 
used as a flux in the metallurgy of aluminum and for making opaque 
glass. In aluminum metallurgy in this country the mineral is 
being supplanted by artificial cryolite. 

The imports of cryolite into the United States in 1924, according 
to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, amounted to 
6,320 long tons, valued at $320,670, or $50.74 a ton, as compared 
with 6,375 long tons, valued at $319,959, or $50.19 a ton, in 1923. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

For details as to occurrence, geologic relations, mining develop- 
ments, and production, and notes on the preparation and use of 
fluorspar and cryolite the reader is referred to the following papers: 

Allen, M. A., and Butler, G. M., Fluorspar (in Arizona): Arizona Bureau of 

Mines Bull. No. 114, July 15, 1921, 19 pp. 
Atjrand, H. A., Fluorspar deposits in Colorado: Colorado Geol. Survey Bull. 

18, 1920, 94 pp. 
Bain, H. F., The fluorspar deposits of southern Illinois: U. S. Geol. Survey 

Bull. 255, 1905, 75 pp. 
Principal American fluorspar deposits: Min. Mag. (London), August, 

1905, pp. 115-119. 
Ball, S. H., The mineral resources of Greenland: Econ. Geol., vol. 17, 1922, 

pp. 17-31. 
Bernard, C. P., The cryolite mine at Ivigtut, Greenland: Min. Mag. (London), 

vol. 14, April, 1916, pp. 202-203. 
Bidtel, E., Valuation of fluorspar: Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., vol. 4, March, 

1912, pp. 201-202. 
Blayney, J. M., Jr., The mining and milling of fluorspar: Eng. and Min. Jour.„ 

vol. Ill, Jan. 29, 1921, pp. 222-225. 



FLUORSPAR AND CRYOLITE 75 

Burchard, E. F., Fluorspar and cryolite: U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources, 

1906-1918. 
Fluorspar in Colorado: Min. and Sci. Press, vol. 99, Aug. 21, 1909, pp. 

258-260. 
Fluorspar in New Mexico: Min. and Sci. Press, vol. 103, July 15, 1911, 

pp. 74-76. 
Fluorspar mining at Rosiclare, 111.: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 92, Dec. 2. 

1911, pp. 1088-1090. 
A modern fluorspar mining and milling plant: Iron Trade Rev., vol. 49, 

1911, pp. 1046-1051. 

Our mineral supplies — fluorspar: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 666, 1919, 



pp. 175-182. 
Canadian Mining Journal, Fluorite mining in Ontario: Vol. 39, June 15, 1918, 

pp. 206-207. 
Canby, H. S., The cryolite of Greenland: U. S. Geol. Survey Nineteenth Ann. 

Rept., pt. 6 (continued), 1808, pp. 615-617. 
Carruthers, R. G., Pocock, R. W., Wray, D. A., and others, Fluorspar: 

Special reports on the mineral resources of Great Britain, vol. 4, (Geol. Survey 

Mem.), London, 1916, 38 pp. 
Currier, L. W., Fluorspar deposits of Kentucky: Kentucky Geol. Survey, vol. 

13, ser. 6, 1923, 189 pp. 
Darton, N. H., and Burchard, E. F., Fluorspar near Deming, N. Mex.: U. S. 

Geol. Survey Bull. 470, 1911, pp. 533-545. 
Dams, H. W., Fluorspar and cryolite: U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources, 

1919-1924. 
Egglestone, W. M., The occurrence and commercial uses of fluorspar: Inst. 

Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 35, pt. 2, London, 1908, pp. 236-268. 
Emmons, W. H., and Larsen, E. S., The hot springs and mineral deposits of 

Wagon Wheel Gap, Colo.: Econ. Geol., vol. 8, No. 3, 1913, pp. 235-246. 
Engineer (London), Fluorspar: Aug. 21, 1908, pp. 185, 187. 
Fohs, F. J., Fluorspar deposits of Kentucky, with notes on production, mining, 

and technology of the mineral: Kentucky Geol. Survey Bull. 9, 1907. 
Kentucky fluorspar and its value to the iron and steel industries: Trans., 

Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 40, 1909, p. 261. 

The fluorspar, lead, and zinc deposits of western Kentucky: Econ. Geol. 



vol. 5, June, 1910, pp. 377-386. 
Goldmerstein, L., Prolonging the life of the Bessemer process: Iron Age, vol. 

93, 1914, pp. 250-251. Additions of manganese sesquifluoride permit the use of 

lower-grade pig iron in the converter. 
■ The fluorine process in the open-hearth: Iron Age, vol. 93, 1914, pp. 

724-725. Note on use of iron fluorides. 
Gross, John, Separation of sphalerite, silica and calcite from fluorspar: Reports 

of Investigations, Bureau of Mines, Serial No. 2264, 1921, 3 pp. 
Halland, A. S., Cryolite and its industrial applications: Jour. Ind. and Eng. 

Chem., vol. 3, February, 1911, pp. 63-66. 
Heikes, V. C, A fluorspar deposit in Utah: U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources, 

1921, pp. 48-49. 
Hibbs, J. G., Boulder County (Colorado) fluorspar: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 

109, Feb. 21, 1920, pp. 494-495. 
Hunt, G. M., Will sodium fluoride come into use for preserving wood: Chem. and 

Met. Eng., vol. 23, Dec. 8, 1920, pp. 1123-1124. 
Hutchinson, R. S., The Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar Mining Co.: Mine and 

Quarry, May, 1911, pp. 505-507. 
Iron Age, Fluorspar and basic slags: Vol. 95, p. 397, 1915. 
Jones, G. H., Fluorspar and its uses: Am. Inst. Min. and Met. Engrs., Oct. 27, 

1922. 
Keeney, R. M., Fluorspar in electric smelting of iron ore: Min. and Sci. Press, 

vol. 109, Aug. 29, 1914, p. 335. 
Ladoo, R. B., Fluorspar mining in the Western States: Reports of Investigations, 

Bureau of Mines, Serial 2480, May, 1923, 35 pp. 
Lang, H., Fluorite in smelting: Min. and Sci. Press, vol. 108, 1914, p. 492. 
Luedeking, C. C, History and present methods of fluorspar mining in Illinois: 

Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., vol. 8, June, 1916, pp. 554-555. 



76 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1921 PART II 

Lunt, H. F., A fluorspar mine in Colorado: Min. and Sci. Press, vol. Ill, Dec. 18, 

1915, p. 925. 
Miller, A. M., The lead and zinc bearing rocks of central Kentucky: Kentucky 

Geol. Survey Bull. 2, 1905, 35 pp. 
Mining Magazine (London), Production of fluorspar in Great Britain: Vol. 14, 

May, 1916, pp. 283-284. 
Pogue, J. E., Optical fluorite in southern Illinois: Illinois Geol. Survey Bull. 38 

(extract), 1918, pp. 1-8. 
Reed, A. H., Marketing of fluorspar: Eng. and Min. Jour. -Press, March 22, 

1924, vol. 117, pp. 489-492. 
Teesdale, C. H., Use of fluorides in wood preservation: Wood Preserving, vol. 

3, No. 4; vol. 4, No. 1 (reprint, 9 pp.). 
Ulrich, E. 0., and Smith, W. S. T., The lead, zinc, and fluorspar deposits of 

western Kentucky: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 36, 1905, 218 pp. 
Watson, T. L., Lead and zinc deposits of Virginia: Virginia Geol. Survey Bull. 

1, 1905, p. 42. 
Weller, Stuart, and others, Geology of Hardin County: Illinois Geol. Survey 

Bull. 41, 1920, 416 pp. 
Wilson, M. E., The fluorspar deposits of Madoc District, Ontario: Canada 

Department of Mines, Geological Survey, Summary Report, 1920, part D, 

1921, pp. 41D-78D. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 



By George Rogers Mansfield 



INTRODUCTION 

The phosphate-rock mining industry, which in 1923 showed 
notable advance over the two preceding years, suffered a moderate 
decline in 1924; thus hopes for general improvement in the phos- 
phate business, which seemed bright at the beginning of the year, 
were not realized. Production in both Florida and Tennessee as a 
whole declined, but Tennessee blue rock and the Western States 
made noteworthy gains. 

Export business fell off slightly, the loss being chiefly in Florida 
hard rock, but there was a marked increase in exports of Florida 
land pebble and other phosphates. 

Efforts are being continued to induce farmers throughout the 
country to produce larger and better crops per acre rather than to 
enlarge their acreage. It seems certain, therefore, that the fertilizer 
industry and the phosphate-rock industry on which it depends must 
advance consistently. 

PHOSPHATE ROCK SOLD 

In 1924, the sales of phosphate rock in the United States amounted 
to 2,867,789 long tons, a decrease of 138,917 tons, or 5 per cent, from 
1923, but an increase over every other year since 1913, except 1920. 
The value of the rock sold decreased $1,323,966, or 11 per cent. The 
quantity sold in 1924 was 22,486 tons, or 0.8 per cent, greater than 
the quantity mined, the excess being supplied by stocks held over 
from the preceding year. 

Phosphate rock, mined in the United States, sold in 1918-1934 



Year 


Long tons 


Value 


Year 


Long tons 


Value 


1918.. . 


2, 490, 760 
2, 271, 983 
4, 103, 982 
2, 064, 025 


$8, 214, 463 

11, 591, 268 
25, 079, 572 

12, 270, 070 


1922 


2, 417, 883 

3, 006, 706 
2, 867, 789 


$10, 482, 846 


1919 


1923 


11, 576, 049 


1920 


1924... 


10, 252, 083 


1921 











In this report the unit of quantity used in referring to phosphate 
rock is the long ton (2,240 pounds), except as otherwise specified. 
The value of domestic material means the selling value f. o. b. mines, 
so far as that can be determined from the returns submitted by the 

1 The statistical data in the chapter, except those on imports and exports and production in foreign 
countries, were prepared by Miss K. W. Cottrell, the tables of imports and exports were compiled by 
J. A. Dorsey. and the table on foreign production by Miss L. M. Jones, all of the Bureau of Mines. This 
work was essentially completed under the auspices of the United States Geological Survey. Miss Leona 
Boardmanof the Survey assisted in the preparation of parts of the manuscript, especially the lists of patents 
and the bibliography. 

77 



78 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



respective companies. Some of the companies, however, ship their 
rock to drying plants before selling and others sell the rock f. o. b. 
foreign ports; therefore the figures given by these companies prob- 
ably include an undetermined charge for transportation and are 
somewhat higher than the value at the mine. 

The sales of raw phosphate for direct application to the soil reached 
a maximum in 1919, as shown below. In 1921 there was a sharp 
break in this business, and since that year sales have been relatively 
low. In 1924 the quantity thus sold increased 36 per cent over 
that for 1923 but was only 18 per cent of the sales for 1919. The 
rock sold in 1924 came from six producers. Tennessee supplied 98 
per cent of this material, but small quantities came from Florida 
and Wyoming. 

Raw phosphate rock sold for direct application to the soil, 1918—1924, in long tons 



1918 45, 294 

1919 79, 189 

1920 72, 801 

1921 13, 503 



1922 16, 029 

1928 10, 548 

1924 14, 320 



The phosphate rock sold to blast furnaces in 1924 was 36,636 tons. 
This quantity, furnished by 9 companies in Tennessee, 2 in Idaho, 
and 1 in Florida, was an increase of 10,105 tons, or 38 per cent. 
The quantity sold for the manufacture of phosphorus was 107,901 
tons, a decrease of 106,790 tons, or 50 per cent. The quantity of 
phosphate rock sold as an ingredient for stock food was 2,938 tons, 
produced by 4 companies in Tennessee (see p. 95).. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK MINED 

The quantity of rock mined in any year is not the same as the 
quantity sold, for the stock at the mines at the end of each year is 
variable. The quantity of rock mined in 1924 was 2,845,303 long 
tons, a decrease of 98,263 tons, or 3 per cent. There were decreases 
of 2 per cent in Florida and 12 per cent in Tennessee and Kentucky, 
but an increase of 18 per cent in the Western States. 

Phosphate rock mined in the United States, 1923-24, by States, in long 



State 


1923 


1924 


Percentage 

of increase 

or decrease 

in 1924 


Florida . 


2, 421, 571 

487, 420 

34, 575 


2, 373, 530 

431, 038 

40, 735 


-2 




-12 




+18 








2, 943, 566 


2, 845, 303 


-3 



STOCKS 



Precise measurement of stocks of phosphate rock in the hands of 
producers is difficult. The estimates of stocks on December 31, 1923, 
reported by producers amounted to 738,000 tons. By adding to 
this the quantity mined during 1924 and subtracting from the sum 
the sales during the year an estimate of 716,000 tons is obtained. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 



79 



PRODUCTION BY STATES 

In 1924 both the quantity and value of the phosphate rock sold in 
Florida, Tennessee, and Kentucky decreased, but sales in the Western 
States increased in both quantity and value. There was a slight 
general decline in average values. 

Phosphate rock, mined in the United States, sold in 1923-24, by States 



State 


1923 


1924 


Long tons 


Value 


Long tons 


Value 


Florida: 


199, 516 
2, 348, 137 


$1, 071, 675 
7, 987, 752 


143, 115 
2, 289, 466 


$629, 579 
7, 387, 897 










2, 547, 653 


9, 059, 427 


2, 432, 581 


8, 017, 476 


Tennessee: 


» 427, 799 
919 


2, 335, 262 
5,647 


<» 375, 260 
21, 378 


1, 958, 272 
81, 766 










<» 428, 718 


2, 340, 909 


« 396, 638 


2, 040, 038 


Western States b -. 


30, 335 


175, 713 


38, 570 


194, 569 








3, 006, 706 


11, 576, 049 


2, 867, 789 


10, 252, 083 





° Includes brown rock from Kentucky. 

b 1923, Idaho and Wyoming; 1924, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. 

FLORIDA 



Florida, the leading State in the production of phosphate rock, 
sold 85 per cent of all the phosphate rock sold in the United States 
in 1924. The quantity decreased 5 per cent and the value 12 per 
cent. 

In the hard-rock field, which is concerned mainly with export 
trade, the quantity sold decreased 28 per cent and the value 41 
per cent. 

Land pebble rock constituted 94 per cent of the entire Florida 
output. Conditions in the pebble field were much better than in 
the hard-rock field, but still were below normal. The quantity of 
pebble rock sold in 1924 decreased 2 per cent and the value 8 per cent. 

Florida phosphate rock sold in 1916-1924 





Hard rock 


Soft rock 


Year 


Long tons 


Value at 


mines 


Long tons 


Value at mines 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1916. 


° 47, 087 
« 18, 608 
62, 052 
285, 467 
400, 249 
175, 774 
188, 084 
199, 516 
143, 115 


« $295, 755 
* 159, 366 

377, 075 
2, 452, 563 
4, 525, 191 
1, 806, 671 
1, 308, 201 
1, 071. 675 

629, 579 


$5.26 
5.93 
6.08 
8.59 
11.31 
10.28 
6.96 
5.37 
4.40 


(») 
(°) 

8,331 
14. 498 
13, 953 

4,419 
446 


(°) 
(") 
$147, 103 
196,318 
190, 551 
20, 153 
3, 500 


$9.76 


1917_-. 


12.40 


1918 


17.66 


1919 


13.54 


1920 


13.66 


1921 


4.56 


1922 


7.85 


1923 




1924 

















° Soft rock included with hard rock. 



80 



MINEEAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Florida phosphate rock sold in 1916-1924 — Continued 





Land pebble 


Total 


Year 


Long tons 


Value at 


mines 


Long tons 


Value at 


mines 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1916 


1, 468, 758 
2, 003, 991 
1, 996, 847 

1, 360, 235 

2, 955, 182 

1, 599, 835 
1, 870, 063 

2, 348, 137 
2, 289, 466 


$3, 874, 410 
5, 305, 127 
5, 565, 928 
5, 149, 048 

14, 748, 620 
8, 604, 818 
7, 035, 821 
7, 987, 752 
7, 387, 897 


$2.64 
2.65 
2.79 
3.79 
4.99 
5.38 
3.76 
3.40 
3.23 


1, 515, 845 

2, 022, 599 

2, 067, 230 
1, 660, 200 

3, 369, 384 

1. 780, 028 

2, 058, 593 
2, 547, 653 
2, 432, 581 


$4, 170, 165 

5, 464, 493 

6, 090, 106 

7, 797, 929 
19, 464, 362 
10, 431, 642 

8, 347, 522 

9, 059, 427 
8, 017, 476 


$2.75 


1917 


2.70 


1918. 


2.95 


1919 


4.70 


1920 


5.78 


1921 


5.86 


1922 


4.05 


1923 


3.56 


1924 


3.30 







Prices of pebble rock rise rapidly with increase in content of 
tricalcium phosphate (known in the trade as "B. P. L." — that is, 
bone phosphate of lime) , as shown in the following table : 

Prices of pebble phosphate per long ton, f. o. b. Florida ° 



76 to 77 per cent $5. 50 

75 per cent 5.25 

74 to 75 per cent 5.00 

° Eng. and Min. Jour.-Press, Jan. 3, 1925, p. 36. 



70 per cent $3. 30 

68 per cent 3. 00 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

No mining or sales of phosphate rock were reported from South 
Carolina in 1923 and 1924. The sales for several preceding years 
had decreased from 60,823 tons in 1919 to 44,141 tons in 1920 and 
1,500 tons in 1922, no sales being reported in 1921. The average 
values of the rock at the mines for the three years specified were 
$5.08, $8.32, and $5.50, respectively. 

TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY 

The total amount of phosphate rock shipped from Tennessee and 
Kentucky in 1924 decreased 7 per cent; the value decreased 13 per 
cent. The figures for Kentucky are not shown separately because 
there was but one operator. The sales of blue rock were more than 
23 times the quantity and more than 14 times the value of those in 
1923, but the average value decreased to $3.82, or 38 per cent. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 

Tennessee phosphate rock sold in 1916- 



81 





Brown rock a 


Blue rock 


Total » 


Year 


Long 
tons 


Value at mines 


Long 
tons 


Value at mines 


Long 
tons 


Value at mines 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1916 


364, 108 
447, 203 
»374, 535 
475, 475 
556, 177 
252, 543 
344, 231 
427, 799 
375, 260 


$1, 357, 888 
1, 920, 533 

*1, 917, 546 
3, 123, 565 
4, 425, 761 

1, 666, 358 

2, 055, 579 
2, 335, 262 
1, 958, 272 


$3. 73 
4.29 
5.12 
6.57 
7.96 
6.60 
5.97 
5.46 
5.22 


47. 682 
65, 904 

( b ) 
58, 550 
78, 671 
25, 163 
9,078 
919 
21, 378 


$152, 465 
205, 820 

(") 

290,951 

518, 234 

146, 198 

51, 803 

5,647 

81, 766 


$3.20 
3.12 

4.97 
6.59 
5.81 
5.71 
6.14 
3.82 


411,790 
513, 107 
374, 535 
534, 025 
634, 848 
277, 706 
353, 309 
428, 718 
390, 638 


$1, 510, 353 
2, 126, 353 
1,917,546 
3, 414, 516 
4, 943, 995 
1, 812, 556 
2, 107, 382 
2, 340, 909 
2, 040, 038 


$3.67 


1917 

1918. . 


4.14 
5.12 


1919. - 


6.39 


1920 ... 


7.79 


1921. ... 


6.53 


1922- 


5.96 


1923- _ 


5.46 


1924 


5.14 







° Small quantity of brown rock from Kentucky included with Tennessee. 
b Blue rock is included with brown rock. 



WESTERN STATES 



The quantity and value of the phosphate rock sold in the Western 
States in 1924 were greater than in any previous year except 1920. 
Although there were no such phenomenal increases as those recorded 
in 1923, the quantity increased 27 per cent and the value 11 per cent. 
The average value decreased 75 cents, or 13 per cent. There were 
three producers in Idaho, one in Montana, and one in Wyoming. 

Western States phosphate rock sold in 1916-1924 



Year 


Long 
tons 


Value at mines 


Year 


Long 
tons 


Value at mines 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1916.... 


1,703 

15, 096 
11, 955 
16, 935 
55, 609 


$5, 350 
41, 756 
42, 161 
69, 855 
304, 006 


$3.14 
2.77 
3.53 
4.12 
5.47 


1921.. 


6,291 
4,481 
30, 335 
38, 570 


$25, 872 

19, 692 

175, 713 

194, 569 


$4.11 


1917 


1922 


4.39 


1918 

1919.. 


1923 

1924... 


5.79 
5.04 


1920 











ACID PHOSPHATE PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES 

According to information from the Bureau of the Census 1,666,303 
short tons of acid phosphate, containing 28,027,002 units (20 pounds) 
of available phosphoric acid, was produced during the second half of 
1924, as compared with 1,584,195 short tons, containing 26,547,810 
units, during the first half of the year, totaling 3,250,498 tons and 
54,574,812 units for the year, as compared with 3,367,220 tons and 
55,895,856 units in 1923, a decrease of 3 per cent in tonnage and of 
2 per cent in content. 

The data for the first half of 1924 are based on the reports of 171 
establishments, of which 111 are located in the southern district, 



82 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



distributed by States as follows : Alabama, 15; Arkansas, 1; Florida, 
6; Georgia, 37; Louisiana, 4; Mississippi, 6; North Carolina, 16; 
South Carolina, 17; Tennessee, 8; Texas, 1. The remaining 60 es- 
tablishments are located in the northern and western districts, dis- 
tributed by States as follows: California, 2; Illinois, 5; Indiana, 5; 
Maryland, 10; Massachusetts, 3; Michigan, 1; New Jersey, 4; New 
York, 1; Ohio, 15; Pennsylvania, 3; Virginia, 11. The manufacture 
of sulphuric acid was reported to the Bureau of the Census by 60 
establishments in the southern district and 28 in the northern and 
and western districts. 

The statistics for the last half of 1924 are based upon the reports 
of 169 establishments, of which 112 are located in the southern dis- 
trict and 57 in the northern and western districts. For this period 
the number of establishments reporting in Georgia was 40 ; Tennessee, 
6; Maryland, 9; Massachusetts, 2; and Virginia, 10. For the other 
States the number reporting for the second half was the same as that 
reporting for the first half. The manufacture of sulphuric acid was 
reported by 43 establishments in the southern district and by 23 in 
the northern and western districts. 

IMPORTS OF PHOSPHATIC FERTILIZERS 

The phosphatic fertilizers imported in 1924 included bone dust or 
animal carbon, bone ash, guano, crude phosphates, and basic slag. 
Imports of the bone-dust group, however, were less than half those of 
the preceding year both in tonnage and value. Imports of guano 
were reduced 12 per cent in quantity and 32 per cent in value. The 
quantity of crude phosphates imported in 1924 was more than double 
that of 1923, and its value was nearly twice as great. Imports of slag 
also increased greatly, being nearly double in quantity and 40 per cent 
greater in value, as compared with 1923. Importations of phosphatic 
materials for the last five years are shown in the following table : 

Phosphatic fertilizers imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924 





1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Fertilizer 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Apatite 


142 

17, 793 

53, 790 

63 


$4,904 

908, 130 

4,583,313 

2,090 


















Bone dust or animal 
carbon, and bone 
ash, fit only for fer- 
tilizing. . .-_ . 


21, 516 
1,751 
3,535 


$799, 591 
89, 527 
43, 960 


32, 274 
13, 007 
5,890 

324 


$860, 683 

514, 325 

95, 846 

9,762 


54, 143 

28, 599 

6,725 

361 


$1, 691, 330 

1, 104, 003 

92, 263 

6, 843 


22, 242 
25, 241 
16, 098 

703 


$706, 727 


Guano . . 


754, 234 


Phosphates, crude 

Slag, basic, ground or 
unground 


181, 515 
9,598 













EXPORTS OF PHOSPHATE ROCK 

The phosphate rock exported from the United States in 1924 
decreased 1 per cent in quantity and 11 per cent in value, as compared 
with corresponding figures for 1923. The quantity was 23 per cent 
less than that for 1920 and 40 per cent less than the pre-war level 
(1,366,508 tons in 1913) . The following table shows exports of phos- 
phate rock in the last five years : 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 83 

Phosphate rock exported from the United States, 1920-1924 





Ground or unground, not acidulated 


Other 


Total 


Year 


High-grade rock 


Land pebble 


Long tons 


Value 


Long tons 


Value 




Long tons 


Value 


Long tons 


Value 


1920 


344, 836 
182, 594 
202, 300 
194, 339 
150, 746 


$4, 496, 457 
2, 592, 541 
2, 548, 587 
2, 477, 501 
1, 814, 194 


693, 355 
544, 425 
512, 777 
630, 565 
656, 005 


$5, 593, 814 
4, 627, 875 
3,269,179 
3, 273, 0C6 
3, 209, 965 


31, 461 
6, 293 
4,217 
2,647 

12, 022 


$479, 904 
99, 721 
40, 401 
21, 664 
96, 673 


1, 069, 712 
733, 312 
719, 294 
827, 551 
818, 773 


$10, 570, 175 


1921 


7, 320, 137 


1922 


5, 858, 167 


1923 


5, 772, 171 


1924 


5,120,832 











The destination of these exports is given in the following table, 
which shows that in 1924 Germany was the principal importer of high- 
grade rock and the Netherlands second. Germany's imports, how- 
ever, were 32 per cent less than in 1923 and only 0.15 per cent greater 
than in 1921, the year of smallest importations in the last 5-year 
period. Belgium, which held second place in 1923, decreased 42 
per cent, whereas the Netherlands increased more than 200 per cent. 
Poland and Danzig reduced their importations of high-grade rock 
nearly half, but Sweden, which was not an importer in 1923, took 
6,731 tons. 

Germany was also the principal importer of land pebble rock in 
1924, followed by Spain, the Netherlands, and Italy in the order 
named. British South Africa and Norway joined the list of countries 
importing pebble rock, and Argentina, Finland, Greenland, and 
Nicaragua dropped out. Cuba, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, 
Poland and Danzig, Spain, and Sweden all made considerable 
increases in their importations. The most noteworthy were Italy 
and Japan, with 179 and 221 per cent, respectively, but the largest 
proportionate increase was in Poland and Danzig — 341 per cent. 
On the other hand, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, France, 
Germany, and Ireland all decreased their importations ; England and 
France, with 39 and 72 per cent, respectively, being particularly 
noteworthy, but Ireland had the greatest proportionate decrease — 85 
per cent. 

Small amounts of phosphate rock of other types were exported to 
several countries, Canada taking the largest quantity. 



84 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



Phosphate rock, ground or unground, not acidulated, exported from the United 

States, 1920-1924. 

High-grade rock 





1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Country 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Long 
tons 


Value 


Belgium _. 


55, 645 
2,226 

58,211 
8,306 


$690, 705 

39, 442 

755, 655 


41, 513 
6,559 


$622, 695 
89, 262 


32, 200 
3,892 
4,400 


$483, 000 
47, 045 
66, 000 


33, 650 


$484, 950 


19,500 


$292, 500 


Canada 


Denmark 










England 


124, 587 


6,042 


78, 166 


3,543 


28,344 






Finland 


5,650 
113, 118 


74, 759 
1, 335, 372 




Germany 


104, 433 

4,600 

4,292 

19, 522 

30, 978 


1, 407, 445 

69, 000 

35, 076 

266, 217 

428, 865 


91, 880 


1, 293, 893 


134, 586 


1, 700, 187 


92, 021 


1, 031, 819 


Ireland... 




Japan 


















Netherlands. 


25, 100 
2,500 
10, 000 


328, 900 
38, 500 
141, 125 


19, 991 
3,200 
16, 349 


258, 021 
48, 000 
183, 890 


8,140 


77, 720 


26, 494 


355, 195 


Norway 






11, 420 
3,000 


171, 300 
15, 000 


6,000 


90, 000 


Spain 


24, 480 
32, 203 


312, 845 
366, 620 


Sweden 






3,500 


52, 500 


6,731 


44, 680 
















344, 896 


4, 496, 457 


182, 594 


2, 592, 541 


202, 300 


2, 548, 587 


194, 339 


2, 477, 501 


150, 746 


1, 814, 194 



Land pebble 

















1,700 
61, 434 


$7, 650 
336, 874 






Belgium 


26, 788 


$216, 934 


45, 160 


$389, 695 


53, 793 
3,000 


$309, 183 
17, 250 


38, 469 
6,620 


$196, 636 


British South Africa. 


34, 755 


British West Indies - 


3,675 

3,854 

34, 208 

18, 406 

154,975 


25, 100 

30, 494 

262, 204 

192, 648 

1, 277, 278 














146 

7,055 

9,062 

52, 924 


2,676 

43. 101 

103, 791 

422, 495 


9,895 
9,017 
54, 605 
36, 983 


75, 028 

26, 073 

429, 984 

270, 300 


10, 031 
23, 433 
57, 425 
55, 093 

2,000 
31, 466 
133, 948 

3,685 


54, 468 

83, 022 
330, 323 
299, 757 

14, 000 
180, 509 
701, 883 

16, 597 


7,019 
33, 672 
38, 072 
33, 805 


40, 551 


Cuba.. 


156, 455 




171, 176 


England .. 


134, 774 


Finland. .... 




France... 






20, 380 
79, 004 


124, 323 
884, 135 


27, 149 
51, 578 


185, 121 
283, 918 


8,798 
129, 213 


43, 641 


Germany 


9, 129 


96, 855 


628, 143 


Greenland 




Honduras. . 






3, 596 
36, 713 

7,352 
20, 743 
69, 416 


16, 182 
289, 779 

73, 520 
113, 799 
558,912 










Ireland- 


61, 097 


395, 797 


18, 716 

"8," 201 
86, 218 


141, 504 

"""31,"804 
498, 516 


20, 612 

20, 915 

14, 225 

67, 702 

3,029 


94, 303 
96, 540 
50, 081 
337,371 
15, 931 


3,000 
58, 419 
45, 733 
97, 368 


9,000 


Italy 


290, 391 


Japan.. 


42, 516 
70, 477 


322, 428 
505, 612 


161,423 


Netherlands .. 


472, 666 


Nicaragua 




Norway. .. 


2, 500 


22, 500 










2,000 
13, 366 


9,000 


Poland and Danzig 










3,028 


20, 742 


70, 420 


Portugal . 


8,305 
77, 487 
139, 066 
40, 872 


55, 381 

574, 305 

1, 226, 670 

389, 608 


24, 545 
17, 438 
133, 462 
17, 429 


260, 315 

138, 085 

1, 006, 634 

200, 433 








Scotland 


13, 715 
122, 443 
17, 464 


104, 014 
788, 027 
108, 457 


17, 904 
92, 326 
10,609 


77, 46S 

492, 936 

62, 551 


18, 282 
110, 146 
12, 023 


77, 393 


Spain.. 


648, 779 


Sweden 


64, 762 








693, 355 


5, 593, 814 


544, 425 


4, 627, 875 


512, 777 


3, 269, 179 


630, 565 


3, 273, 006 


656, 005 


3, 209, 965 



AH other phosphate rock 



Canada 


12, 955 
8,134 
3,300 


$187, 780 
160, 824 
51, 150 


4,931 

1,197 


$72, 023 
23, 635 


4,196 


$38, 281 


1,600 


$17, 137 


10, 941 
81 


$80, 246 


Cuba 


1,427 


Germany 










Honduras 


22 


250 














Ireland... 


2,500 
1,382 


14, 250 
12, 737 


19 
2 


2,100 
20 










Japan.. 














Mexico 


110 
23 


2,975 
463 










Newfoundland and 
Labrador 


37 


316 






29 


228 






Norwa v 






1,000 


15, 000 


Oceania: 

Australia... 


3 
1 


30 
10 
















New Zealand 


















Other British . 


1 
9 


17 
358 














Other British West 
Indies 


149 
3,000 


3,307 

49, 500 






12 


275 






Spain ,. 








Sweden 










1,006 


4,024 


























31,461 


479, 904 


6,293 


99, 721 


4,217 


40, 401 


2,647 


21, 664 


12, 022 


96, 673 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 



85 



The following table shows the relation between the total quantity 
of phosphate rock sold and the quantity exported during the last 
five years: 

Phosphate rock sold in and exported from the United States, 1920-1924 



Year 


Sold (long 
tons) 


Exported 
(long tons) 


Proportion 
of exports 
to domestic 
sales (per 
cent) 


1920 


4, 103, 982 
2, 064, 025 

2, 417, 883 

3, 006, 706 
2, 867, 789 


1, 069, 712 
733, 312 
719, 294 
827, 551 
818, 773 


26 


1921.. 


36 


1922 _ 


30 


1923 


28 


1924- _ 


29 







The following figures show, for a period of 35 years, the growth 
and decline of Florida's export phosphate trade and the compara- 
tive importance of hard rock and land pebble in this trade. It is 
noteworthy that in 1923 and 1924 exports of land pebble advanced 
while those of hard rock declined. 



Florida phosphate rock exported, 1890-1924, in long tons' 1 



Year 


Hard rock 


Land 
pebble 


Year 


Hard rock 


Land 
pebble 


1890 _ 


11,206 
71, 682 
180,013 
220, 216 
304, 079 
306, 046 
322, 871 
350, 277 
360, 505 
444, 675 
345, 577 
419, 349 

489, 520 
462, 903 

490, 366 
572,311 
561, 040 
591,719 




1908. _ 


631,001 

478,820 

461, 353 

449, 798 

470, 354 

476, 898 

287, 292 

42. 283 

31,911 

9,341 

62, 071 

241, 151 

344, 254 

174, 284 

198, 375 

191, 222 

145, 093 


470, 270 


1891 




1909 


509, 341 
606, 110 


1892 




1910 


1893 _ 




1911 


759, 510 
732, 651 

887, 398 


1894 _ . 




1912 


1895. 


1913_ . 


1896 




1914 


663, 839 


1897- 




1915 

1916 - 


207, 551 


1898 ._ 




208, 288 


1899- .-. 




1917_._ 


134, 943 


1900 

1901 _ 


86, 886 
113,777 
144, 597 
152, 961 
219, 520 
238, 668 
214, 727 
296, 918 


1918 

1919. 


64, 732 
130, 974 
685, 766 


1902 


1920_-- 


1903 


1921 


568, 415 


1904 . 


1922- _ 


519, 954 
645, 036 


1905 - 


1923.-. 


1906 


1924 


660, 714 


1907-. 











"American Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 3, Feb. 7, 1925, pp. 32-33. 

EXPORTS OF SUPERPHOSPHATES AND OTHER FERTILI- 
ZER MATERIALS 

The export business in superphosphates (acid phosphates) and 
prepared fertilizer mixtures showed some increase, the figures for 
the latter being about double those for 1923. Nitrogenous and 
other fertilizers showed a marked decrease. The following table 
shows fertilizer exports in 1913 and 1915 to 1924. Separate records 
for superphosphates have been kept since 1917. Exports of super- 
phosphates were greater in 1924 than in any years but 1919 and 1920. 



86 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 













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PHOSPHATE ROCK 87 

PHOSPHATE RESERVES OF THE UNITED STATES 

The Government now has two extensive phosphate reserves, one 
in Florida and the other in the Western States. 

FLORIDA 

The first withdrawal of public land in Florida, which included 
2,400 acres, was made on July 2, 1910. Further withdrawals, with 
some subsequent restorations, have since been made, so that the total 
lands withdrawn as of May 31, 1925, comprise 84,362 acres, in parcels 
ranging in size from a fractional subdivision of less than 40 acres to 
as much as 400 acres and distributed in 295 townships in 31 counties, 
extending from Apalachicola River at the northwest as far south as 
Fort Myers. The belt of country thus included ranges from 10 to 
nearly 100 miles in width. Only 120 acres in Florida has thus far 
been actually classified as phosphate land. 

WESTERN STATES 

Since December 9, 1908, the Government has maintained a phos- 
phate reserve in the Western States. The great bulk of the phos- 
phate-bearing area in the States named is on public land, though 
some has passed into private ownership. The acreage of the reserve 
has changed from time to time in accordance with the results of 
geological examinations of the withdrawn lands, but the total has 
remained large. 

Outstanding withdrawn phosphate lands, Western States, May 31, 1925 

Acres 

Idaho 3%, 612 

Montana 279, 944 

Utah 301,945 

Wyoming 992, 969 

1, 971, 470 

Of this land, areas amounting to 160 acres in Utah, 268,299 acres 
in Idaho, 25,293 acres in Wyoming, and 3,833 acres in Montana, 
297,585 acres in all, have been examined in detail and formally clas- 
sified as phosphate land. The total classified and withdrawn lands 
thus amount to 2,269,055 acres, of which only about 10 per cent are 
classified. Not all this territory contains high-grade rock, but the 
estimates given below, which are conservative and incomplete, show 
that a vast tonnage of high-grade rock may be expected. 

Under the act of July 17, 1914, agricultural entries may be made 
upon withdrawn phosphate lands, but the mineral rights are reserved 
to the United States. 

REVISED ESTIMATES OF TONNAGE 

Figures for reserves of phosphate in the Eastern States at the end 
of 1915, prepared by Phalen, 2 have been the basis for later estimates 
made for these States in reports of the United States Geological 
Survey. In the estimates for Florida, Phalen allowed 10,000,000 tons 

2 Phalen, W. C, "The conservation of phosphate rock in the U. S."; Proc. 2d Pan Amer. Sci. Cong, 
vol. 8, 1917, pp. 772-806. 

44839°— 27 7 



88 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



for hard rock, 190,000,000 for land pebble, and 27,000,000 for low- 
grade material in the wash heaps, a total of 227,000,000 tons for the 
entire State. As reduced by the quantity mined since that date, 
this estimate in round numbers would be 207,000,000 tons. In the 
Mineral Kesources report, " Phosphate in 1923," figures obtained by 
G. W. Holland of the Survey showed that the pebble field alone con- 
tains a minimum of more than 288,000,000 long tons of minable 
phosphate. These figures were based on more specific data than 
those available to Mr. Phalen. Unfortunately, no corresponding 
figures are to be had for the hard-rock field. Assuming, therefore, 
Mr. Phalen's hard-rock figure and making deductions for the quantity 
of rock mined in each field at the end of 1924, the revised figure for 
Florida becomes approximately 294,000,000 tons. 

No figures are available for Arkansas, Kentucky, South Carolina, 
and Tennessee more recent than those published in the 1922 report, 
which were based on Mr. Phalen's estimates. Of these only Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky need modification to allow for the quantity of 
rock mined in 1923 and 1924. Mr. Phalen's estimate for Tennessee 
was 88,000,000 tons, of which 84,000,000 tons was for blue rock. 
Making the suggested reduction the estimate for the total at the end 
of 1924 becomes about 84,000,000 tons. 

In connection with the revision and extension of phosphate classi- 
fication in the western field, the tonnage estimates for the four 
States comprising that field are subject to periodic revision. These 
estimates relate chiefly to the main bed, and thus exclude some 
workable high-grade rock and much lower-grade material that may 
eventually become workable. Numerous areas of considerable size 
that may contain phosphate deposits at workable depths are also 
excluded, because the phosphate rock is covered by later deposits that 
conceal the structure of the underlying beds, so that any estimate of the 
phosphate content would be unreliable. No estimate is available for 
the large areas of withdrawn land not yet examined. It is believed, 
therefore, that the estimates here given for the Western States are 
low, and that when the withdrawn lands have been fully explored 
the total may be considerably increased. 

Estimate of phosphate rock in the United States available December 31, 1924, in 

long tons 



Field 


Estimated 
quantity 
available 


Field 


Estimated 
quantity 
available 


Eastern field: 


20, 000, 000 

294, 000, 000 

878, 000 

8, 800, 000 

84, 000, 000 


Western field: 
Idaho 


5, 087, 851, 000 


Florida . . . 


Montana . . 


391, 323, 000 




Utah 


326, 745, 000 






115, 742, 000 










5, 921, 661, 000 




407, 678, 000 




6, 329, 339, 000 









GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES IN PHOSPHATE 

Investigations relating to phosphate were undertaken in 1924 by 
three Government bureaus — the Geological Survey, the Bureau of 
Soils, and the Bureau of Standards. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 89 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

In 1924 the Geological Survey investigated phosphate deposits in 
five States — Florida, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. 

Florida. — In Mineral Resources for 1923, Part II, page 250, the 
general status of Government phosphate lands in Florida was de- 
scribed and the necessity for prospecting certain tracts was indicated. 
In the early months of 1924 the Geological Survey, in cooperation 
with the General Land Office, undertook the examination and 
classification of ten 40-acre tracts. The General Land Office, 
through Keith K. Kimmel, transit man, identified and located the 
lands, and a prospecting party under the direction of J. T. Pardee, 
geologist, obtained the necessary classification data. J. H. Wingate, 
of Plant City, was the contracting prospector. The prospecting 
methods employed were usually those current in the Florida phos- 
phate fields. The tracts examined were distributed in six townships, 
as follows: T. 3 N., R. 2 E.; T. 2 N., R. 6 E.; T. 14 S., R. 23 E.; 
T. 28 S., R. 22 E.; T. 29 S., R. 23 E.; and T. 30 S., R. 24 E. 

The NW. M NW. l A sec. 28, T. 3 N., R. 2 E., is a swamp-land 
claim of the State of Florida. Except for a narrow strip along the 
east, the tract is submerged by Forshala Lake, a shallow body of 
water with an outlet underground. Three holes were bored, one 
at the center and one each in the northeast and southeast quarters 
of the tract. The holes were 41 J^ to 48 J^ feet deep. The results 
were practically negative, and it was concluded from these results 
and from general information obtainable on the district that it 
contained no phosphate deposits of any probable present or future 
value. 

Three 40-acre tracts were examined in T. 2 N., R. 6 E., namely, the 
NE. 34 NE. M and the S. Y> NE. y± sec. 28. With the exception 
of about an acre, this entire tract was under 2 to 4 feet of water at 
the time of the examination. It is a part of the Aucilla swamp, in 
which Aucilla River has its source, and bears a large amount of 
merchantable timber. 

Twelve holes 273/2 to 50 feet deep were bored, three each in the 
northeast and southeast "40s" and six in the southwest "40." In 
addition all other available evidence from local sources and from 
the literature was utilized. No phosphatic material was found in 
the northeast "40" and only a feebly phosphatic layer in the south- 
east "40" (SE. \i NE. 34). These tracts lie in the deeper part of 
the basin and may contain some phosphate at depths not reached 
by boring. The north part of the southwest "40" (SW. V± NE. %) 
contains a deposit 4 to 11 feet thick beneath an overburden 24 to 
34 feet thick and covering 20 acres or more. Most of it may be 
classified as low-grade soft phosphate. Its phosphate content raiu.;< Y s 
from 11 to 56 per cent and averages about 30 per cent "bone phos- 
phate of lime" (tricalcium phosphate). About 20,000 tons of this 
material is present per acre. The richer portions contain a little 
pebble phosphate of fairly good grade. The deposit probably ex- 
tends northwest beyond the limits of the tracts examined and, as 
indicated by the boring, becomes thicker, richer, and less deeply 
buried in that direction. The deposit is not workable under present 
conditions but might have value in future, if soft phosphate should 
acquire greater commercial importance. 



90 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

The NE. \i SE. M sec. 31, T. 14 S., R. 23 E., comprises a 40-acre 
tract lying about a mile north of the celebrated Silver Spring and 6 
miles east-northeast of Ocala, Marion County. The ground is low 
and sandy, and water was standing over a small area along the north 
side at the time of the examination. Five holes 33 ^ to 50 feet in 
depth were bored, one at the center of the "40" and one near the 
center of each of its four quarters. The results of the work were un- 
favorable. It is realized that in the hard-rock field, of which this 
area forms a part, a much larger number of holes is usually employed 
than in a corresponding area where a body of phosphate is to be 
delimited. Nevertheless, no bodies more than 7 or 8 acres in extent, 
and at less depth than 40 or 50 feet could have been missed by the 
boring. Comparison of data available from the borings with existing 
knowledge of conditions in the neighborhood leads to the conclusion 
that the presence of any valuable body of phosphate in this tract is 
improbable. 

The SW. M NE. M sec. 3, T. 28 S., R. 22 E., is about 4 miles north 
of Plant City, Hillsborough County. About one-third of the area is 
covered with swamps and ponds ; the remainder is only a foot or two 
above the local water surface. The dry areas are partly cleared and 
cultivated, and partly occupied by a rather thick stand of pines 
utilized for turpentine. Four holes 30 to 61 feet in depth were bored, 
one in the center of each quarter or 10-acre lot. The results were 
unfavorable and it was concluded that no valuable phosphate deposit 
is present. 

One 80-acre tract comprising the W. 14 SW. \i sec. 11 and one 
40-acre tract comprising the NW. % SW. M sec. 21 in T. 29 S., 
R. 23 E., were prospected. 

The 80-acre tract in sec. 11 is 30 miles east of Tampa and 4 miles 
south of Lakeland, Polk County. An improved road west from 
Medulla extends along the south side of the tract. The north half 
and part of the southwest corner is swampy. This tract had been 
included in areas formerly prospected by the Geological Survey and 
by private parties, but because of the difficulties of interpretation it 
was considered best to check the earlier work. Holes were therefore 
bored in each 40-acre area of the tract, the location of the holes corre- 
sponding as closely as possible to the location of a former Survey 
boring. The results were found to conform reasonably well to the 
earlier work. It was concluded that in view of the large number (42) 
of prospect holes bored on this tract and of the general agreement of 
the records the amounts of pebble phosphate determined — namely, 
from 1,100 to 1,300 tons per acre, or totals of 65,000 tons for part and 
88,000 tons for all of the tract — are safe estimates. 

The 40-acre tract in section 21 is about 30 miles east of Tampa and 
3 miles northwest of Mulberry, Polk County, and is less accessible. 
This tract had also been included in areas formerly prospected by both 
the Survey and private parties, and for similar reasons a check was 
desired. Four holes 11 to 25 feet in depth were bored, each at or near 
the center of one of the four 10-acre plots that comprise the tract. 
From the results obtained from these borings in comparison with 
earlier results it was concluded that the lowland, comprising somewhat 
more than half of the tract, or about 25 acres, contains between 500 
and 900 tons of phosphate pebbles per acre, or a total of 12,500 to 



PHOSPHATE BOCK 91 

22,500 tons. The upland, which includes the remaining 15 acres, 
contains between 200 and 300 tons per acre, or a total of 3,000 to 
4,000 tons. 

The NE. y± SE. M sec. 4, T. 30 S., R. 24 E., includes 40 acres con- 
veniently located 4 miles west of Bartow, Polk County, on the road 
from Bartow to Plant City. The soil is sandy and the surface is 
practically free from standing water. Four holes 51 to 57 feet in 
depth were bored, one in the center of each of the 10-acre lots that 
together comprise the tract. The overburden proved to be about 
35 feet thick, and a phosphatic matrix in two layers aggregating 18 
feet or more was found in each of the holes. The results of the 
analyses and calculations showed that the tract contains 400,000 
tons of pebble phosphate having a phosphate content of 61.88 to 
69.65 per cent "bone phosphate of lime" (tricalcium phosphate), 
similar in grade to the general run of the phosphate deposits in the 
pebble field. This body is apparently part of a larger body that is 
now being mined in adjoining areas. Its overburden is somewhat 
thicker than that in most of the areas hitherto worked, but does not 
preclude successful mining. In addition to the pebbles the deposit 
contains an equally large amount of phosphatic clay and sand, which 
would be wasted under present methods but might ultimately be 
utilized. 

Idaho. — The phosphate beds in Idaho have been studied inter- 
mittently by members of the Survey since about 1906, before the 
reserve was established, and a number of papers relating to them have 
been published. These were listed in the bibliography given in 
Mineral Resources for 1922. A considerable area of the reserve still 
remains unexamined, and as these withdrawn lands can not be disposed 
of before they are examined and classified, work of this sort is carried 
on as steadily as the resources and other obligations of the Survey 
will permit. 

No field work was done in Idaho in 1924, but the results of the ex- 
plorations of the previous year were worked up and lands in 1 1 town- 
ships were classified. 

Montana. — In July and August, 1924, J. T. Pardee examined for 
classification purposes parts of four townships in Montana — T. 7 N., 
R. 13 W., Tps. 8 and 9 S., R.2K; and T. 9 S., R. 3 E., Montana 
principal meridian. 

The part of T. 7 N., R. 13 W., examined is on the west slope of the 
Flint Creek Range, Granite County, near Philipsburg, and embraces 
about 2,080 acres. The examination showed that a minimum of 3 
feet of phosphate rock, containing 60 to 70 per cent of tricalcium 
phosphate, could be safely assumed for purposes of calculating ton- 
nage, and that an estimated total of 34,038,000 long tons of phosphate 
rock is available for mining above the depth limit of 2,000 feet. 

The lands examined in T. 8 S., R. 2 E., comprise 3,760 acres in 
phosphate reserve No. 30, Montana No. 7, in the Madison Range, 
about 25 miles southeast of Ennis, in Madison County. The tract 
is about 1 mile wide and 5 miles long, extending southeast from sec- 
tion 8. The chief phosphate bed is 30 inches thick and averages 56 
per cent of tricalcium phosphate. The other phosphate beds are 
either too thin or too low grade to be considered workable. The 



92 MINEBAL BESOUBCES, i924 PABT II 

depth limit assigned under regulations of the Geological Survey 3 is 
1,050 feet. Within this limit the deposit is estimated to contain 
6,500,000 tons. Compared with many other phosphate deposits in 
the western field the bed described is rather thin, poor, isolated, and 
difficult of access. A long time will doubtless elapse before it is 
mined. 

The area examined in T. 9 S., R. 2 E., which adjoins that of T. 8 
S., R. 2 E., on the south, contains about 2,718 acres and forms a 
strip about 1 mile wide and 4 miles long, extending from section 3 
to section 24. The workable phosphate bed ranges in thickness from 
1 foot 8 inches, with 65 per cent tricalcium phosphate in section 24, 
to 2 feet 6 inches, with 56 per cent tricalcium phosphate in section 3. 
With a depth limit ranging from 600 feet where the bed is thinnest 
to 1,050 feet where it is thickest, the deposit is estimated to contain 
in round numbers about 4,000,000 tons. 

The lands examined in T. 9 S., R. 3 E., form the continuation of 
those examined in the adjoining township on the west and include 
about 1,301 acres in a strip three-quarters of a mile wide and S}4 
miles long, extending from section 18 through section 31. The work- 
able bed is 1 foot 7^2 inches thick and contains 65.3 per cent of tri- 
calcium phosphate. The depth limit for such a bed is 600 feet, and 
the quantity of phosphate rock available is estimated at 2,000,000 
tons. 

Utah. — In September, 1924, J. T. Pardee examined sec. 12, T. 5 N., 
R. 2 E., Salt Lake meridian, Utah, with a view to classification. The 
land is 7 miles southeast of Huntsville, Weber County. Exposures 
are poor, but an outcrop of phosphate, representing a bed of phosphate 
rock at least 8}4 feet thick, averaging 13 feet and containing 60 per 
cent of tricalcium phosphate, extends northwest across the section. 
The depth limit for classification purposes is 4,000 feet- and the esti- 
mated phosphate content not less than 3,600,000 tons. 

In August, 1924, E. M. Spieker and J. B. Reeside, jr., examined 
sections 20, 21, 28, and 29 (unsurveyed) , T. 7 S., R. 5 E., Salt Lake 
meridian, near the west end of the Uinta Mountains. The rocks 
exposed are much younger than the phosphate-bearing formation, 
and no evidence was found that phosphate occurs beneath these 
younger formations at minable depth. 

Wyoming. — In September, 1924, J. T. Pardee examined the NE. 34 
of NW. M sec. 5, T. 43 N., R. 118 W., sixth principal meridian, Wyo., 
for classification purposes. This land is on the east side of Teton 
Valley, about 4 miles east of Driggs, Idaho. No exposures of older 
rock appear on the land itself, but a review of the geology of the 
region, of which it forms a part, leads to the conclusion that it is 
underlain at a depth of 2,000 feet or more by phosphate of commer- 
cial grade. This depth, however, is considered too great to permit 
the classification of the tract as phosphate land under current regu- 
lations of the Geological Survey. 

In addition to the activities cited the Geological Survey has 
received and tested many samples of rock, believed to contain phos- 
phate or to be otherwise valuable for fertilizer, from different parts 
of the country. Little information of public interest resulted from 
these tests, since most of the samples tested were deficient in phos- 
phate or too low grade to have commercial importance. 

» Smith, G. O., and others, "The classification of the public lands"; U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 537, 1913, 
pp. 129-132. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 93 

BUREAU OF SOILS 

For a number of years scientists of the Bureau of Soils have been 
experimenting on the volatilization of phosphoric acid in phosphate 
rock with a view to reducing the cost of treatment under current 
methods. W. H. Koss, A. L. Mehring, and R. M. Jones, 4 of that 
bureau, have recently published a brief account of some of their 
experiments. 

The raw materials used in the volatization process of preparing phosphoric 
acid are phosphate rock, sand, and coke. When these are ignited at the proper 
temperature under reducing conditions, phosphorus is evolved in the elemental 
state, and it is this process that is now in use for the commercial preparation of 
this material. If the ignition is made in a type of furnace from which the air is 
not excluded, the evolved phosphorus is at once oxidized to phosphorus pentoxide 
and escapes from the furnace as dense white fumes. Owing to the hygroscopic 
nature of this fume it readily reacts with the moisture of the air or with moisture 
driven off from the charge and may be readily recovered as a solution of phosphoric 
acid by passing through a Cottrell precipitator. 

The paper discusses the reactions that may occur when calcium 
phosphate is ignited with silica and carbon either singly or in com- 
bination under different temperatures or other conditions. 

BUREAU OF STANDARDS 

With the cooperation of a number of fertilizer companies the 
Bureau of Standards analyzed its standard phosphate rock sample 
No. 56. 5 The work brought out a number of interesting facts con- 
cerning the procedure for the determination of moisture, phosphoric 
acid, and " soluble iron and alumina" by the old methods and re- 
sulted in the discovery of desirable changes in these methods as well 
as the development of certain new methods. Although special 
attention was paid to the usual determinations just mentioned, 
methods for the less commonly determined ferric oxide, alumina, and 
lime were also included. 

The recommendations of the authors are summarized as follows: 

The use of boric acid is desirable in preparing solutions for the analysis of 
phosphate rock, for this lessens the hydrofluoric acid attack on glassware and pre- 
vents the interference of this acid in determinations of phosphorus. 

Results obtained by solution of the ammonium-phosphomolybdate precip- 
itate and a single precipitation with magnesia mixture can not be correct 
except through compensating errors, for the precipitate always contains molybde- 
num and is rarely of ideal composition. If magnesia mixture is added too slowly 
to neutral or ammoniacal solutions of phosphate the results are usually low. 
For accurate analyses solution of the magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitate 
is recommended, followed by the addition of 2 to 3 c. c. of magnesia mixture and 
reprecipitation by ammonia. 

In the alkalimetric method for phosphorus the solution should not be heated 
after the addition of the molybdate reagent. The 23:1 ratio can not be used in 
calculating the phosphorus titre of the sodium hydroxide solution unless the 
method is carefully worked out and followed to the letter. 

It is not difficult to get concordant results for "soluble iron." The deter- 
mination of "soluble alumina," on the other hand, requires rigid attention to a 
definitely defined method of solution and careful analysis if comparable results 
are to be obtained. 

4 Ross, W. H., Mehring, A. L., and Jones, R. M., "Preparation of phosphoric acid"; Jour. Ind. and 
Eng. Chem., vol. 16, No. 6, June, 1924, pp. 563-566. 

5 Lundell, G. E. F.,and Hotftnan, J. I., "The analysis of phosphate rock;" Jour., Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 
vol. 8, No. 2, 1924, pp. 184-206. 



94 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

AMERICAN PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY 

According to Kuhm 6 the phosphate-mining plants have about 
50 per cent greater producing capacity than the present demand for 
phosphate rock would appear to warrant, so that the domestic 
industry is correspondingly depressed. Part of this expansion of 
capacity came as a result of the revival of European demand after 
the close of the war. The European market, however, has been 
greatly altered by the French development in Morocco and the 
English operations on Ocean, Christmas, and other Pacific islands. 
As a result of foreign developments Ruhm believes there is little 
or no hope of any profitable export business in future. 

Most of the domestic and all of the foreign demand for phosphate 
is for fertilizer manufacture ; and as the greater part of the fertilizer 
industry of this country is in the Southeastern States, the greatest 
development has been in Florida. Tennessee has been left only the 
market for fertilizer manufactures in the interior States, the furnace 
trade, and the few consumers of raw ground rock for direct use on 
the soil. In their present anxiety for business Florida producers 
have reached out as far as Chicago and St. Louis, although the 
freight excess to this territory is $4 per ton. In spite of this handicap 
Tennessee and Kentucky in 1924 produced 431,038 tons, or 15 per 
cent of the total production for the country. (See p. 78.) Florida 
may be expected to continue as the largest producer. Most of the 
prospective developments in producing acid phosphate, phosphoric 
acid, and phosphorus compounds, however, are being worked out 
with Tennessee rock, as it seems chemically constituted to yield 
best to heat treatment, and cheaper power along the Tennessee 
River is an important possibility. 

RUMORED FRANCO-GERMAN AGREEMENT 7 

Since the signing of the Franco-German potash agreement rumors have been 
current of Franco-German negotiations concerning the supplying of Germany 
with phosphates from North Africa to the exclusion of American phosphates. 
It is believed, however, that the potash agreement has no bearing on the phos- 
phate situation, but was merely a trade agreement between two private groups 
of potash exporters. 

Unless some unforseen condition or compensation should arise, the future 
source of supply for German phosphate requirements is wholly a matter of 
price, quality, and service. 

PROCESSES OF TREATING PHOSPHATE ROCK 

Biological process. 8 — Dr. J. G. Lipman and his staff at the New- 
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station have developed a process 
for the production of soluble phosphates by biological means. Four 
parts of ground phosphate rock are mixed with one part of com- 
mercial flour sulphur. Cultures of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria are 
then added, and the mixture is kept at a suitable degree of moisture 
and temperature. The sulphur is gradually oxidized to sulphuric 
acid, and this acts on the phosphate rock, producing water-soluble 
or citrate-soluble phosphate. The practicability of the process is 

6 Ruhm, H. D., "Phosphate rock"; Eng. and Min. Jour. -Press, vol. 119, Jan. 17, 1925, pp. 99-100. 

" Daugherty, W. T., "German consumption of fertilizers"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Chem. Trade Bull. 49-E. 

s Eng. and Min Jour. -Press, "Biological manufacture of soluble phosphate"; vol. 118, No. 5, Aug. 2, 
1924, p. 184, 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 95 

evidenced by the fact that superphosphate has been made by this 
method, giving results that equal those obtainable by the use of the 
commercial product. 

Enriched superphosphate. — S. I. Volfkovich 9 has described a 
process for the production of enriched superphosphate whereby 
low-grade phosphorite is treated with a mixture of sulphuric and 
phosphoric acids. It is stated that 99 per cent of the phosphorus of 
the phosphate rock is thus rendered available. Details of the 
process are not available to the writer. 

Phosphor-manganese as a fertilizer. 10 — An artificial fertilizer like a 
basic slag (Thomas slag) in type but more efficient in action can 
be produced thermoelectrically from a natural phosphate, man- 
gamferous slag from the spiegeleisen process, lime (CaO), and a 
basic oxidizing agent such as pyrolusite. The latter is necessary to 
perfect reduction of the phosphorus at the electrodes and because 
of the organic substances. The proportions are so regulated that 
enough base is present to form salts with the silicon, manganese, 
iron, and aluminum, and enough silicon to dissolve the calcium 
phosphate. 

Electric furnace process. — A brief review of the electric-furnace 
method of treating phosphate rock, as practiced by the Federal 
Phosphorus Co., Anniston, Ala., was given in the phosphate chapter 
of Mineral Kesources, 1922. A recent article by Swann n describes 
the process briefly and gives analyses of two grades of ferrophos- 
phorus. 

Furnace method. — A recent article by Barr 12 gives a brief interest- 
ing account of the blast-furnace method of producing ferrophos- 
phorus used by J. J. Gray, jr., at Rockdale, Tenn. A diagram 
showing chemical reactions within the furnace at different tem- 
peratures is presented, with an analysis of the product. 

PHOSPHATE POCK AS AN INGREDIENT OF STOCK FOOD 

Sales of phosphate rock for use as an ingredient of stock food were 
noted on page 78. According to a letter received from J. R. Dawson, 
associate in dairy introduction, Bureau of Dairying, United States 
Department of Agriculture — 

The feeding of minerals to dairy cattle has been receiving considerable atten- 
tion in the last few years because several important discoveries have been made 
in investigational work along this line. The best practice probably is for the 
farmer to grow and feed clover, alfalfa, soy beans, or other legume hays when- 
ever it is at all possible because the legumes are high in mineral content, especially 
lime. If nonleguminous hays and corn stover are used, or if losses occur from 
premature birth of calves, it is probably advisable to add from 2 to 4 pounds of 
ground limestone, steamed bone meal, wood ashes, or floats (ground rock phos- 
phate) to each 100 pounds of grain for the cattle. This can not do any harm 
and it may do a great deal of good. If the minerals are not completely absorbed 
by the animals, they enrich the manure, especially when bone meal or rock phos- 
phate is used. 

Lime and phosphorus are largely used by dairy cattle in building bone and 
producing milk. Rations made up of seeds or seed by-products will usually have 
a low mineral content. 

9 Volfkovich, S. I., "Production of enriched superphosphate"; Arb. Wiss. Inst. Diingcm, vol. 16, 1923, 
pp. 1-32. 

10 Ongaro, G., — —— ; Atti cong. naz. chim. pura appl., 1923, pp. 357-369. 

11 Swann, Theodore, "Production of ferrophosphorus in the electric furnace"; Trans. Am. Inst. Min. 
and Met. Eng., advance leaflet No. 1383-S, issued with Min. and Met., October, 1924. 

12 Barr, J. A., "Manufacture of ferrophosphorus at Rockdale, Tenn."; Trans. Am. Inst. Min. and Met. 
Eng., advance leaflet No. 1380-M, issued with Min. and Met., October, 1924. 



96 

W. H. Black, associate animal husbandman, Bureau of Animal 
Industry, states in a letter to the writer that : 

For beef cattle it is seldom necessary to supply a mineral other than salt if a 
liberal amount of legume hay is fed in the ration. Where there is a deficiency 
of legumes, it is recommended that one part of rock phosphates may be fed to 
two or three parts of salt. We have no data showing how extensively rock 
phosphate is used by beef cattle. 

The subject is still in the experimental stage, but work already 
done 13 suggests that a moderate but steady demand for phosphate 
rock for this purpose may be developed. 

PROPOSED TAX ON FLORIDA PHOSPHATE 

It has been proposed 14 that a tax be levied in Florida on phosphate 
rock produced in that State for the combined purpose of raising reve- 
nue and conserving the phosphate rock. Proponents of such a 
measure would do well to study the effects of similar legislation in 
force in other States before embarking on such a procedure. 

MISCELLANEOUS PHOSPHATE ACTIVITIES BY STATES 

Florida. — Extensive phosphate-mining operations are to be under- 
taken near what is known as Banana Lake, Fla., by the Southern 
Phosphate Corporation. The company controls an extensive prop- 
erty in that district, reported to contain some excellent deposits of 
phosphate, enough to supply raw material for its uses for a number of 
years. Operations are under way and machinery is being installed. 15 

A new plant is being erected at Tampa, Fla., by the Kreiss Potas- 
sium Phosphate Co., incorporated for the manufacture of potassium 
phosphate under the Kreiss patents with a capital of $200,000. 
The company will import fertilizer materials and supply potassium 
phosphate for domestic and export trade. The process is the same 
as that in operation at Lakeland, Fla., by the Non Acid Fertilizer Co. 
The new plant is necessary for the increased demand, which could not 
be satisfied at the Lakeland plant because of its limited capacity. 16 

The United States Supreme Court on May 4 denied a writ of cer- 
tiorari by which the Charleston (S. C.) Mining & Manufacturing Co. 
sought to have it review a decision of the lower Federal courts in a 
suit by the United States involving title to phosphate lands in Florida. 
The State of Florida in 1906 filed on public lands under the indemnity 
school selection act of 1845. Its selection was approved by the 
Secretary of the Interior. The State then sold part of the lands to 
the Charleston (S. C.) Mining & Manufacturing Co. Subsequently 
the Government filed suit to have the sale set aside on the ground 
the lands had been selected as agricultural land, whereas they con- 
tained valuable phosphate deposits and hence were not subject to 
such selection. The company resisted the suit, declaring the transfer 
to Florida was regular and that its purchase from the State had been 
in good faith and could not be revoked. It also contended that the 

13 See, for example, Sheets, E. W., and Jackson, William, A Handbook for Better Feeding of Livestock, 
U. S. Dept. of Agr. Misc. Cir. 12, 1924; Meigs, E. B., and Woodward, T. E., The Influence of Calcium 
and Phosphorus in the Feed en the Milk Yield of Dairy Cows; U. S. Dept. of Agr. Bull. 945, 1922, 28 pp. 
Hart, E. B., Steenbock, H., and Morrison, F. B., Minerals for Livestock; University of Wisconsin Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 350, 1923. 

14 Bartlett, C. O., suggests a tax on Florida's phosphate rock; Manufacturers Record, vol. 86, No. 25, 
Dec. 18, 1924, p. 81. 

i» Commercial Fertilizer, vol. 29, No. 3, October, 1924. p. 50. 

16 Manufacturer's Record, "Erecting phosphate plant at Tampa," vol. 87, No. 19, May 7, 1925, p. 112; 
No. 22, May 28, 1925, p. 95. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 97 

statute of 1845 was enacted long before phosphate deposits were 
recognized as mineral deposits. The lower courts held for the 
Government in the suit. By the refusal of the Supreme Court to 
review the case this decision will stand, and these lands will again 
come under Government control. 17 

Missouri. — The Lime Phosphate Corporation has been formed at 
Monett, Mo., for the exploitation of a 1,200-acre deposit of fertilizer- 
bearing clay, which is said to be 43 feet in depth and but 20 feet under 
the surface. About 20 acres of the area is said to be known and tested, 
showing an assay value of $14.25 to $28 per ton. 18 

Montana. — The Darling Phosphate Co., of St. Louis, controlled 
by Darling Bros., of Chicago, is reported to be opening a phosphate 
deposit and soon will install a 7-mile aerial tramway to deliver the 
product to the Northern Pacific Railway near Garrison. The 
program calls for the ultimate mining of 1,000 tons per day, the prod- 
uct to be shipped to St. Louis. J. T. Wells, of Spokane, is superin- 
tendent. 19 

Tennessee. — The Ruhm Phosphate Co. 20 has been erecting a modern 
plant on the Ridley farm at Ash wood, Maury County, where it has 
several hundred acres of high-grade rock. The town, the present 
terminal of the Middle Tennessee Railroad, is 54 miles south of 
Nashville and 62 miles north of the Muscle Shoals section. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has decided that rates on 
320 shipments of phosphate rock from Mount Pleasant, Columbia, 
and Siglo, Tenn., to New Albany, Ind., over the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad since March 1, 1920, were unreasonable and unduly prejudi- 
cial. 21 

Phosphate rock when taken from quarries or open pits is not 
mined within the meaning of the Tennessee mine inspection law, and 
the fertilizer companies are not subject to payment of mine-inspection 
fees. A. judicial decision to this effect has been rendered in litigation 
in which all the principal mining companies joined. 22 

RECENT PATENTS 

The following patents covering processes for making phosphate 
rock available in fertilizers have recently been issued. Copies of 
United States patents may be purchased for 10 cents each from the 
Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C, who will also supply 
information regarding foreign patents. 

UNITED STATES 

1497173, June 10, 1924, I. Hechenbleikner. In the production of P 2 5 and 
H3PO4 from the smelting of a charge containing phosphate rock, coke, and 
sand in an electric arc furnace a jet or current of air is introduced sub- 
stantially at the slag level in the furnace to oxidize the phosphorus and 
produce P 2 5 . 

1 7 Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, " Government wins suit to hold phosphate lands " (Supreme 
Court of the United States, Order No. 1074, May 4, 1925) ; vol. 32, No. 11, May, 1925, p. 526. 

is Commercial Fertilizer, vol. 29, No. 4, November, 1924, p. 50. 

is Salt Lake Mining Review, vol. 26, No. 22, Feb. 28, 1925, p. 22. Also in the Mining Jour. (London), 
Mar. 14, 1925, p. 213. 

20 Commercial Fertilizer, "Tennessee phosphate notes," vol. 29, No. 4, November, 1924, p. 53. 

21 Docket No. 13525, reported 91 Interstate Commerce Commission 31; Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, 
No. 1, July 7, 1924, p. 28. 

22 American Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 1, July 12, 1924, p. 30. 



98 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART IT 

1497727, June 17, 1924, Federal Phosphorus Co. This patent for an electric 
method in the production of phosphoric acid has been assigned to the Fed- 
eral Phosphorus Co. by Bethume G. Klugh. Tricalcium phosphate is 
reduced by silica and carbon in an electric furnace. The charge is intro- 
duced around the electrodes and the vapors are burned while in contact 
with the entering charge, so as to transfer directly as much of the heat 
of combustion as possible. The oxidized products then pass through 
checkerwork regenerators to coolers and electric precipitators. These are 
in duplicate, and on reversal the air for combustion is preheated in the 
first regenerator while the hot gases reheat the second regenerator. 

1504339, August 12, 1924, W. Glaeser. Dicalcium phosphate is reacted upon 
with sodium binoxalate in the presence of H 2 while the mixture is agitated. 
The NaH 2 P0 4 is separated from the calcium oxalate by filtration and is then 
evaporated to recover it in solid form. 

1504340, August 12, 1924, W. Glaeser. This patent specifies the treatment 
of phosphate rock or similar phosphatic material with H2SO4 and H 2 to 
produce mcnocalcium phosphate, followed by treatment of the latter with 
sodium oxalate to produce NaH 2 PO.i. 

1511929, October 14, 1924, H. E. Alcock. A solution of H3PO4 to be purified 
is caused to react with NaOH and Na 2 C0 3 . The solution of sodium phos- 
phate thus obtained is reacted on with barium sulphide and the barium 
phosphate formed by this reaction is then decomposed by somewhat less 
than a chemically equivalent proportion of H9SO4. 

1513088, October 28, 1924, H. W. Charlton. ^ A fluid mass of phosphate rock 
and sand is disintegrated and the slag is caused to form matted threads 
adapted for use as slag wool. P 2 0s is carried off by air currents and is 
recovered. 

1517687, December 2, 1924, A. Voerkelius. Phosphate-bearing materials, such 
as Algiers phosphate, are treated with HN0 3 to form Ca(N0 3 ) 2 in the 
presence of K2SO4 or other soluble sulphate, thus producing CaS04 and 
nitrate of potassium by reaction with the soluble sulphate. 

1518019, December 2, 1924, R. C. Tolman. A charge of sand, phosphate rock, 
or similar nonmetallic phosphatic material, and carbonaceous reducing 
material, such as coke, is incorporated with a relatively small proportion 
of ferrophosphorus or a similar catalytic metal-phosphorus compound, 
and the charge is furnaced at a temperature high enough to volatilize a 
quantity of phosphorus apj)roximately equal to that of the chief phosphatic 
material under treatment. The metal-phosphorus compound is recovered 
from the charge and used for continuing the process with further charges. 

1535120, April 28, 1925, S. B. Kanowitz, Greensburg, Pa., and H. A. Webster, 
Columbia, Tenn. Kanowitz, assignor to Raymond Bros. Impact Pulverizer 
Co., Chicago. A method of air separation of high-content phosphate from 
low-grade phosphate and clay. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

215813, January 18, 1923, B. Laporte (Ltd.) and H. E. Alcock. In the produc- 
tion of pure H3PO4, acid barium phosphate is prepared from di or tri sodium 
phosphate (or potassium or ammonium phosphates) and barium sulphide 
and then decomposed with H 2 S0 4 . 

NORWAY 

39076, June 16, 1924, Erling Johnson. The dust or vapor from a thermic or 
electrothermic process for the production of phosphoric acid is precipitated 
with other waste gases containing basic compounds, such as cement-kiln 
gases or ammoniacal gases. 

SWEDEN 

55083, September 12, 1923, Aktiebolaget F0r Kem. och Elektrokem. Produktion 
and E. Lustig. Phosphates are reduced by coal or other reducing material. 
The phosphorus is oxidized by air drawn into the oxidation chamber, which 
is placed above the outlet for the combustion gases from the furnace. The 
heat liberated by the oxidation may be utilized for preheating the charge 
in the furnace or for other purposes. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 99 

WORLD PRODUCTION AND CONDITIONS 

The United States, with a total production of 2,913,817 metric 
tons in 1924, still leads the phosphate-producing countries of the 
world, but its lead over Tunis, which ranks second, has been reduced 
to little more than 40,000 tons. The total production of the Mediter- 
ranean countries in 1924, however, exceeded that of the United 
States by more than a million tons. 

In 1924 Egypt increased its production over that of 1923 nearly 
three and one-half times. Exports from Morocco in 1924 were 
nearly twice the quantity produced in 1923, and production in Algeria 
and in Tunis in 1924 was 44 and 23 per cent, respectively, greater 
than in the preceding year. In the United States, on the other 
hand, production declined 5 per cent as compared with 1923. 

The expansion of phosphate production in Mediterranean countries 
undoubtedly reflects the increasing importance which phosphates 
from these countries are assuming in European markets. Their 
relatively high quality and their nearness give them an advantage 
over material imported from the United States. It is mainly a 
question of price, however, and American producers have already 
taken steps to cut the costs of production and transportation and 
to enable them to compete in European markets. The Biffian 
revolt is a disturbing factor in the Moroccan phosphate industry 
which will undoubtedly greatly reduce production in that country 
in 1925. It may, however, indirectly provide a means for increas- 
ing United States exports. Already there are indications of increas- 
ing activity in the Florida hard-rock field, which has hitherto been 
chiefly concerned with export business. 

Any relief to American producers afforded by the disturbed con- 
ditions in Morocco is likely to be temporary. Producers should 
adhere to their plans for maintaining a place in the European markets, 
but they should look more and more to the development of domestic 
markets through the extension of better farming methods and wider 
use of fertilizers in this country. 

The following table, prepared by Miss L. M. Jones, of the Bureau 
of Mines, shows the world's production of phosphate rock for the last 
five years: 



100 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

World's production of phosphate rock, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



Country 



1922 



1923 



1924 



Algeria. 

Angaur 

Australia: 

New South Wales 

Queenslan d _ 

South Australia 

Victoria 

Belgium 

Canada 

Chile • 

Christinas Island (Straits Settlements) 

Dutch West Indies: Curacao d 

Egypt 

France 

Germany: c 

Bavaria 

Prussia 

India (British) 

Indo-China 

Japan 

Taiwan 

Madagascar d 

M akatea Island 

Morocco, French 

New C aledoni a 

New Zealand ^.. 

Norway c 

Ocean and Nauru islands 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain 

Tunis 

United States 



502,614 
30,500 



156 



8, 893 

4,290 

133, 040 



1, 510 
70, 692 
61, 440 
114,813 
124, 929 

4,934 
1,927 



13, 200 
97, 340 



398, 800 
• 30, 500 

203 

375 

5,161 

1, 566 

55, 040 

27 

1,200 

87, 893 

60, 872 

122, 024 

111,984 

7, 959 

925 

• 353 

9,900 

32, 001 

18 



484, 304 
• 30, 500 

12 

66 

2,759 

1,114 

56, 840 

172 

500 

100, 947 

50, 078 

60, 220 

146, 526 

4,412 
657 



467, 384 
° 30, 500 



75 



32, 000 
(») 

11,421 
5,427 



/ 392, 000 
1,775 

42, 896 
1, 075, 180 
4, 169, 851 



60, 000 

33,000 
5,000 
6,108 
1,008 
» 370, 000 
1,054 

(») 

38, 064 

1, 800, 000 

2, 097, 153 



7,600 
12,320 
C) 

5,210 
71,350 
96, 397 

5,142 

3,178 



453 

488 
23, 270 
27 
( b ) 

71, 563 
85, 855 
25, 370 
( 6 ) 

2,975 
2,311 

• 4, 838 
9,847 

33, 107 

(") 



« 367, 000 

CO 

3,634 

6,492 

2, 117, 650 

2, 456, 690 



74, 230 

225, 395 

12, 932 

2,421 

222 

* 316, 652 

(") 

(») 

5 397 

2, 338| 000 

3, 054, 964 



671, 150 
« 30, 500 



109 



541 



CO 
(») 

CO 
91, 674 

87, 869 
C) 

CO 
CO 
CO 
CO 
CO 
C) 

744 
C) 

d 430, 340 
CO 
CO 
CO 

* 459, 162 

C) 

C) 

C) 
2, 872, 000 
2, 913. 817 



° Estimated annual production. 

6 Data not available. 

« Apatite. 

d Exports. 

« Of this quantity 1,099 tons represents apatite. 

/ Eighteen months, July, 1919, to December, 1920. 

9 Production in the fiscal year ended June 30 of year stated. 

h Exports during the fiscal year ended June 30 of year stated. 

An interesting historical, statistical, and economic review of 
developments in phosphate rock throughout the world has recently 
been given by A. N. Gray. 23 

NOTES ON FOREIGN PHOSPHATE 

ALGERIA 



In a report from Algiers, 24 Vice- Consul D. C. Elkington states 
that all the phosphate deposits in Algeria are being actively worked 
except those of the Djebel-Onk, 62.1 miles south of Tebessa, which 
are perhaps the most important. They were discovered over 20 
years ago but are still without transportation facilities, owing to the 
lengthy discussions that have risen over the construction of the 
necessary railroad. These deposits are conservatively estimated to 
contain 1,000,000,000 metric tons. The beds are 30 to 60 m. thick, 
3 km. wide, and 10 km. long and are free from either silica (quartz) 
or calcareous clay. Every 300 or 500 meters they are cut by ravines 
which will permit their exploitation by quarry methods for several 
centuries. 



23 Gray, A. N., "The world position as to phosphate rock"; American Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 6, Mar. 
21, 1925, pp. 23-30, and No. 7, Apr. 4, 1925, pp. 21-27. 

"Elkington, D. C, "Prospective Algerian phosphate developments"; Commerce Repts., Nov. 10, 
1924, pp. 349-350 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 101 

The purity of the product is sometimes above 80 per cent, although 
it generally varies from 60 to 69 per cent. It is conceded that 
500,000,000 metric tons is about 66 per cent pure. Only traces of 
iron and aluminum have been found. The absence of silica will 
make crushing easy and the freedom from water will obviate the 
necessity for drying. 

The exploitation of the Djebel-Onk phosphate depends principally 
on the construction of a railroad. As the matter now stands the 
successful bidder for a concession will have to finance the building 
of a railroad from the deposits to Tebessa, whence shipments will 
be carried to the seaboard at Bone, Philippeville, or some other 
port. Much doubt has been expressed that the Government will 
find anybody to make a bid on such terms, so the question may 
have to be reconsidered in the Algerian financial delegations and 
superior council, and perhaps also in the French legislative bodies 
in order to change the present law. 

A comprehensive account of the Algerian phosphate beds, includ- 
ing information on their character, distribution, thickness, quality, 
geological relations and exploitation, with maps and sections, has 
recently been given by Dussert. 25 

Production in Algeria was greater in 1924 than in any previous 
year, amounting to 671,150 metric tons, as compared with 502,614 
tons in 1920 and 484,304 tons in 1922, the two earlier years of 
greatest production. 

EGYPT 

During the last 10 years the importation of fertilizers has more 
than doubled in Egypt. In 1913 the imports were 71,654 metric 
tons, valued at $3,254,300, and in 1923, 101,754 metric tons, valued 
at $5,260,877, Phosphate is mined at Safaga on the Ked Sea, and 
at Set aria, Upper Egypt, but due to the high cost of manufacturing 
the raw product into superphosphate practically the total produc- 
tion is exported for manufacture, only a small proportion being 
ground for local consumption. The exports of phosphate amounted 
to 70,317 metric tons during the first seven months of this year, 
which was nearly double the amount during the same period in 1923. 
The principal purchasers of Egyptian phosphate were Japan, Spain, 
Ceylon, and Italy. Superphosphate is supplied principally by 
Holland, Greece, and Belgium and the importations from January 
1 to July 31, 1924, were 4,777 metric tons, or about the same as for 
the corresponding period in the previous year. Imports of the year 
1922 were 10,378 metric tons, and in 1923, 22,516 metric tons. 26 

Production of phosphate rock in Egypt in 1924 was 87,869 metric 
tons, or about three times that of the preceding year. The greatest 
production in the last five years was 122,024 tons in 1921. 

MOROCCO 

Steady progress in the sales of Morocco phosphate is indicated in the official 
figures for 1924, the total being 430,340 tonnes (metric tons), as against 190,000 
tonnes in 1923 and 79,000 tonnes in 1922. In an article on the prospects of the 
industry, reviewed recently in the French technical press, the writer says that the 

2 5 Dussert, M. D., Les gisements algeriens de phosphate de chaux, Ann. des mines, 12th ser., t. 6, 9e 
liv., September, 1924, pp. 135-221; lOeliv., October, 1924, pp. 229-325; lleliv., November, 1924, pp. 333-398; 
12eliv., December, 1924, pp. 407-451. 

26 Ives, Ernest L., "Fertilizers— Egypt"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Chem. Trade 
Bull. 51-E, Dec. 6, 1924. 



102 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

future production is not dependent on the extent of the deposits, which are prac- 
tically unlimited, but on the demand for consumption and such factors as railway 
transport and the amount of labor available. As regards transport, the construc- 
tion of railways and loading quays at Casablanca, Fedhala, San, and Mogador 
presents no particular difficulty. Labor is a more serious problem in view of the 
relatively low production per man and the cost of raising the phosphate, as shown 
by an analysis of the report on the Regie for 1923. In that year some 2,000 
natives and 396 Europeans were employed in the mines, and in order to raise the 
production to 1 ,000,000 tonnes per annum the number would have to be increased 
to 20,000, which is more than the total population of the region under develop- 
ment. The industry can in future only rely on the normal yearly increase in 
consumption, and it will be necessary to take into account the diminished pur- 
chasing power of many countries. The high quality and richness of Morocco 
phosphate should, however, enable the industry to maintain and strengthen the 
position it has secured in the market. 27 

According to Consul H. Earle Kussell, Casablanca, Morocco, 28 the 
Office Cherifien dcs Phosphates has not as yet announced figures as 
to production of phosphates during the first three months of 1925, 
but between 65 and 70 cargoes have been shipped from Casablanca, 
which would indicate a tonnage of between 130,000 and 140,000 
metric tons. 

Exploitation of the deposits of Kourigha, in addition to those at 
Boujniba, has been recently begun. The former appear to be the 
richest and most important that have been discovered, and even 
with most intensive exploitation unlikely to be exhausted for several 
generations. The character of the deposits is said to often surpass 
80 per cent of pure phosphate of lime. 

The Office Cherifien has never announced any figures indicating 
costs of extraction and of laying down each ton in the port of Casa- 
blanca. Considering that the mineral must be extracted, culled over, 
crushed, loaded on cars, carried 90 miles to Casablanca, loaded on a 
vessel, and transported varying distances by water, and is being sold 
in French or English ports at less than 100 francs per metric ton 
(about $5.25 per ton), it is the opinion of some economists that a loss 
is being incurred. 

The Office Cherifien is striving to reduce costs of handling and of 
transportation. At Boujniba there has been for some time a very 
up-to-date plant for the crushing and drying of phosphate, and 
recently an equally modern plant for storing and loading has been 
installed there. The accumulators are constructed of reinforced con- 
crete, 120 meters long, 60 meters wide, on trusses of 20 meters, and 
have a capacity of 60,000 metric tons. The phosphate is brought 
from the crushing and drying section of the plant to the upper part 
of the storage bins and distributed over the entire surface by a belt. 
Six series of hoppers allow the loading of the cars in rapid succession, 
so that a train of 300 tons can be loaded in two minutes by each series. 
Nearly all of the phosphate is now brought to Casablanca by the nor- 
mal-gauge railway line, a distance of about 90 miles. From a point 
near Kourigha to the sea there is a gentle incline, which will permit 
cheap transportation when the line is electrified. The warehouses 
at Koches-Noires, a suburb of Casablanca, are no longer being used, 
and the loaded cars are run directly to the port and unloaded auto- 
matically, the contents being carried by belts to the top of the ele- 
vator, whence they are discharged into the holds of the vessels lying 

27 Mining Journal, London, Feb. 28, 1925, p. 191. 

28 Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Notes on the Production of Phosphates in Morocco; 
Spec. Circ. 105, July 13, 1925. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 103 

alongside the quay. The present elevator can load vessels at the rate 
of 350 metric tons per hour, or more than double the present necessary 
rate. 

It is reported that the Office Cherifien hopes eventually to be able to 
export not the crude phosphate, but the superphosphates, electro- 
phosphates, phosphazote, etc., which can support higher freight rates 
more easily than can the phosphate itself. The preparation of super- 
phosphates has already been started in a small way at Casablanca. 
Up to the present time the necessary pyrites have come from abroad, 
as the schists containing them, though found in various localities in 
Morocco, even near Casablanca, have so far been discovered in exceed- 
ingly small quantities, and the desirable blende, with its sulphur and 
zinc, not at all. Electrophosphates can be manufactured economi- 
cally, it is claimed, though they are not yet largely used. A small 
factory is now engaged in this work at Fedalah, 11 miles north of 
Casablanca. Phosphazote is not yet produced in Morocco. 

TUNIS 

Trade Commissioner Daniel J. Reagan reports 29 that the produc- 
tion of phosphates by the larger enterprises in Tunis shows increases 
during 1924 as compared with 1923. The production of the Societe 
des Phosphates et des Chemins de Fer de Gafsa amounted to 
1,730,000 tons as compared with 1,610,000 tons in 1923. The pro- 
duction of the Societe des Phosphates Tunisiens during 1924 was 
approximately 525,000 tons, as compared with 424,000 tons in 1923. 
The production of the Societe des Phosphates de Constantine, 
approximately 600,000 tons, was practically the same in 1924 as in 
1923. Deliveries by this company, however, rose from 487,000 tons 
in 1923 to 720,000 tons in 1924. 

Figures for other companies were not complete at the time the 
above communication was written. The total figure for production 
for Tunis in 1924 is 2,872,000 metric tons, which is greater than in 
any previous year and 23 per cent greater than the 1923 figure, 
2,338,000 tons. 

OTHER COUNTRIES 

Australia. — The largest deposits of rock phosphate so far discov- 
ered in Australia occur in south Australia. These are distributed 
intermittently along a belt of country some 200 miles long from 
Myponge in the south to the district around Carrieton in the north. 
The phosphate, which is white, yellow, and brown, occurs in gray 
clay, calcareous marl, and sandy clay in the form of nodules and 
bed-like segregations. There is no regular stratification. These beds 
are associated with Cambrian limestones, quartzites, and sandstones. 
Selected ore of high grade — over 60 per cent tricalcic phosphate — is 
sent to the superphosphate plants of Wallaroo and Port Adelaide, 
but there is a larger tonnage of low-grade material which remains 
unused. From 1913 to 1922, 57,332 long tons was mined, but the 
quantity appears to be falling off, for 8,753 long tons was mined in 
1920, 5,079 long tons in 1921, and only 2,715 long tons in 1922. 

29 Reagan, D. J., "World trade notes on fertilizers;" Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce Chem. 
Trade Bull. No. 54-E. Mar. 17, 1925. 

44839°— 27 8 



104: MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

The phosphate deposits of New South Wales are all cave deposits 
and, with the exception of a little bat guano used by local farmers, 
consist of limestone and bone breccia, as the phosphate does not 

Eenetrate far into the solid limestone. Attempts have been made to 
oom these cave deposits, but they never proved a commercial suc- 
cess. Caves in the neighborhood of Cowra provided 576 long tons 
of phosphate in 1919. Some phosphate has also been won from the 
Ashford caves in the Inverell district. In Queensland a limited 
amount of low-grade guano, 50 per cent, has been mined on small 
islands off the coast. At Clarendon on the South Island of New 
Zealand a low-grade phosphate rock is mined. 30 

The Phosphate Cooperative Co. of Australia, which is working 
deposits in the mandated territory in the South Seas as well as at 
Mansfield, has partly completed its works of 47 acres at North Shore, 
Geelong. The company aims at an initial output of 60,000 to 
80,000 tons of fertilizer a year. 

Shipments of phosphate from Nauru and Ocean Island to Aus- 
tralia during the year ended June 30, 1924, amounted to 320,031 
tons. New Zealand received 60,850 tons. The bulk of the rock 
shipped to Australia went to Port Kembla, 60 miles south of Sidney, 
where especially large works have been established by Australian 
Fertilizers (Ltd.). 31 

Nauru and Ocean Island phosphates are also used at the super- 
phosphate plant of the Sulphide Corporation (Ltd.), at Cockle Creek, 
New South Wales. The plant includes much labor-saving equip- 
ment, and the product is marketed mostly as 17 per cent water- 
soluble P 2 5 , though some 20 to 21 per cent material is sold. 32 

China. — Apatite that gives promise of commercial importance 
occurs at Tung Hai Hsien on the Chao Ho (river) in Kiangsu Prov- 
ince, eastern China, about 10 miles from a seaport on the China Sea 
called Hsin Pu Cheng, where steamships of moderate draft may be 
handled at high tide. The deposits were developed by the Chin 
Peng Mining Co., approximately 6,000 tons of ore being mined, of 
which 2,000 tons was exported to Japan. A narrow-gauge railroad 
connects the east and west mines and the river front. Mining opera- 
tions are now suspended. 

The ore has a specific gravity of 3.130, is friable, and can be ground 
readily. It contains 41.20 per cent P 2 5 , equivalent to 90.13 per 
cent Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 , "bone phosphate of lime," 0.67 per cent iron and 
alumina combined, and 1.80 per cent silica, hence is one of the highest- 
grade phosphatic ores known. It occurs with manganese ore as a 
replacement in limestone associated with gneissic rocks of Archaean 
age. 33 

China has a large trade in bones for manufacture into a variety of 
articles and for fertilizer. 34 

Esthonia. — A Keval manufacturer experimented in the manufacture 
of superphosphates several years ago, using phosphates from a terri- 
tory near Hirro. The experiments proved successful, the quality of 

30 Power, F. D., "Phosphate deposits of the Pacific"; Econ. Geol., vol. 20, No. 3, 1925, pp. 266-281. 

31 Pauly, E. G., " Phosphates— Australia"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Chem. Trade 
Bull. 47-E. 

32 MacGruer, D. C, "The sulphuric acid and superphosphate plants of the Sulphide Corporation (Ltd.), 
at Cockle Creek, N. S. W."; Chem. Eng. and Min. Rev., vol. 13, No. 191, Aug. 5, 1924, pp. 444, 445. 

33 Memminger, C G., "Chinese phosphate deposits"; Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 10, Nov. 15, 1924, 
p. 27. 

34 Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, China's Trade in Bones; Chem. Div. Spec. Cir. 99, 
May 7, 1925. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 105 

the material produced being reported equal to that of foreign prod- 
ucts. The factory intends to manufacture large enough quantities 
for local requirements and for export. Large-scale production, 
however, depends upon the enlargement of the present sulphuric 
acid works. 35 

France.- — Statistics of phosphate production in France in 1923 and 
1924 are not available. 

Four factories of considerable size manufacture sulphuric acid 
at Bordeaux, chiefly for the production of superphosphates. The 
phosphates are imported from Algeria, Tunis, and some from the 
United States. The total quantity of phosphates imported annually 
for these factories is about 145,000 metric tons. The total annual 
production of sulphuric acid is about 150,000 tons. Exportation of 
superphosphates was prohibited during the war and even after the 
armistice. Statistics covering the exports of superphosphates for 
recent years are not available. 36 Keen rivalry exists among the pro- 
ducers of superphosphate. A single company, however, the "St. 
Gobain," dominates the superphosphate business in France. Of 
2,200,000 tons of superphosphate produced to-day it provides 1,200,- 
000 tons. 37 

The chamber of commerce, Nancy, announces that the production 
of basic slag during 1924 will be about 1,200,000 metric tons, of which 
about 400,000 tons will be consumed in France. Efforts are being 
made to increase the local consumption through a special organization 
to spread propaganda among farmers. 38 

Germany. — The agricultural year 1924 will show 65 per cent de- 
crease in the use of phosphoric acid fertilizers in Germany, as com- 
pared with the previous year r according to the Deutsche Bergwerks- 
zeitung. It is stated that from May 1 to December 31, 1923, only 
82,000 tons was used, as compared with 336,000 tons in the same 
period of 1913. The amount of phosphoric acid fertilizer used in 
Germany has never quite reached 50 per cent of pre-war years. 
Prices are said to be one and one-half times as high as during war 
times. 39 Germany is producing about 1,000,000 tons of Thomas slag 
annually with a r 2 5 content of about 160,000 tons. 40 She is the 
principal export market for American phosphate rock and has about 
80 plants that convert the rock into superphosphates. 41 

Great Britain. — According to a report of the permanent committee 
on basic slag in Great Britain it is estimated that the annual con- 
sumption of slag in agriculture in England and Wales is 300,000 
tons. 42 Imports of phosphate of lime and rock phosphate from 
January to September, 1924, were 243,983 long tons, as compared 
with 254,455 tons for the corresponding period in 1923, 43 a decrease 

35 Mayer, C. J., "Production of superphosphate in Esthonia," Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Chem. Trade Bull. 44-E, Oct. 13, 1924. 

36 Memminger, Lucien, "Phosphates — France"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Chem. 
Trade Bull. 38-E, August, 1924. 

37 American Fertilizer, "Superphosphates in France— keen rivalry"; vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 57, 58, 60, Jan. 
10, 1925. 

38 Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "French basic slag production increasing"; Chem. Trade 
Bull.49-E. 

39 Dumont, F. T. F., "Phosphoric acid used in Germany"; Com. Repts., Aug. 4, 1924, p. 296. 

40 American Fertilizer, "German Thomas slag producers complain of lost markets"; vol. 62, No. 4, p. 
33, Feb. 21, 1925. 

41 Daugherty, W. T., "German consumption of fertilizers"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Chem. Trade Bull. 49-E. 

42 American Fertilizer, "A British report on basic slag"; vol. 62, No. 7, Apr. 4, 1925, p. 42. 

43 Nutting, Alfred, "British fertilizer exports increase"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Chem. Trade Bull. 50-E, Nov. 22, 1924. 



106 MINEBAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

of 4 per cent. Imports of basic slag likewise decreased from 67,536 
long tons during the stated interval in 1923 to 39,171 tons in 1924, 
or 42 per cent. 

Greece. — The production of superphosphate in Greece in 1921 was 
13,300 metric tons. In 1922 it rose to 14,400 tons, but in 1923 it 
fell sharply to 9,683 tons. The value of the 1923 product was about 
$405,000. 44 

India. — India possesses deposits of natural rock phosphate, such 
as those of Trichinopoly and Bihar, and also an unfailing supply 
of bones, neither of which is being utilized to any considerable extent 
at present for fertilizer. Experiments in composting indigenous 
mineral phosphates with sulphur, as has been done by McLean in 
America, have been satisfactorily performed at Pusa. The solu- 
bility of phosphate rock is increased by oxidation of the composted 
sulphur by soil bacteria. The ratio of 120 parts of sulphur to 400 
parts of phosphate and 2,000 parts of soil, as determined by McLean, 
was employed. As a result 88. 9 per cent of the insoluble mineral 
phosphorus or 95.9 per cent of the pure tricalcium phosphate was ren- 
dered available in 10 weeks. 45 

Italy. — Imports of phosphate rock into Venice during the first half 
of 1924 totaled 75,023 tons, most of which came from Tunisia. It 
was all destined for use as fertilizer and worked to superphosphate 
by factories in the region. 46 

The monthly business and financial report of the General Federa- 
tion of Italian Industries has issued the following statement relative 
to the production of fertilizers in Italy : 47 

By far the largest producer of fertilizers is the " Montecatini " Co. Mineral 
superphosphates are the fertilizer for which demand is heaviest. They are manu- 
factured by the " Montecatini" in no less than 40 factories scattered throughout 
Italy, with an annual output of over 700,000 metric tons, equivalent to three- 
quarters of the demand on the home market. 

Japan. — Japan is a growing market for American land-pebble 
phosphates. Exports have increased from 8,201 long tons in 1922 to 
14,225 in 1923, and 45,733 during 1924. 48 

New Zealand. — Negotiations are said to be practically complete for 
the establishment of a fertilizer plant at Wanganui in the Wellington 
consular district at a cost of £150,000 to £170,000 and with a capacity 
of 50,000 to 60,000 tons of fertilizer a year. The chief feature of the 
plant is the conversion into superphosphates of phosphate rock from 
Nauru. 49 

For the financial year of the Phosphate Commission ended June 
30, 1925, it is understood contracts have been made under which all 
phosphate rock required for New Zealand manufacturers would be 
derived from Nauru and Ocean Islands. It is estimated that up to 
80,000 or 85,000 tons will be imported during that period. 

As noted on page 104, low-grade phosphate rock is mined at Claren- 
don, on the South Island. 

44 Hall, R. O., "Fertilizers— Greece"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Chem. Trade Bull. 
37-E, Aug. 18, 1924. 

45 Hutchinson, C. M., "The utilization of indigenous phosphates in India"; Agr. in India, vol. 19, 1924, 
pp. 4-14. 

4; Young, James B., " World trade notes on fertilizers"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Chem. Trade Bull. 52-E, Feb. 4, 1925. 

47 American Fertilizer, "Fertilizers in Italy"; vol. 61, No. 3, Aug. 9, 1924, p. 44. 

48 Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, "World trade notes on fertilizers; phosphates— Japan "- 
Chem. Trade Bull. 53-E, Feb. 28, 1925. 

« Gunsanlus, Edwin N., Kept., Oct. 23, 1924. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 107 

Norway. — Although Norway has an excess of nitrogenous fertilizers, 
it lacks necessary amounts of potash and phosphates. In 1923, 
therefore, 24,325 tons of superphosphates, 18,675 tons of Thomas 
phosphate, and 16,898 tons of kainite and other potash fertilizers 
were purchased from foreign countries, chiefly Germany, the Nether- 
lands, and Belgium. 50 

During and immediately after the World War a considerable 
number of factories were established in and near Frederiksstad, 
Norway. Practically all of these war plants later went into bank- 
ruptcy. One is now to be reconstructed for the manufacture of phos- 
phorus. At present the only factory of this kind in Scandinavia is at 
Falun, Sweden. The Frederiksstad plant will, it is estimated, be in 
position to supply all the phosphorus required by the Norwegian 
match industry. 51 

Pacific Islands. — The chief phosphate-bearing islands are in the 
Pacific. Angaur Island, of the Pelew group, supplies the Japanese 
with about 30,000 tons of rock phosphate annually. Paza Island, 
which belongs to Japan, is also being mined for phosphate. Makatea, 
in the Paumotu group, produces some 39,000 tons for the French. 
By far the greatest amount of rock phosphate, however, is mined from 
the extensive and rich deposits on Ocean and Pleasant (Nauru) 
Islands, which are under the control of the British. 

Exports from Nauru and Ocean Islands during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1924, were 459,162 metric tons, as compared with 316,652 
tons in 1923. According to the British Phosphate Commission's re- 
port for the fiscal year cited, Australia took 70.67 per cent, New Zea- 
land 13.45 per cent, and other countries except the United Kingdom 
15.87 per cent. The United Kingdom did not exercise her right to 
42 per cent of the output. 52 

Most of the guano islands of the Pacific are within the Tropics. 
Among many that have been worked in the past but are now either 
depleted or too poor to be worked under existing conditions are the 
Howland and Baker Islands in the central Pacific; islands of the 
Phoenix group; Laysan and Gardner Islands in the Hawaiian group; 
Raine, Bunker, and Lady Elliott Islands off the North Queensland 
coast; and Washington, Fanning, Starbuck, and Jarvis Islands. 
Guano islands being worked at the present day are Clipperton, be- 
longing to Mexico; Pescadores, Guanape, and Chincha Islands, be- 
longing to Peru; and Maiden Island, belonging to Great Britain, 
which nas been worked for over 60 years. 

Guano phosphate has been worked on Surprise, Fabre, and Le 
Leizour Islands of the Huon group, north of New Caledonia, and 
Walpcle Island, south of New Caledonia, both belonging to the 
French. 53 

Philippine Islands. — The discovery of extensive deposits of 
guano in the Province of Cebu, Philippine Islands, is reported. A 
local market for such a fertilizer would be found in the sugar planta- 
tions of the islands. 54 

«» Swift, A. H., "Norway as a chemical market"; Commerce Repts., Mar. 23, 1925, pp. 690-691. 
51 Sorensen, H., "Norwegian phosphorus factory planned"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Chem. Trade Bull. 49-A, Nov. 15. 1924. 
« American Fertilizer, vol. 63, No. 1, July 11, 1925, p. 27. 

" Power, F. D., "Phosphate deposits of the Pacific"; Econ. GeoL, vol. 20, No. 3, 1925, pp. 266-281. 
« American Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 8, Oct. 18, 1924, p. 31. 



108 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924- 



-PART II 



Russia. — The largest phosphorite deposits thus far discovered in 
the Soviet Union are situated in Vyatka Province, but there are no 
immediate prospects for large-scale exploitation. The Yegorievsk 
phosphorite deposit in the central part of European Soviet Kussia, 
near Moscow, does, however, have such possibilities. This deposit 
is already being worked to some extent by mechanical methods 
and yields a phosphate mineral well adapted to the production of 
superphosphates. The "Phosphat" Joint-Stock Co., with an 
established capital of 450,000 gold rubles, was formed some time 
ago to exploit the Yegorievsk deposit, which contains a reserve of 
400,000,000 poods of phosphorite on a comparatively small area, 
while the reserves of the entire Yegorievsk deposit may be estimated 
at 3,500,000,000 poods. By increasing the number of excavating 
machines and modernizing the leaching equipment, now of a very 
primitive character, the annual output of phosphorites could be 
brought up to 10,000,000 poods, enough for the preparation of 
2,000,000 poods of superphosphate a year. (A pood is 36.11 
pounds.) 

The Kineshma and Chernoreche plants, belonging to the a Phos- 
phatotuk" Trust, can produce 3,000,000 poods of superphosphate 
^luring the year 1924-25. They have been designed in such a way 
as to enable each plant to expand its output to 4,000,000 poods a 
year. 55 

South Africa. — South Africa imports fairly large quantities of 
superphosphates. Supplies are now being drawn mainly from the 
Netherlands, as the following statistics of imports in 1922 and 1923 
show : 

South African imports of phosphates, 1922-1923 



Country of origin 


1922 


1923 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




6, 833, 258 

616, 194 

7, 127, 472 

13, 476, 208 

22, 204 


£13, 331 

398 

13, 327 

31, 556 

98 


36, 434, 073 
4, 343, 600 
4, 024, 422 
3, 141, 092 


£56, 483 




5,944 


United Kingdom 


11, 038 


Belgium __ _ _ 


7,890 













The importations are usually in cargo lots. One of the latest 
quotations of Dutch superphosphates was 70s. per long ton c. i. f. 
Cape Town, analysis 17 per cent or better. Another recent quota- 
tion was 75s., analysis 17.1 per cent. 56 

Spain. — The phosphate-rock discoveries in Alhama de Murcia, 
Spam, have led to the finding of an important bed of first-grade 
lignite coal which is to be used by a 15,000-kilowatt steam-generating 
plant to be built near by. Geologists throughout Spain have been 
particularly interested in this new find, because phosphorus, potas- 
sium, and nitrogen occur in close relation with one another. The 
Madrid School of Mines has recently analyzed a number of samples 
from the newly discovered beds. The analysis shows a content of 
20 per cent phosphate, 6 per cent potassium, and 1 per cent nitro- 
ns American Fertilizer, "The phosphate industry in Russia"; vol. 62, No. 11, May 30, 1925, p. 66. 
« 8 Poole, D. C, "South African market for phosphates"; Commerce Repts., Aug. 18, 1924, p. 435. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK 109 

gen. The deposit is estimated to contain approximately 10,000,000 
tons of phosphate. The importance of this new bed to Spanish 
agriculture will be far-reaching. Spain was second in importance 
as a foreign market for Florida land-pebble phosphate in 1923, 
taking 92,326 long tons. 57 Spain was also second in 1924, taking 
110,146 tons. 

According to a published statement containing analyses of phos- 
phate from Murcia, Spain, the rock is glauconitic with 20 to 30 per 
cent tricalcium phosphate and 7 per cent potassium. There are also 
white limestones containing as much as 31 per cent of phosphates, 
but these are not abundant. 58 

Spanish production of superphosphates shows a marked increase 
in 1923 as compared with 1922. In 1922, 461,530 tons, valued at 
62,753,518 pesetas, was produced, whereas in 1923 the quantity 
produced was 561,853 tons, valued at 72,559,337 pesetas. 59 

Tasmania. — In Tasmania the Electrolytic Zinc Co. of Australia is 
now turning its attention to the manufacture of superphosphates 
and has launched a project for an output of 50,000 tons per annum. 
The superphosphate plant is part of the company's works at Kis- 
don, near Hobart, and the first parcel of fertilizer has been manu- 
factured. The project provides a suitable and profitable outlet for 
the sulphuric acid produced from the company's zinc concentrates. 60 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

GENERAL PAPERS 

American Fertilizer, The world market for phosphate: Vol. 61, No. 6, Sep- 
tember 20, 1924, p. 33. 

Sulphuric acid and acid phosphate; production, consumption, sales, and 

stock, January to June, 1924: Vol. 61, No. 10, November 15, 1924, pp. 
23-25. 

World production of phosphates: Vol. 61, No. 10, November 15, 1924, 



p. 72. 

Basic slag on the continent: Vol. 62, No. 8, April 18, 1925, pp. 42, 44. 



Brioux, C, [Comparative availability of calcium phosphate and of phosphates 

of iron and aluminum]: Chimie et Industrie, Special No., May, 1924, pp. 

687-690. _ 
■ [Solubilization of natural phosphates in acid-reacting soil with high 

humus content]: Chimie et industrie, Special No., May, 1924, pp. 691-693. 
Caro, R. J., and Larison, E. L., Causes of errors in the analysis of high-grade 

phosphatic materials: Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., vol. 17, No. 3, March, 

1925, pp. 261-264; Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 7, April 4, 1925, pp. 62, 64, 

68, 70, 72, 74. 
Cates, J. Sidney, The verdict of the jury: Acid phosphate v. raw rock: Am. 

Fertilizer, Vol. 61, No. 4, August 23, 1924, pp. 35-36, 42, 44. 
Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Fertilizer industry conquering 

corrosion ; a survey of industrial products in the production of acid phosphate, 

the largest constituent of commercial fertilizer: Vol. 31, No. 2, July 14, 

1924, pp. 50-51. 
Decline in United States export of phosphate to France: Vol. 32, No. 5, 

February 2, 1925, p. 218. 
Cochet, A., [The new fertilizer "phospho-nitrogen" (phosphazote) and urea]: 

Chimie et industrie, Special No., May, 1924, pp. 394-403. 

87 American Fertilizer, "Phosphate rock in the Province of Murcia, Spain"; vol. 62, No. 4, Feb. 21, 
1925, p. 74. 

68 Menendez, L., y Puget, [Note on the formation, composition, and chemical properties of the phos- 
phates of northern Africa and Spain], Bol. inst. geol. Espaha, vol. 43, 1923, pp. 331-346; Rev. Geol., vol. 5, 
1923, p. 177. 

69 Burke, J. G., "Spanish chemical production"; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Chem. 
Trade Bull. 52-A, Feb. 14, 1925. 

60 American Fertilizer, "Superphosphate industry in Tasmania"; vol. 61, No. 9, p. 57, Nov. 1, 1924; 
Min. Jour., London, p. 72, Jan. 17, 1925. 



110 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Commercial Fertilizer, Bureau of Standards — standard sample of phosphate 

rock: Vol. 28, No. 6, July, 1924, pp. 75-78. 
■ South America suggested as market for acid phosphate: Vol. 29, No. 3, 

October, 1924, p. 47. 

• ■ Phosphate export rates: Vol. 29, No. 5, December, 1924, p. 60. 

Engineering and Mining Journal-Press, Process by which phosphate is made 

soluble without use of sulphuric acid: Vol. 118, No. 5, Aug. 2, 1924, p. 184. 

■ Basic slag as fertilizer: Vol. 119, No. 22, May 30, 1925, p. 893. 

Fishburne, G. R., Another process for calcining phosphate rock: Am. Fertilizer, 

vol. 62, No. 9, May 2, 1925, pp. 21-25. 
Gehring, A., and Pommer, E. [The action of Rhenania nitrogen phosphate in 

comparison with ammonium phosphate]: Ztschr. Pllanzenernahr. Diingung, 

Bd. 2, 1923, pp. 404-407. 
Graftiau, J., [The delaved action of phosphate fertilizers]: Bull. soc. chim. 

Belg., vol. 33, 1924, pp. 462-464. 
Grammont, M. A., Etude sur les phosphates naturels — Recherche et dosage 

des metaux contenus en petite quantite dans ces mineraux: Bull. Soc. 

Chim. France, 4th ser., vol. 35-36, No. 3, March, 1924, pp. 405-408. 
Gray, A. N., The world position as to phosphate rock: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, 

No. 6, Mar. 21, 1925, pp. 23-30; vol. 62, No. 7, April 4, 1925, pp. 21-27. 
Greenstreet, V. R., The composition of Kedah and Perlis phosphates: Malayan 

Agr. Jour., vol. 11, pp. 70-71, 1923; Botan. abstracts, vol. 12, p. 998. 
Jacob, K. D., and Br ah am, J. M., Chemical changes occurring in calcium 

cvanamide-acid phosphate mixtures: Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., vol. 17, 

No. 1, January, 1925, pp. 64-68. 
Kayser, E. [Rendering phosphates soluble by microbial methods]: Compt. 

rend. acad. agr. France, vol. 10, 1924, pp. 710-712. 
Lint, H. C, The sulphur factor in acid phosphate: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, 

No. 10, May 16, 1925, pp. 21-24. 
Lundell, G. E. F., and Hoffman, J. I., The analysis of phosphate rock: Assoc. 

Off. Agr. Chem. Jour., vol. 8, No. 2, 1924, pp. 184-206. 
McCall, A. G., and Wilhelm, C. P., The effect of heat upon the availability of 

the phosphorus in basic phosphate rock: Maryland Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 

260, 1923, pp. 103-120. 
McCandless, J. M., and Burton, J. 0., Sources of error in the determination 

of phosphoric acid by the molybdate-magnesia method: Am. Fertilizer, 

vol. 62, No. 1, January 10, 1925, pp. 62, 64, 68, 70, 72, 74. 
Niklas, H., Strobel, A., and Scharrer, K. [Fertilizing value of various phos- 
phates]: Ztschr. angewandte Chem., Jahrg. 37, August 14, 1924, pp. 617-620. 
Ogilvie, A., American practice in the superphosphate industry: Chem. Age 

(London), vol. 10, 1924, pp. 288-289. 
Ross, W. H., Mehring, A. L., and Jones, R. M., Preparation of phosphoric acid: 

Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., vol. 16, No. 6, June, 1924, pp. 563-566. 
Ruhm, H. D., Review of industry in 1924: Eng. and Min. Jour.-Press, vol. 119, 

No. 3, January 17, 1925, pp. 99-100. 
■ World market for phosphate: Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 11, 

September 15, 1924, pp. 409-410. 
Swann, T., Production of ferrophosphorus in the electric furnace: Trans. Am. 

Inst. Min. and Met. Eng., Advance leaflet No. 1383-S, October, 1924. 
Volfkovich, S. I., [Production of enriched superphosphate]: Arb. Wiss. Inst. 

Diingem, Bd. 16, 1923, pp. 1-32. 
Volhard, J., [The evaluation of Rhenania phosphate]: Ztschr. angew. Chem., 

Jahrg. 37, 1924, pp. 131-132. 
Waggaman, W. H., Phosphate rock: Mineral Industry in 1923, vol. 32, 1924, 

pp. 527-540. 

PUBLICATIONS ON DEPOSITS IN DIFFERENT STATES 

FLORIDA 

Chapin, G. M., The phosphates of Florida: Manufacturers Record, vol. 87, 
No. 20, May 14, 1925, pp. 76-78; Am. Fertilizer, vol. 62, No. 11, May 30, 
1925, pp. 48, 50. 

Fertilizer Green Book, An unusual phosphate operation: Vol. 5, No. 10, 
pp. 24-26, 1924. (Describes the pebble phosphate mining, washing, and 
drying operations of the American Agricultural Chemical Co. at Pierce, 
Fla.) 



PHOSPHATE ROCK HI 



IDAHO 

Kirkham, V. R. D., Phosphate deposits of Idaho and their relation to the world 
supply: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. and Met. Eng., Advance leaflet No. 1405-H, 
issued with Mining and Metallurgy, January, 1925. 

MONTANA 

American Fertilizer, The Anaconda Co.'s superphosphate plant: Vol. 61, 

No. 10, November 15, 1924, p. 57. 
Mining and Metallurgy, Anaconda superphosphate: October, 1924, p. 496. 

TENNESSEE 

Barr, J. A., Manufacture of ferrophosphorus at Rockdale, Tenn.: Min. and 

Met., vol. 5, November, 1924, p. 549. 
Commercial Fertilizer, Tennessee phosphate notes: Vol. 29, No. 4, November, 

1924, p. 52. 
Fertilizer Green Book, How the Tennessee-Illinois Phosphate Co. makes 

fertilizer: Vol. 5, No. 12, 1924, pp. 25-28. 
Smith, R. W., Geology and utilization of Tennessee phosphate rock: Trans. Am. 

Inst. Min. and Met. Eng., No. 1373-M, September, 1924; Min. and Met., 

vol. 5, No. 214, October, 1924, pp. 481-484; Rock products, vol. 28, April 

18, 1925, pp. 59-61. 

PUBLICATIONS ON DEPOSITS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

AFRICA 

American Fertilizer, A consortium for the sale of African phosphates: Vol. 62, 

No. 4, February 21, 1925, p. 37. 
Poole, D. C, South African market for phosphates: Bureau of Foreign and 

Domestic Commerce, Commerce Repts., August 18, 1924, p. 435. 

ALGERIA 

Dussert, D., Les gisements Algeriens de phosphate de chaux: Ann. des Mines 
Recueil, vol. 6, September, 1924, pp. 135-221; October, pp. 229-325; Novem- 
ber, pp. 333-398; December, pp. 407-451. 

Elkington, David C, Valuable Algerian phosphate open for exploitation: 
Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 17, October 27, 1924, p. 674. 

Prospective Algerian phosphate developments: Bureau of Foreign and 

Domestic Commerce, Commerce Repts., November 10, 1924, pp. 349-350. 

AUSTRALIA 

MacGruer, D. C, The sulphuric acid and superphosphate plants of the Sulphide 
Corporation (Ltd.), at Cockle Creek, New South Wales: Chem. Eng. Mining 
Review, vol. 16, pp. 444-445, 1924. 

BELGIUM 

Graftiau, J., [Belgian "disintegrated phosphates"]: Chim. et ind., Special No., 
May, 1924, pp. 678-683. 

CHINA 

Memminger, C. G., Chinese phosphate deposits: Am. Fertilizer, vol. 61, No. 10, 
November 15, 1924, p. 27. 

FRANCE 

American Fertilizer, Superphosphates in France — keen rivalry: Vol.62, No. 1, 
January 10, 1925, pp. 57, 58, 60. 

Commercial Fertilizer, Will France compel Germany to buy French phos- 
phates? Vol. 29, No. 4, November, 1924, pp. 42, 44. 



112 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

GERMANY 

Forster, — , Die Technik des deutschen Phosphatbergbaues : Metall u. Erz, 

Jahrg 21, No. 21, 1924, pp. 493-499. 
Niklas, H., and Scharrer, K. [Phosphoric acid problem]: Chem. Ztg., Jahrg. 

48, pp. 121-122, 1924. 
Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, Phosphate market in Germany may be closed 

to Americans: Vol. 106, No. 13, September 29, 1924, p. 66. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

American Fertilizer, a British report on basic slag: Vol.62, No. 7, April 4, 
1925, pp. 42, 44, 58, 60. 

MOROCCO 

American Fertilizer, Large production of Morocco phosphate: Vol. 62, No. 4, 

February 21, 1925, p. 74. 

Handling phosphate in Morocco: Vol. 62, No. 8, April 18, 1925, p. 64. 

Bel, J. M., Les gisements de phosphate du Maroc: Bull. Assoc, francaise devel. 

trav. pub., extract, 3d trimestre, 1923, Paris, 1924, 23 pp. 
Les gisements de phosphate du Maroc: Bull. Soc. d'Encour., vol. 123, 

December, 1924, pp. 793-810. 
Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Moroccan phosphate offered in 

European markets: Chem. and Met. Eng., vol. 31, No. 14, October 6, 1924, 

p. 556. 
Rapid advance in phosphate output of Morocco: Vol. 32, No. 6, February 

9, 1925, p. 258. 
Engineering and Mining Journal-Press, Moroccan phosphate has little bad 

effect on United States industry: Vol. 119, No. 8, February 21, 1925, p. 340. 
Joleaud, L., Les phosphates du Maroc: Bull. Soc. Geol. France, vol. 23, serial, 

1923, pp. 172-184. 
Mining Journal (London), Morocco phosphate industry: February 28, 1925, 

p. 191. 
Societe de Geographie du Maroc, L'exploitation des phosphates marocains: 

Bull., vol. 5, No. 1, p. 58, 1924. 

PACIFIC ISLANDS (AUSTRALIA; PLEASANT AND OCEAN ISLANDS) 

Power, F. Danvers, Phosphate deposits of the Pacific: Econ. Geol., May, 1925, 
pp. 266-281. 

RUSSIA 

American Fertilizer, Russian phosphorites: Vol. 61, No. 3, August 9, 1924, 
pp. 59-60. 
— The phosphate industry in Russia: Vol. 62, No. 11, May 30, 1925, p. 66. 

Prianishnikov, — , [Phosphate deposits in Russia in the light of recent investi- 
gations]: Ztschr. Pflanzenernahr. Diingung, Bd. 2, 1923, pp. 315-321. 

Samoilov, I., [Phosphorite deposits of Russia and their utilization]: Techn.- 
wirtschaftl. Nachrichten (Russian), 1922, pp. 153-157; Chem. Zentralb., 
Bd. 3, 1923, p. 732. 

Tokarski, J., [Phosphorite in Podolia]: Przemysl Chem., vol. 7, pp. 57-68, 
1923; Chem. Zentralb., Jahrg. 3, 1923, p. 1550. 

SPAIN 

Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Spain discovers phosphate 

resources. Vol. 31, No. 12, September 22, 1924, p. 478; Am. Fertilizer, vol. 

61, No. 7, October 4, 1924, p. 36. 
Menendez, L., y Puget, [Note on the formation, composition, and chemical 

properties of the phosphates of northern Africa and Spain]: Bol. Inst. geol. 

Espana, vol. 43, pp. 331-346, 1923; Rev. geol., vol. 5, p. 177. 

TUNIS 

Reagan, Daniel J., Increase in Tunisian phosphate production during 1924: 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Chem. Trade Bull. 54-E, 
March 17, 1925. 



CLAY 

By Jefferson Midbleton 



GENERAL CONDITIONS 

Clay available for the manufacture of clay products, its largest use, 
is widely distributed in the United States, and there are clay-working 
plants in every State in the Union. The following tables of produc- 
tion represent chiefly the clay that was mined and sold as clay, or 
mined under royalty, and do not include the much greater quantity 
that was burned into clay products by the producers themselves. 
The quantity of clay sold thus is small compared with the total output 
and mainly includes clay used for making high-grade pottery and tile, 
paper, and refractory products. The values given for domestic pro- 
duction are f. o. b. at mines; for imports, at the principal markets 
of the countries from which the clay is exported; for exports, at the 
ports of shipment. 

The general condition of the clay-mining industry w as good on the 
whole in 1924. The total quantity and value of clay sold were the 
largest ever recorded and showed a gain of 7 per cent in quantity 
and 3 per cent in value compared with 1923. This increase may be in 
part due to more complete returns having been received, especially 
from those who mine clay under royalty, and is accounted for by the 
larger output of fire clay and miscellaneous or unclassified clay. 
The former, as its name indicates, is principally used as a refractory; 
the latter is composed largely of clay used for heavy-clay products, 
such as building and drainage materials. Every other kind of clay 
classified in this report decreased in quantity and value compared 
with 1923. The output of kaolin, the clay used in making high-grade 
pottery, porcelain, tile, paper, oilcloth, etc., decreased 3 per cent in 
quantity compared with 1923, but had practically the same value. 
The quantity for 1924 was, however, by far the largest recorded 
except that for 1923, which suggests that the output for 1923 was 
produced under an unusual demand that was not maintained in 1924, 
as the pottery industry slowed down somewhat in that year. The 
large production of 1923 may also have resulted in the accumulation of 
stocks in the hands of the consumers, which further reduced the 
demand. North Carolina and South Carolina showed the largest 
decreases in the production of kaolin. A small output of ball clay 
in Missouri in 1923 was erroneously credited to kaolin, which also 
accounts for part of the decrease. The recent opening of deposits in 
Florida and North Carolina by new operators gives promise of an 
increased capacity in 1925. 

Ball clay, which is used principally with kaolin in bodies of high- 
grade ceramics, declined 14 per cent in quantity and 6 per cent in 

113 



114 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART 11 

value as compared with 1923. The quantity for 1924 has been ex- 
ceeded, however, by that of only four years — 1923, 1918, 1917, and 
1916. Slip clay, which increased greatly in 1923, decreased 31 per 
cent in quantity in 1924 but did not reach the level of any other year 
since 1919 except 1920. This clay, which for many years was used 
principally as a glaze on low-grade pottery, has in recent years been 
used as a binder in the manufacture of artificial abrasives. The pro- 
duction of slip clay is limited to Michigan and New York, though 
there are deposits in other States. 

Stoneware clay also showed a large decrease in quantity and value — ■ 
27 per cent in the former and 40 per cent in the latter. The term 
"stoneware clay" is a rather loose one, and much, if not all, of the fire 
and miscellaneous clays reported as having been sold for the manu- 
facture of stoneware might properly be classed as stoneware clay; so 
the large decrease in this kind of clay compared with 1923 may be 
more apparent than real, though the quantity reported for 1924 is the 
smallest ever recorded. 

Fire clay, which constituted about two-thirds of the total quantity 
of clay sold in 1924, on the other hand, made a record-breaking output, 
exceeding the war-time output of 1917 by 95,738 tons, or 4 per cent. 
The great use of this clay, as its name indicates, is in the refractory 
industries. Considerable quantities are also used in the stoneware, 
architectural terra cotta, plaster, and other industries. Miscellaneous 
clays embrace those used in many industries, the larger part being 
used in the manufacture of heavy-clay products, such as building and 
drainage materials. Clay included under this head is also used for 
cosmetics, filtering oil (after treatment), flower pots, insecticides, 
modeling, soap filler, softening water, taxidermy, etc. 

UTILIZATION OF BENTONITE 

A most interesting problem in the clay-mining industry is the 
utilization of the material occurring in large quantities in the far 
West and known under a number of names, such as ardmorite, 
bentonite, Death Valley clay, Denver mud, leverrierite, montmoril- 
lonite, otaylite, refinite, soap clay, wilkenite, etc. These are claylike 
materials, and are, perhaps, known more commonly as bentonite. 
It was first noticed by W. C. Knight, State geologist of Wyoming, 
and described by him in 1898. Since that time efforts have been 
made to utilize this peculiar material, and it has been used in a small 
way with more or less success as a water softener, in the manufacture 
of paper, soap, and cosmetics, for deinking newsprint, and in the 
filtering of oil. The largest use of this material at present is in 
California, where, under a patented process, the clay is used after 
chemical treatment in the decolorizing of oil. The results obtained 
are said to surpass those obtained by the use of fuller's earth. A 
comprehensive publication on this subject, recently issued by the 
Canada Department of Mines, 1 goes into considerable detail concern- 
ing the possible uses of bentonite as well as much other information 
regarding its distribution, character, origin, and history. 

1 Spence, H. S., Bentonite: Canada Dept. Mines, Mines Branch, Ottawa, 1924, 36 pp. 



CLAY 



115 



PRODUCTION 

Domestic clay sold in the United States, 1915-1924, by kinds 



Year 


Kaolin, china clay, 
and paper clay 


Ball clay 


Slip clay 


Fire clay 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


141,064 
201, 157 
206, 334 
179, 694 
152, 828 
268, 203 
162, 726 
275, 675 
336, 803 
326.611 


$781, 142 
1, 075, 730 
1, 263, 799 
1, 459, 529 
1, 475, 681 
2, 865, 407 
1, 579, 163 
2, 346, 095 
2, 926, 255 
2, 923, 965 


75, 348 
89, 761 
107, 406 
89, 896 
65, 026 
69, 477 
54, 014 
76, 792 
97, 068 
83, 034 


$301, 910 
391, 152 
569, 240 
590, 631 
520, 849 
584,611 
354, 565 
440, 877 
620, 978 
581, 966 


7,646 
14, 064 
16, 972 
13, 552 
5,149 
9,006 
4,608 
4,050 
8,520 
5,910 


$18, 774 
47, 939 
70, 505 
49, 898 
17, 556 
41,519 
14, 841 
19, 405 
43, 609 
31, 023 


1, 570, 481 

2, 057, 814 
2, 347, 972 
2, 305, 033 
1, 755, 331 
2, 261, 915 
1,195,861 

1, 679, 220 
2, 298, 163 

2, 443, 710 


$2, 361, 482 

3, 708, 009 
5, 625, 095 
5, 664, 064 

4, 628, 605 
7, 088, 049 
3, 560, 373 


1916 


1917... 


1918... 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


4, 633, 486 
6, 565, S99 
6, 737, 063 


1923 


1924 






Stoneware clay 


Brick clay 


Miscellaneous clay 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


134,297 
135, 958 
81, 352 
86, 800 
60, 236 
106, 350 
86, 574 
86, 866 
81,389 
59, 194 


$126, 429 
137, 779 
113,839 
147, 098 
80, 367 
229, 221 
184, 540 
164, 870 
194, 358 
117, 142 


101,968 
97, 164 
93, 779 

(«) 

(«) 

(•) 

(•) 

(•) 

(«) 

(«) 


$93, 863 
76, 854 
94, 703 

(•) 

(«) 

(•) 

(•) 

( a ) 

(•) 

C) 


332, 150 
336, 672 
260, 029 
301, 386 
236, 530 
322, 100 
242, 963 
525, 097 
612,717 
772, 660 


$288, 341 
314,311 
305, 365 
421, 421 
367, 573 
467, 856 
361,818 
725, 781 
837,814 
1, 116, 377 


2, 362, 954 
2, 932, 590 
3,113,844 
2, 976, 361 
2, 275, 100 
3, 037, 051 

1, 746, 746 

2, 647, 700 

3, 434, 660 
3,691,119 


$3, 971, 941 

5,751,774 


1916 


1917 


8, 042, 546 


1918 


8, 332, 641 
7,090,631 


1919 


1920 


11,276 663 


1921... 


6, 055, 300 
8, 330, 514 


1922 


1923... 


11,188,913 


1924 


11, 507, 536 







• Included under "Miscellaneous clay." 

Domestic clay sold in the United States in 1923, by States and kinds 



State 


Number 
of oper- 
ators 
report- 
ing 
sales 


Kaolin, china clay, and 
paper clay 


Ball clay 


Fire clay 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




10 

(») 

( a ) 
23 
17 

(•) 

(«) 

(•) 

15 
(•) 
20 
14 
5 
19 
18 
5 
4 
(«) 
3 
32 
4 
(•) 
(») 
41 
5 
6 
6 

(•) 

61 
(«) 

72 

7 

C) 

11 

10 

Undistrib 










77, 440 


$108, 478 






















167 
143, 089 
146, 000 


1,754 




2,049 


$17, 237 


1,794 


$7, 070 


239, 013 




217, 258 












Delaware 


1,282 
123, 994 


17, 400 
( a ) 
867, 808 






4,000 


12,000 


Florida. . 














4,066 

133 

130, 340 

56, 718 


18, 427 


Idaho 






1,297 


Illinois 






3,625 


16, 063 


245, 873 




H7 


1,764 


90, 625 










Kentucky 






31, 141 


177, 579 


70, 993 

22, 152 

406 


250, 320 




(«) 


(•) 


99, 144 








2,131 






































1,059 

» 491,211 

11, 624 

255 


9,380 




C) 


(•) 






» 1, 607, 927 








20, 033 












965 




1,000 


10,000 








New Jersey 


11, 280 


89, 838 


286, 145 

3,135 

247 


1, 353, 566 








11, 939 












3,211 




23, 673 

8 


369, 398 
58 














21 
292, 216 


326 


Ohio 






681, 508 














Pennsylvania 


60, 669 
54,748 


378, 712 
451,412 






412, 744 
300 


1, 172, 333 






3,000 










Tennessee 






49, 228 


330, 428 


55, 464 
3,623 


197, 661 








23,391 


• Included under " 


uted." 











» These totals include 10,617 tons of diaspore clay from Missouri, valued at $54,450. 



116 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Domestic clay sold in the United States in 1923, by States and kinds — Continued 



State 


Number 
of oper- 
ators 
report- 
ing 
sales 


Kaolin, china clay, and 
paper clay 


Ball clay 


Fire clay 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Utah 


5 

(») 
3 
8 
5 

C) 
3 
22 










1,740 


$12, 700 


Vermont 


417 

8 


$3, 682 
( a ) 






Virginia 






1,036 

5,524 

76, 315 


3,796 


Washington 






19, 549 


West Virginia 






158, 294 


Wisconsin 












Wyoming 













Undistributed 


68.816 808,784 






















Average value per ton 


454 


336, 803 


2, 926, 255 
8.69 


97,068 


$620, 978 
6.40 


& 2,298, 163 


6 6, 565, 899 
2.86 








*"" 







State 


Stoneware clay 


Miscellaneous clay e 


Total 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Alabama 






13, 178 

30 


$9. 341 
360 


90,618 

30 

167 

281, 893 

190, 250 

703 

5,282 

(•) 

319,021 

133 

165, 895 

80, 227 

4, 666 

102, 195 

87, 277 

1,358 

3,617 

00 

2,059 

495, 797 

11, 624 

255 

1,060 

376, 854 

3, 135 

8,247 

23, 793 

29 

312, 757 

1,101 

517, 392 

55, 048 

400 

105, 341 

3,823 

4,250 

417 

14, 303 

10, 491 

76, 315 

122 

614 

76, 101 


$118,419 








360 








1,754 


California 


5. 096 


$18, 860 


129, 865 

(•) 

703 


171, 574 
00 
1,139 


453, 754 


Colorado 


272, 276 


Connecticut... 


1,139 


Delaware 






29, 400 


Florida 










(•) 


Georgia 






190, 961 


190, 961 


1, 077, 196 


Idaho 






1,297 


Illinois 


29, 997 


49, 750 


1, 933 

23, 362 

4,666 

61 

57, 800 

952 

3,017 

(*) 


2,233 

58, 854 

4,730 

122 

60, 500 
4,725 
7,327 

00 


313,919 


Indiana 


151, 243 








4,730 


Kentucky 






428, 021 


Maryland 


(•) 


(•) 


172, 169 




6,856 








7,327 


Minnesota 






00 




1,000 

(«) 


2,000 
00 


11,380 


Missouri 






1, 624, 789 








20, 033 












965 








60 
65, 820 


900 
139, 329 


10, 900 


New Jersey 


13, 603 


68, 167 


1, 650, 900 




11,939 








8,000 


40, 490 
(•) 


43, 701 


North Carolina- 


(■) 


( a ) 


369, 518 


North Dakota 


384 


Ohio 


18, 888 

271 

7,373 


26, 951 

1,037 

17, 571 


1, 653 

830 

36, 606 


3,498 

1,796 

58, 266 


711,957 


Oregon 


2,833 


Pennsylvania 


1, 626, 882 


South Carolina . 


454, 412 


South Dakota. . 






400 

649 

121 

2,510 


4,666 

1,462 

335 

2,600 


4,000 








529, 551 




79 


147 


23, 873 


Utah 


15, 300 








3,682 


Virginia . 






(•) 

4,817 


(?) 

8,916 


128, 071 


Washington , 


(•) 


00 


29, 040 




158, 294 


Wisconsin... 






122 

614 

71, 901 


397 
10, 448 
96, 520 


397 


Wyoming.. 






10, 448 


Undistributed 


5,082 


9,875 


705, 804 






Average value per ton . 


81, 389 


194, 358 
2.39 


d 621, 237 


d 881, 423 


3, 434, 660 


11,188,913 
3.26 















"Included under "Undistributed." 

» These totals include 10,617 tons of diaspore clay from Missouri, valued at $54,450. 

• Includes ardmorite, bentonite, black-burning clay, moutmorillonite, and shale; clay for architectural 
terra cotta, artificial abrasives, art pottery, asbestos products, blast furnaces, building brick, coke ovens, 
cosmetics, decolorizing oils, flower pots, foundries, gas retorts, greenhouse-glass coating, high-grade tile, 
hollow building tile, insecticides, medicines, modeling, paint, pencil leads, plaster and plaster products, 
roofing tile, sewer pipe, soap, and steel castings. Slip clay is also included in this column as a matter of 
statistical convenience. 

d These totals include 8,520 tons of slip clay, valued at $43,609, or $5.12 a ton, from Michigan (630 tons, 
valued at $3,284) and New York (7,890 tons, valued at $40,325). 



CLAY 

Domestic claij sold in the United States in 



117 



by States and kinds 



State 


Number 
of oper- 
tors re- 
porting 
sales 


Kaolin, china clay, and 
paper clay 


Ball clay 


Fire clay 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




12 
(•) 

27 

18 
(•) 
3 
4 

18 
(•) 

20 

13 
4 

22 

15 
6 
5 
(•) 
3 

31 
4 
3 
3 

42 

5 

6 

5 

(•) 

60 
(•) 

81 
9 
3 

14 
9 
6 
(«) 
5 
7 
4 

(•) 

3 

12 






100 


$400 


66, 293 
166 
220, 196 
185, 259 
567 
C) 


$101, 924 

1,570 

372, 869 

257, 0.38 

7,371 


Arkansas 






California 


2,267 


$19, 157 


3,793 


14, 683 
















(„) 

135, 504 


(•) 
(•) 

975,422 






Florida 












21, 977 

570 

94, 773 

51, 927 


49, 300 

5,550 

193, 711 

85 131 








Illinois 






3,850 


20, 000 








Iowa 


















28, 444 


184, 234 


87, 200 

30, 414 

1,239 


316 115 




2,050 


3,362 


107, 991 
32, 417 








Michigan 










Minnesota 






















(•) 

* 453, 972 

4,802 

44 


( a ) 
» 1, 422, 942 
9,572 
142 








2,300 


13, 900 


















Nevada 


1,084 


10, 611 










5,366 


37, 040 


268, 401 

3,596 

170 


1 234 718 








13, 603 
1 700 












North Carolina 


16, 858 
2 


277, 418 








North Dakota 


45 






24 

249, 094 

134 

554, 257 

(•) 


395 


Ohio 






552, 476 
512 












Pennsylvania 


62, 596 
39, 633 


352, 507 
412, 327 






1, 513, 286 


South Carolina 






(°) 


South Dakota 














39, 181 


311, 709 


67, 119 

2,967 

6,405 

50 

(•) 
4,317 

63, 106 


242, 267 


Texas 






19, 477 


Utah... 










29, 333 




333 


3, 651 
C) 






175 








(°) 








16, 142 


West Virginia 










128, 553 




























Undistributed 


66, 284 


869, 465 






4,611 


20, 783 










Average value per 
ton 


482 


326, 611 


2, 923, 965 
8.95 


83, 034 


581, 966 
7.01 


» 2, 443, 710 


» 6, 737, 063 
2.76 















State 


Stoneware clay 


Miscellaneous clay • 


Total 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Alabama 






20, 546 


$18, 621 


86, 939 

166 

301, 429 

236, 143 

601 

5,710 

50, 247 

347, 218 

570 

178, 071 

102, 242 

27, 188 

115, 644 

, 86,342 

2,234 

9,332 


$120, 945 


Arkansas 






1,570 


California 






75, 173 

50, 198 

94 


171,012 

63, 879 

230 


577, 721 


Colorado 


686 


$1, 715 


322, 032 


Connecticut- 


7, 601 


Delaware 






66, 254 


Florida 






(«) 


C) 
C) 


692, 657 


Georgia.. 


(•) 


("■) 


1, 214, 570 




5,550 


Illinois 


28, 126 


46, 320 


51,322 
50,315 
27, 188 


83, 946 
37, 031 
27, 547 


343, 977 


Indiana 


122, 162 


Iowa.. 






27, 547 








500, 349 


Marvland 






53, 878 

995 

9,332 


54, 578 
1,379 
14,041 


165, 931 


Massachusetts 






33, 796 


Michigan 






14,041 



° Included under "Undistributed." 

» These totals include 9,252 tons of diaspore clay from Missouri, valued at $47,407. 

« Includes adobe, ardmorite, bentonite, black-burning clay, montmorillonite, and shale; clay for archi- 
tectural terra cotta, asbestos products, building brick, cement, cosmetics, decolorizing oils, draintile, 
foundries, gas retorts, high-grade tile, hollow building tile, insecticides, modeling, molding, oilcloth, paint, 
paper filler, pencil leads, plaster and plaster products, pottery, roofing tile, sewer pipe, soap, taxidermy, 
water softener, and wads. Slip clay is also included in this column as a matter of statistical convenience. 



118 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Domestic clay sold in the United States in 192$., by States and kinds — Continued 



State 


Stoneware clay 


Miscellaneous clay • 


Total 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Valuo 


Minnesota 






21, 545 


$34, 705 


21, 545 

2,195 

459, 570 

10, 272 

13, 092 
3,360 

352, 734 

3,596 

5,948 

16, 966 

26 

266, 342 

134 

661,918 

41, 544 

500 

145, 936 

3,185 

10,419 

383 

14, 466 
19, 773 
63, 106 

257 
23, 716 


$34, 705 

7,619 

1, 441, 457 

15, 103 


Mississippi 


(•) 

2,032 


(•) 

$3, 032 


Missouri. 


1,266 
5, 410 

13, 048 
2,276 

70, 914 


1,583 

5,531 

14, 030 

25, 195 

183, 228 




Nebraska 






14, 172 


Nevada ! 




35, 806 


New Jersey 


8,053 


31, 046 


1 486 032 


New Mexico 


13, 603 
31 238 


New York ! 




5,778 


29, 538 


North Carolina 


108 


108 


277, 526 
440 


North Dakota 






Ohio 


14, 290 


18, 568 


2,958 


5,859 


576, 903 
512 


Oregon _ 




3,962 
(•) 


12, 711 


41, 103 


64, 204 


1, 942, 708 
421, 713 




South Dakota 


500 

39, 636 

23 

4,014 


3,850 

48, 115 

100 

4,034 


3,850 


Tennessee 






602, 091 


Texas 


195 


429 


20, 006 


Utah 


33, 367 
3,826 


Vermont 






Virginia 






(•) 

15, 456 


C) 

19, 557 


' 121, 249 


Washington 






35, 699 


West Virginia.. 






128, 553 








257 

23, 716 
191, 629 


883 
41, 172 
193, 552 


883 








41, 172 


Undistributed 


1,742 


3,213 










Average value per ton 


59, 194 


117, 142 
1.98 


rf 778, 570 


<* 1, 147, 400 


3,691,119 


11, 507, 536 
3. 12 















•Included under " Undistributed." 

'Includes adobe, ardrnorite, bentonite, black-burning clay, montmorillonite, and shale; clay for archi- 
tectural terra cotta, asbestos products, building brick, cement, cosmetics, decolorizing oils, draintile, 
foundries, gas retorts, high-grade tile, hollow building tile, insecticides, modeling, molding, oilcloth, paint, 
paper filler, pencil leads, plaster and plaster products, pottery, roofing tile, sewer pipe, soap, taxidermy, 
water softener, and wads. Slip clay is also included in this column as a matter of statistical convenience. 

d These totals include 5,910 tons of slip clay, valued at $31,023, or $5.25 per ton, from Michigan (308 tons, 
valued at $1,749) and New York (5,602 tons, valued at $29,274). 

Forty-one States reported clay sold as such in 1924, a decrease 
of one (Arizona). The leading 10 States in order of quantity of 
clay sold were Pennsylvania (18 per cent of the total of the United 
States), Missouri (12 per cent), New Jersey (10 per cent), Georgia 
(9 per cent), California (8 per cent), Ohio (7 per cent), Colorado 
(6 per cent), Illinois (5 per cent), Tennessee (4 per cent), and Ken- 
tucky (3 per cent). These 10 States reported 83 per cent of the 
total, and the first 5 reported 57 per cent. In all these States, 
except Georgia, fire clay is the leading kind reported and constituted 
from 46 per cent of the total in Tennessee to 99 per cent in Missouri. 

PRODUCTION BY USES 

Statistics showing the production of clay by uses are necessarily 
incomplete, as many clay miners do not know the purpose to which 
their clay is put, but it is believed that the figures given in the follow- 
ing table are sufficiently complete to serve as a guide in the study of 
the uses of domestic clays. In considering these figures it should be 
borne in mind that they represent chiefly the clay sold as clay by the 
original producers and do not include the much greater quantities 
of clay that are burned into clay products by those who mine their 
own clay. 



CLAY 119 

Domestic clay sold in the United States in 1924, by uses, in short tons 



Use 


Kaolin, 

china clay, 

and paper 

clay 


Ball 
clay 


Slip 
clay 


Fire clay 
(including 
fire-clay 
dust and 
clay for 
fire-clay 
mortar) 


Stone- 
ware 
clay 


Miscel- 
laneous 
clay 


Total 


White-bodied ware made from 
white-burning clays, including 
china, porcelain, general ware, 
chemical porcelain, porcelain 
electrical supplies, sanitary 


61, 744 

1,259 

26, 293 


38, 899 

1,564 

23, 599 




15, 789 
5,677 
12, 705 
825 
12, 450 

130 


""566" 
51, 965 


871 

1,267 

355 


117,303 

9,767 

62, 952 

1,325 

66, 346 

1,272 

120, 412 

3,672 

25, 265 

9,743 

10, 635 

680 




High-grade tile 


Chemical stoneware 




677 

10 

118, 758 

3,672 

23, 9C5 

9,668 

10, 475 

580 

198 

1,249 

6,289 






1,254 


Enameling, as coating for granite 


1,033 
600 


99 


Paper filler 




1,054 


Paper coating 














1,300 






Oilcloth or linoleum 








75 


Paint filler or extender 






160 












100 

29, 847 

2,576 

33, 566 








27, 543 
2,002 
13, 300 


3,217 


60, 805 

6,220 

53, 155 




393 




Plaster and plaster products 


Slip for glazing purposes.. 




2,180 


2,180 

90, 604 

2,208 

4,465 

640 




44, 895 
2,208 




28, 775 




16, 934 


Kalsomine 






Artificial abrasives... 


139 


3,631 


695 






Crayons (for tailors' use, etc.) 


640 
902 






Chemicals 












902 




1,631 
9,951 

1,656 
1,150 








133 
630 


1,764 
200, 709 

7,497 
30, 031 

2,772 




2,269 
222 




187, 472 

5,619 

28, 723 

2,480 

810, 458 

329, 891 
30, 060 

11,243 
30, 314 
17, 140 
27, 242 
1,770 

440, 589 
399, 358 


387 


Pins, stilts, and spurs for potters' 
use 


Wads 


~"~275~ 


158 
17 


G as retorts 






3,184 
113 






813, 642 


Fire-clay mortar, including clay 
processed for laying fire brick... 


700 
819 




350 




331, 054 


Glasshouse pots 




30, 879 


Glasshouse supplies, blocks, tiles, 
etc 


167 






11,410 












30, 314 


Zinc condensers 












17, 140 


Clay crucibles 












27, 242 


Graphite crucibles and stoppers .. 


19 

527 
6,628 


31 








1,820 


Foundry use and steel works for 
cupola lining, etc 


""2,166" 


41, 676 
642, 147 


482, 792 




869 




1, 051, 502 








326, 611 


83, 034 


5,910 


2, 443, 710 


59, 194 


772, 660 


3, 691, 119 



Includes day for adobes, building brick, cosmetics, decolorizing oils, draintile, flowerpots, hollow build- 
ing tile, insecticides, modeling, records (phonographic), roofing tile, sewer pipe, soap, taxidermy, wall 
paper, and water softener; also black -burning clay. 



44839°— 27- 



-9 



120 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 2 

Clay imported for consumption in the United States, 1915-1924 





Kaolin or china clay 


Common blue 
and Gross Al- 
merode glass- 


All other clays 


Total 
















pot clay 


Unwrought 


Wrought 




Year 




Value 




















Short 
tons 




Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 






Total 


Aver- 
age 


Value 


1915.. 


209, 132 


$1, 152, 778 


$5.51 


8,864 


$62, 569 


23, 718 


$90, 367 


1,343 


$12, 433 


243, 057 


$1, 318, 147 


1916. _ 


253, 707 


1, 326, 684 


5.23 


2, 501 


12, 134 


42, 478 


163, 421 


180 


1,994 


298, 866 


1, 504, 233 


1917.. 


241, 029 


1, 315, 769 


5.46 


88 


709 


26, 581 


123,439 


338 


2,142 


268, 036 


1, 442, 059 


1918. . 


168, 100 


1, 153, 240 


6.86 


114 


983 


26, 984 


163, 484 


137 


1,087 


195, 335 


1, 318, 794 


1919. . 


180, 592 


1, 965, 393 


10.88 


4 


133 


23, 759 


187.550 


498 


4,262 


204, 853 


2, 157, 338 


1920- . 


361, 800 


3, 568, 677 


9.86 


6,837 


157, 201 


34, 252 


272, 524 


691 


10, 267 


403, 580 4, 008, 669 


1921.. 


162, 906 


1, 546, 285 


9.49 


4,468 


77, 217 


41, 421 


348, 870 


120 


2,313 


208,915 | 1,974,685 


1922. . 


310, 136 


2, 963, 420 


9.56 


7,323 


84, 415 


40,624 i 327,388 


2, 566 


29, 398 


360, 649 3, 404, 621 


1923- . 


311,298 


3, 046, 191 


9.79 


12, 999 


121, 272 


65, 379 


481,614 


1,676 


21, 892 


391,352 3,670,969 


1924. _ 


353, 124 


3, 188, 454 


9.03 


7,059 


62, 883 


82, 562 


706, 018 


1,322 


18, 685 


444, 067 3, 976, 040 



Domestic clay exported from the United States, 1916-1924 



Year 


Fire clay 


All other 


Total 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1916 


45, 752 
54, 023 
60, 206 
37, 486 
54, 125. 

23, 666 

24, 391 
50, 055 
41, 704 


$144, 552 
268, 093 
333, 880 
262, 501 
393, 177 
177, 979 
169, 664 
303, 675 
312, 676 


27, 941 

29, 194 
24, 348 

30, 983 
66, 035 
23, 779 

"23,285 
34, 840 
31,051 


$145, 970 
178, 764 
192, 053 
249, 571 
775, 222 
183, 449 

« 267, 908 
329, 192 
420, 040 


73, 693 

83, 217 

84, 554 
68, 469 

120, 160 
47, 445 
47, 676 
84, 895 
72, 755 


$290, 522 


1917 


446, 857 


1918 .. 


525, 933 


1919 


512, 072 


1920 


1, 168, 399 


1921.. 


361, 428 


1922 


437, 572 


1923 


632, 867 


1924 


732, 716 







Includes 2,091 short tons of "kaolin, china clay, and paper clay," valued at $27,840. Similar exports are 
not separately classified for other years. 

Imports of clay in 1924 increased 52,715 short tons, or 13 per cent, 
in quantity, and $305,071, or 8 per cent, in value, compared with in- 
creases of 7 and 3 per cent, respectively, in quantity and value of 
domestic clay. The imports of kaolin, which constituted 80 per 
cent of the total imports, increased 41,826 tons, or 13 per cent, in 
quantity, and $142,263, or 5 per cent, in value, compared with 1923. 
Unwrought clay, which probably includes ball clay, showed the 
second largest actual increase in quantity — 17,183 tons — and the 
largest proportional increase — 26 per cent. Common blue and 
Gross Almerode glasspot clay, which includes the highest grade of 
refractory clay, decreased 46 per cent in quantity and 48 per cent 
in value. Exports of clay in 1924 decreased in quantity and increased 
in value, compared with 1923. The decrease in quantity was 12,140 
short tons, or 14 per cent, and the increase in value was $99,849, or 

16 per cent. Fire clay, which constituted 57 per cent of the quantity 
and 43 per cent of the value of the clay exported in 1924, decreased 

17 per cent in quantity but increased 3 per cent in value, compared 
with 1923; "all other" clay decreased 11 per cent in quantity but 
increased 28 per cent in value. The exports of clay in 1924, compared 
with 1920, the year of greatest quantity and value, decreased 39 
per cent in quantity and 37 per cent in value. 

2 Figures of imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 






CARBON BLACK PRODUCED FROM NATURAL GAS 



By G. B. Richardson 



The production of carbon black from natural gas in the United 
States in 1924, reported to the division of mineral resources of the 
United States Geological Survey prior to its transfer to the Bureau 
of Mines, by 46 producers operating 69 plants in 9 States, amounted 
to 186,872,034 pounds — an increase of 35 per cent over the produc- 
tion in 1923 and nearly three times the output in 1922. Indicated 
deliveries in 1924 bv producers of carbon black amounted to 129,- 
521,602 pounds, contrasted with 102,376,381 pounds in 1923. On 
December 31, 1924, stocks of carbon black held in the custody of 
producers amounted to 95,671,246 pounds, an increase of more than 
57,000,000 pounds over the corresponding stocks held on the last 
day of 1923. This record of overproduction was reflected in the 
average price per pound received by producers, 6.2 cents, which is 
the lowest that has been reported since the Government began to 
compile statistics of carbon black in 1919. The total value at the 
plants of the carbon black produced in 1924 was $11,564,936. The 
production of carbon black by States in 1923 and 1924 is shown in 
the following table, compiled by Miss H. Backus. 

Louisiana in 1924 not only led all of the States in the production 
of carbon black, as it has done since 1921, but increased its relative 
standing by producing 77 per cent of the total output of the country 
as contrasted with 73 per cent in 1923. All of the carbon-black 
plants in Louisiana obtain their supply of gas from the Monroe field, 
and for 1924 reports were received covering the operation of 28 
plants in Ouachita Parish, 6 in Morehouse, and 1 in Union Parish. 

In West Virginia the output of carbon black has steadily decreased 
in recent years, and in 1924 the yield was only about one-half of that 
in 1919. This decreased production of carbon black, contrasted with 
the increased output of natural gas since 1921, follows the extension 
of pipe-line facilities and the rising price of natural gas. In 1924 
reports were received from eight plants in Kanawha County, four 
in Boone, and one each in Doddridge, Harrison, Lincoln, Logan, 
Ritchie, and Roane Counties. 

The output of carbon black in Texas in 1924, the second year of 
production in that State, was increased to more than five times that 
of 1923. The entire production was from four plants in Stephens 
County, the gas consumed coming from oil wells from which the 

121 



122 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



supply of casing-head gas is reported to be greater than the demand 
for domestic and other industrial use. Statutes to prevent the waste- 
ful utilization of natural gas, the production of which is under super- 
vision of the State railroad commission, thus far have restricted to 
Stephens County the operation of carbon-black plants in Texas. 

Kentucky's output of carbon black in 1924 was almost the same 
as in 1923 and was more than double the output of 1922. The pro- 
duction came from Floyd and Green Counties, for each of which 
reports were received from two plants, and from Lee and. Whitley 
Counties, in each of which the operation of only one plant was 
reported. 

Statistics of production of carbon black in Wyoming, Montana, 
Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Colorado, ranking in the order named, 
are grouped together to avoid revealing the operations of individual 
companies. In these States a single carbon-black plant is located 
in each of the counties named : Wyoming, Hot Springs and Fremont 
Counties; Montana, Fallon County; Oklahoma, Pittsburg County; 
and Pennsylvania, McKean County. Production of carbon black 
was reported for the first time in Colorado in 1924 from a plant 
operating in the White River gas field in Rio Blanco County. 

There is a growing tendency to extract natural-gas gasoline from 
natural gas before its delivery to carbon-black plants, but figures 
showing the quantity of gas thus treated were not compiled prior to 
1924. In that year 115,357,000,000 cubic feet, almost three-fourths 
of the total quantity of natural gas used in the production of carbon 
black, was reported to have been treated for the extraction of natural- 
gas gasoline, the percentages of gas so treated being largest in 
Louisiana, Texas, and Wyoming. 

Carbon black produced from natural gas in the United States, 1928-24 



State 


Producers 
reporting 


Number 
of plants 


Quantity 


Value at plant 


Estimated 

quantity of 

natural 

gas used 


Average 
yield per 


Total 


Average 


M cubic 
feet 


1923 
Louisiana '._ 


29 
11 
6 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 


35 
20 
6 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Pounds 

101, 398, 881 

20,038,415 

10, 058, 887 

2, 633, 013 

\ 4,133,452 


$8, 415, 566 

1, 983, 385 

758, 091 

183, 306 

351, 718 


Cents 
8.3 
9.9 
7.5 
7.0 

8.5 


M cubic feet 

82, 974, 000 

13, 722, 000 

5, 906, 000 

2, 136, 000 

4,358,000 


Pounds 
1.2 


West Virginia 


1. 5 


Kentucky 


1.7 


Texas 


1.2 


Wyoming . 








Montana _ 


.9 


Pennsylvania 






a 47 


69 


138, 262, 648 


11,692,066 


8.5 


109,096,000 


1.3 


1924 
Louisiana.. 


31 
6 
4 
6 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 


35 
18 
4 
6 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 


144, 601, 550 
15, 045, 448 
13, 764, 014 
10, 135, 435 

\ 3, 325, 587 


8, 844, 609 

1, 125, 733 

882, 808 

488, 533 

223, 253 


6.1 
7.5 
6.4 

4.8 

6.7 


127, 812, 000 
9, 572, 000 
9, 546, 000 
6, 189, 000 

3, 395, 000 


1.1 


West Virginia 


1.6 


Texas . 


1.4 


Kentucky 


1.6 


Wyoming 




Montana 




Oklahoma... 


1.0 


Pennsylvania 




Colorado 










"46 


69 


186, 872, 034 


11,564,936 


6.2 


156, 514, 000 


1.2 



° In counti ng the total number of producers 
only once. 



producer operating in more than one State is counted 






CARBON BLACK PRODUCED FROM NATURAL GAS 



123 



Summary of statistics of carbon black made from natural gas in the United States, 

1919-1924 





1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Number of producers report- 


17 
36 


19 
35 


23 
41 


26 
43 


47 
69 


46 




69 






Quantity produced: 

Louisiana pounds. _ 

West Virginia do 


14, 024, 606 
29, 925, 614 


18, 565, 498 
26, 659, 469 


31,003,615 
25, 073, 000 


41, 966, 856 
20, 095, 481 


101, 398, 881 
20,038,415 

2,633,013 
10, 058, 887 

4, 133, 452 


144, 601, 550 
15, 045, 448 
13, 764, 014 


Kentucky do 

Other States do 


} 8, 106, 721 


6, 096, 925 


/ 2, 697, 075 
\ 992, 625 


4, 306, 875 
1,425,917 


10, 135, 435 
3, 325, 587 


Total do.— 


52, 056, 941 


51, 321, 892 


59, 766, 315 


67, 795, 129 


138, 262, 648 


186, 872, 034 


Produced by: 

Channel process do 

Other processes 6 ___do 

Stocks held by producers Dec. 

31 pounds-. 

Indicated deliveries by pro- 
ducers pounds. . 

Value (at plants), of carbon 
black produced: 

Total dollars-. 

Average per pound .cents. . 
Estimated quantity of natural 

gas used M cubi c f eet _ - 

Average yield per M cubic 
feet pounds. - 


(a) 
(a) 

(a) 

(') 

3, 816, 040 
7.3 

49, 896, 000 

1.0 


C) 
(°) 

(a) 

( c ) 

4, 032, 286 
7.9 

40, 599, 000 

1.3 


(«) 
(°) 

(a) 
(«) 

5,445,878 
9.1 

50, 565, 000 

1.2 


W 

(a) 

2,434,547 
( e ) 

5,819,618 
8.6 

53, 629, 000 

1.3 


116, 696, 891 
21, 565, 757 

38, 320, 814 

102, 376, 381 

11, 692, 066 

8.5 

109,096,000 
1.3 


162, 257, 725 
24, 614, 309 

95, 671, 246 

129,521,602 

11, 564, 936 
6.2 

156, 514, 000 

1.2 



"Not reported. 

b Including chain, disk, plate, ring, roller, "special/' and thermatomic. 

c Not available. 



MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 



By J. M. Hill and G. F. Loughlin 
INTRODUCTION 

For many years magnesite, the normal carbonate of magnesium, 
and dolomite, or high-magnesium limestone, were the only commer- 
cial sources of magnesian products in the United States, and their 
uses were sufficiently distinct for magnesite to be treated in a sepa- 
rate chapter of Mineral Resources and for dolomite to be included 
with limestone in the chapter on stone. Domestic magnesite, though 
a potential source of several products that were marketed chiefly 
east of Mississippi River, could not compete with foreign magnesite. 
During the World War, however, domestic magnesite and dolomite 
were both exploited to relieve the shortage caused by the curtailment 
of imports. Imports of magnesium chloride and sulphate and of 
metallic magnesium were also restricted, and this condition has led 
to the exploitation of domestic deposits and processes of manufacture. 
For these reasons the annual reviews of magnesium and its natural 
and manufactured compounds have been brought together in one 
chapter. The natural compounds include magnesite, dolomite, 
magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulphate. The manufactured 
compounds include the basic (or " technical") carbonate, calcined 
and dead-burned magnesite, dead-burned dolomite, and precipitated 
carbonate and sulphate derived from magnesite or dolomite, or from 
the crude sulphate. 

Only the quantity of dolomite produced for its magnesium content 
is included here. Much larger quantities, either burned into lime 
or used as dimension, crushed, or pulverized stone, are included in 
the corresponding chapters on lime and stone. 

The uses to which magnesite has been or may be put for most of 
which dolomite is also used, are as follows : 2 

In the manufacture of carbon dioxide and the sulphite process of 
paper manufacturing, in both of which magnesite has been displaced 
by cheaper dolomite or limestone;* for refractory brick, shapes, 
crucibles, and furnace hearths, for which both dead-burned magnesite 
and dead-burned dolomite are used; for medicinal and toilet prepara- 
tions, which are made from magnesite, dolomite, and natural mag- 
nesium sulphate; for pipe covering (mixed with asbestos), which in 
this country is probably all made from dolomite; for oxychloride 

1 Figures of imports and exports compiled from the records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines. 

2 These uses are reviewed in detail in U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 355, 1908, and brief comment on mag- 
nesium chloride, sulphate, basic carbonate, metallic magnesium, and their uses are made in the chapter 
on magnesite in Mineral Resources of the United States for 1914, pp. 573-577. 

125 



126 



MINERAL. RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



(Sorel) cement, which is made from a mixture of calcined magnesite 
and magnesium chloride; as an absorbent in the manufacture of 
dynamite, a preventive of boiler scale where sulphurous waters are 
used, an accelerator in the vulcanization of rubber, fused magnesia 
for insulation at exceedingly high temperatures, and an adulterant 
of paint, all of which presumably call for calcined magnesite but are 
relatively unimportant in the consumption of domestic magnesite; 
and for metallic magnesium, which is made both from calcined mag- 
nesite and from magnesium chloride. 

The section on magnesite has been prepared by Mr. Hill, and the 
other sections by Mr. Loughlin. 

MAGNESITE 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTION 

In 1924 mines in the United States sold or treated the equivalent 
of 120,100 short tons of crude magnesite, valued at $1,041,300, a 
decrease of 18 per cent in quantity but of only 6 per cent in value as 
compared with 1923. This estimated value of the total crude magne- 
site sold or treated is determined by arbitrary valuations f. o. b. 
shipping points by the operators and the operators in the State of 
Washington place a very low value on crude magnesite. Of the total 
for 1924, 67,240 tons was from California and 52,860 tons from Wash- 
ington. Most of the production in California was sold as caustic 
calcined magnesite, and most of that in Washington was sold dead- 
burned. 

Five producers in California in 1924 operated at seven localities 
in six counties. In Washington two companies produced crude mag- 
nesite from deposits near Valley and Chewelah, in Stevens County. 

Domestic magnesite {expressed as equivalent crude) sold or treated in the United 

States, 1919-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1919. . 


156, 226 

303, 767 

47, 904 


$1, 248, 415 

2, 748, 150 

510, 177 


1922 

1923 


55, 790 
147, 250 
120, 100 


$571, 745 


1920 _. 


1, 103,700 


1921. 


1924.. 


1,041,300 









Of the domestic magnesite produced in 1924 only 1,570 tons was 
sold crude, for use largely in making chemicals; 26,520 tons (46 per 
cent) was sold as caustic calcined magnesite, for use as plastic ma- 
terial; and 29,830 tons (51 per cent) was sold dead-burned, for use as a 
refractory. These figures show that the material actually sold in 
1924 amounted to 57,920 tons, which computed as crude magnesite 
was equivalent to 120,100 tons. 

At the end of the year producers reported that 6,000 tons of crude 
magnesite was in stock on dumps, exclusive of large quantities of 
fines held at several dumps to be calcined eventually. 



MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 



127 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Magnesite, not purified, imported into the United States, 1920- 

in short tons 

[General imports] 



, by countries, 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Africa, British South. 










(•) 


Australia . __ 


38 








Austria . . . _ . . 


9,496 




1,675 
101 

427 


156 


Belgium... 


50 
973 

7,781 
59 


54 


Canada . . 


6,751 

4,288 

31 


427 

213 

8 


124 


Czechoslovakia ... .. 




England.. . . 


162 


548 


France . 


28 


Germany . 


799 
4,480 


3,884 

4,480 

28 

36, 121 


20, 074 
1,120 
3,297 

94, 930 


162 

5,510 

7,576 

65, 262 


206 


Greece 


110 


India, British „ 


8,011 


Italy 


23, 727 
560 
917 


54, 619 


Mexico .... 




Netherlands.. . . 


2,914 


5,379 


4,406 

1 

24 

729 


5,348 


Poland and Danzig. .__ . . 




Rumania ... .. 










Scotland. 


213 
C) 

3,952 
2, 576 


90 


595 


1,202 


Straits Settlements. . 


Turkey in Europe. . 










Venezuela 


1,120 
























86, 035 


70, 406 



° Less than 1 ton. 

Magnesite, not purified, imported into the United States in 1924 
[General imports] 



Country 


Caustic calcined 


Dead-burned and grain 
(not suitable for manu- 
facture into oxychloride 
cements) 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Africa, British South ° 










Austria . . . . . 


311, 740 

108, 026 

77, 700 

1, 096, 282 

55, 115 

412, 481 

219, 243 

16, 022, 640 


$2, 989 

2,056 

1,163 

19, 576 

788 

4,870 

2,383 

120, 812 






Belgium. 






Canada ° . . 


158, 750 


$2, 232 


England 




France. ... . . .. 






Germany 






Greece 






India, British 






Italy 


109, 237, 433 
275, 643 


738, 953 


Netherlands 


10, 419, 763 
2, 403, 863 


153, 300 
45, 628 


4,163 


Scotland... 












31, 126, 853 


353, 565 


109, 671, 826 


745, 348 



° Also crude from British South Africa amounting to 595 pounds, valued at $30, and from Canada 12,000 
pounds, valued at $55. 



Magnesite imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924 



Year 


Crude 


Calcined, not purified 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1920 


33, 550 

51, 993 

73, 331 

5,182 

6 


$406, 204 

525, 452 

976, 283 

44, 081 

85 


14, 780 
6,788 
72, 265 
72, 955 
64, 785 


$373, 165 


1921 . 


250, 932 


1922 


1, 267, 622 


1923 


1, 022, 968 


1924 


1, 172, 403 







128 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



So far as known, Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands produce 
no magnesite, the material shipped from those countries being mined 
in Austria. A large part of the magnesite imported from Italy 
probably also comes from Austria. With the resumption of activity 
in the steel industry the imports of magnesite have increased, because 
a large part of the imported material is dead-burned and is consumed 
at steel-making plants near the eastern seaboard. Most of the 
magnesite imported from India is the caustic calcined product in 
lumps, but the caustic calcined magnesite received from Greece is 
ground. 

The average value of the calcined magnesite imported for domestic 
consumption in 1924 as indicated above was $18.10 a short ton, but 
the price was evidently fixed at the points of shipment in the produc- 
ing country. The average price was so low because of the value 
assigned to imported caustic lump from India, which was $15.08 a 
ton. Of the calcined magnesite imported in 1924 for consumption 
16,134 short tons was imported as caustic calcined, which was valued 
at $378,200 ($23.44 a ton), and 48,651 tons as dead-burned, valued 
at $794,203 ($16.32 a ton). 

No exports of magnesite, either crude or calcined, were reported 
during 1924, but materials made of magnesia (including pipe and 
boiler coverings), having a weight of 3,120,070 pounds and valued at 
$243,579, were exported, as compared with 5,391,219 pounds, valued 
at $337,044, in 1923. 

At the end of January there was reported in bonded warehouses 
7,855 tons of magnesite, valued at $99,006. The quantity held in 
warehouses steadily increased until September, when 21,921 tons was 
reported in storage, valued at $145,715. From October to the end of 
the year the reported stocks of imported magnesite held in bonded 
warehouses was constant at 13,564 tons, valued at $37,693. 

ANNUAL SUPPLY 

The annual additions to supply of magnesite (which have been 
called consumption, although they do not include stocks held at 
consuming plants) consist of domestic production plus imports, for 
there are no exports of crude or calcined magnesite. The following 
table shows that the domestic producers have not been able to con- 
tinue the increase in their contribution to the consumption by the 
aid of the tariff act of 1922. 

Magnesite supply in the United States, 1920-1924, expressed as crude magnesite, 

in short tons 



Year 


Domestic 


Imported ° 


Total 


Percentage supplied 
by- 


Domestic 


Imported 


1920 


303, 767 
47, 904 
55, 790 
147, 250 
120, 100 


63, 110 

65, 569 
217, 861 
151, 092 
148, 700 


366, 877 
113,473 
273, 651 
298, 342 
268, 800 


83 
42 
26 
49 
45 


17 


1921 


58 


1922.. 


74 


1923--. 


51 


1924 


55 







° Prior to 1924 a factor of 2 tons of crude to 1 ton of calcined was used in expressing imports as crude mag- 
nesite. For 1924 the factors used are 2 to 1 for imports from Italy and 2 l A to 1 for other imports. 



MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 129 

CAUSTIC CALCINED MAGNESITE 

The domestic caustic calcined magnesite sold in 1924 amounted to 
26,520 short tons (equivalent to about 59,370 tons of crude), of which 
mines in California produced 99 per cent. The largest producers of 
caustic calcined magnesite were C. S. Maltby, the Sierra Magnesite 
Co., and Harker & Hoff, of California, and the Spokane Plastic Mag- 
nesite Co., of Washington. 

DEAD-BURNED MAGNESITE 

The dead-burned magnesite sold in the United States in 1924 
amounted to 29,830 short tons (equivalent to 59,160 tons of crude), as 
compared with 34,410 tons in 1923. Ninety per cent of the dead- 
burned output was produced in Washington, but some was produced 
in Napa and San Benito Counties, Calif. Dead-burned magnesite is 
used as a refractory, particularly in the steel industry, and most of 
it finds a market east of the Mississippi. Only by the aid of ade- 
quate tariff protection can domestic producers compete in the East 
with foreign competitors. 

CRUDE MAGNESITE 

In 1924 the quantity of magnesite sold crude by the producers 
was 1,570 tons, part of which was later caustic calcined for use as 
plaster. A very small quantity of crude magnesite was used by 
makers of high-grade refractory products. Information concerning 
magnesia chemicals is given on pages 135 to 137. 

During the last few years very high grade refractories have been 
made in small quantities in the electric furnace by fusing magnesite. 
This product is made by the Carborundum Co., of Niagara Falls, 
and by the Vitrefrax Coi, of Los Angeles. 

A much smaller quantity of carefully selected magnesite is sold 
each year for the manufacture of metallic magnesium. 

MARKET AND PRICES 

The domestic market for magnesite of all grades in 1924 was not 
so good as in 1923 and producers still insist that they can not compete 
east of Chicago with foreign magnesite. Caustic calcined magnesite 
from India and from Greece is still sold cheaper in the Atlantic 
Coast States than domestic material of equal grade. A report of 
the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 3 gives information 
concerning the foreign and domestic supply of magnesite and the 
markets for it. 

Operators reported only small sales of domestic crude magnesite at 
$10 to $14 a ton, but most of the crude magnesite sold brought 
$13 a ton. So far as known, practically no imported crude magnesite 
.was offered in the local markets in 1924. 

Domestic caustic calcined magnesite was quoted 4 at $42.50 a ton, 
ground, f. o. b. plants in California, until late in February when the 
quotations rose to $45; they remained at that level until the first of 
November, when they dropped to $42.50 a ton. Producers reported 
sales of domestic caustic calcined magnesite at prices ranging from 

3 Trade Information Bull. 184, Magnesite, 1924. 

4 Eng. and Min. Jour.-Press, vols. 117 and 118, 1924. 



130 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



$29.50 to $33.50 a ton, but the bulk of the output sold at about 
$33.30 a ton. Magnesite from Greece was quoted throughout the 
year at $50 to $51 a ton c. i. f. New York. 

Domestic dead-burned magnesite was quoted 4a at $40 to $42 a 
ton delivered in sacks at Baltimore, Md., or Chester, Pa., and at 
$32 to $34 a ton in bulk at Chewelah, Wash. Producers reported 
the bulk of sales at $30.50 to $37 a ton f. o. b. California plants, and 
$25.25 a ton f. o. b. Washington plants. 

Average value per short ton of domestic and imported magnesite, 1920-1924 





Domestic 


Imported 


Year 


Crude 


Caustic 
calcined 


Dead- 
burned 


Crude 


Calcined, not purified 




Caustic 
calcined 


Dead- 
burned 


1920. 


$9.05 
10.65 
10.25 
13.00 
13.00 


(•) 

$32. 00 
37.00 
36.38 
33.30 


$31. 11 

( a ) 
23.30 
19.50 
26.40 


$12. 11 
10.11 
13.31 
8.51 
14.17 


$25 


25 


1921. 


36.97 


1922. 


17.54 


1923 


$28. 10 1 $11. 46 


1924 


23. 44 16. 32 









° Data insufficient for calculation of averages. 

Separate figures for imports of caustic calcined and dead-burned 
magnesite are not available prior to September 22, 1922, but the 
writer (J. M. Hill) estimates that the average values for dead- 
burned magnesite imported have been as follows: 1920, $10.17; 
1921, $10.77; 1922, $12.92. 

The companies in California and Washington named below pro- 
duced magnesite in 1924, and two individual operators in California 
made a small production. Most of the producers sell the calcined 
products, though some crude can possibly be had from any of them. 

California: 

California Magnesia Co. (old Harker & Hoff), Monadnock Building, San 

Francisco. 
C. S. Maltby, Humboldt Bank Building, San Francisco. 
Sierra Magnesite Co., 404 Balfour Building, San Francisco. 
Washington: 

Northwest Magnesite Co. (Finch and other deposits), Crocker Building, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Spokane Plastic Magnesite Co. (Double Eagle deposit), Terminal Building, 

Spokane. 

The market for plastic magnesite was depressed during the summer; 
that for dead-burned magnesite was slow by reason of large importa- 
tions and also because the steel industry was quiet. In August 
western producers received a freight rate reduction, which amounted 
to $2 a ton to Chicago, the new rate being 50 cents per 100 pounds. 
No adjustment of rates east of Chicago was allowed. In November, 
1924, at the request of domestic producers the Tariff Commission 
reopened the question of an increase in import tariff. To date 
(August 1, 1925,) no decision has been made public. 

*» Eng. and Min. Jour .-Press, vols. 117 and 118, 1924. 



MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 



131 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION 

World's production of magnesite, 1916-1923, by countries, in metric tons 
[Unless otherwise stated the quantities in this table represent crude magnesite mined] 



Country 



Australia: 

New South Wales 

South Australia 

Victoria 

Western Australia 

Austria-Hungary 

Canada 

Cyprus 

Greece 

India, British 

Italy. 

Norway e 

Russia 

Spain 

Union of South Africa 

United States (sold or 

treated) 

Venezuela (exports) 



1916 



3,821 
169 
30 
100 

« 81, 771 

51,981 

15 

199, 484 

17, 922 

18, 252 
« 3, 499 

72, 074 

2,500 

553 

140, 589 
6,360 



1917 



9,337 

152 

75 

21 

106, 783 

58, 755 

C) 

162, 938 

18, 493 

31,070 

« 1,004 

73, 712 

800 

709 

287, 429 
1,700 



1918 



3,419 

447 

229 

107 

(») 

52, 434 

(») 

39, 340 

5,947 

28, 882 

«542 

19, 656 

1,700 

756 

210, 107 
O) 



9,413 
277 

78 



(<0 

13, 564 

CO 

62, 408 

17, 401 

35, 930 

"1,882 

( 6 ) 

120 

929 

141, 725 



6, 578 
188 
153 



d 120, 347 
28, 159 

(") 
71, 870 
14, 577 
33, 850 
"2,041 
17, 984 
1,214 
1,287 

275, 571 
2,000 



12, 465 
175 
130 



d 160, 823 

8,447 

CO 

60, 132 

20, 338 

9,410 

"210 

/ 8, 340 



1,317 



43, 458 
2,450 



1922 



,424 
585 
99 



d 281, 247 

7,873 

895 

55, 471 

19, 582 

8,700 

738 

10, 567 

303 

962 

50, 612 

CO 



1923 



6,228 

168 

76 

°2 

<« 180, 292 

12, 079 

284 

57, 783 

19, 748 

12, 474 

2,359 

"15,429 



1,240 



133, 582 
(») 



° Exports and computed on a basis of 2.1 tons crude to 1 ton sintered. 

* No data available. 

c Exports from the Republic of Austria for second half of 1919 were 8,523 tons crude and 24,268 tons dead- 
burned (sintered). 

d Exports from Republic of Austria and computed on a basis of 2.1 tons crude to 1 ton sintered. In addi- 
tion, 7,026 tons of caustic magnesia was exported in 1920, and 8,252 tons in 1921. In 1922 the companies 
operating reported 427,556 tons raw magnesite produced. 

• In addition to exports of crude magnesite shown for 1916-1921 , there was exported magnesite brick (mag- 
nesittegel) as follows: 1916, 519 tons; 1917, 341 tons; 1918, 355 tons; 1919, 357 tons; 1920, 710 tons; 1921, 337 
tons. 

t Computed on basis of 2.1 tons crude to 1 ton sintered. 
« Operation year Oct. 1, 1922, to Sept. 30, 1923. 

NOTES ON THE MAGNESITE INDUSTRY 

Bain 5 in a general article on magnesite reviews the published data 
on magnesite deposits of the world and concludes : 

Magnesite deposits which are being or have been worked can be divided into 
four types: (1) Magnesite as a sedimentary rock, (2) magnesite as an alteration 
of serpentine, (3) magnesite as a vein filling, and (4) magnesite as a replacement 
of limestone. Of these only the second and fourth are of economic importance 
at the present time. The most important and most complex is that which has 
been termed the replacement type. 

Deposits of the replacement type in at least two cases (Styria and Quebec) are 
normal limestones replaced by magnesia-bearing solutions emanating from a 
granite magma. A similar origin seems to apply to the lesser-known Washington 
occurrence. The chemistry of the process as worked out from petrographical 
studies of the contact zones is outlined in the body of the paper and discussed 
at considerable length in an earlier paper 6 from which the conclusions are drawn. 

The solutions were in the form of silicates when they reached the limestones. 
The solutes at a certain stage precipitated out as serpentine and talc rather than 
as anhydrous minerals as is usually believed to be the case. Almost simultane- 
ously any anhydrous minerals already formed became hydrated. 

Reaction between the limestones and dolomites and the silicate-bearing solu- 
tions formed magnesite or dolomite, depending upon whether the rock traversed 
by the solutions was a dolomite or a limestone. 

The wollastonite formed during the reaction was carried away in solution as 
in the case of the silica in the formation of the magnesite veins in the better- 
known deposits in serpentine. 

The sedimentary deposits seem to be formed in salt lakes chiefly by precipi- 
tation of the less soluble MgC0 3 formed by chemical reaction but probably 
helped by evaporation. 



6 Bain, G. W., Types of magnesite deposits and their origin: Econ. Geol., vol. 19, 1924, pp. 412-433. 
6 Bain, G. W., Aimandite and its significance in the contact zones of the Grenville limestone: Jour. Geol., 
vol. 31, 1923, pp. 657-666. 



132 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

The vein deposits constitute a variety of the ordinary fissure-vein deposits of 
magmatic origin. 

Deposits in serpentine are due to the alteration of serpentine by carbonated 
waters, seeming, in most cases, to be of magmatic origin. Transportation and 
selective precipitation are an important feature in forming workable deposits. 

Magnesite from deposits of sedimentary origin or from deposits in serpentine 
is usually very uniform and free from objectionable constituents. 

Magnesite from fissure veins is very ferruginous, due to the presence of FeC0 3 . 

Magnesite from replacement deposits is very variable and requires careful 
sampling. The quality of a shipment is the quality of the poorest piece in it. 

DOMESTIC INDUSTRY 

California. — The Ward property, near Piedra, Fresno County, was 
operated for a time during the year. C. S. Maltby produced dead- 
burned magnesite at the Nichellini deposit, Chiles Valley, Napa 
County. No magnesite was mined in 1924 from the deposits near 
Alta and Towle, in Placer County. In San Benito County, at the 
Sampson mine, under lease to C. S. Maltby, the 7 by SO foot oil- 
fired rotary kiln installed in 1923 was in operation and a considerable 
tonnage of dead-burned and caustic magnesite was shipped. 

The Standard mine, at Sampson Peak, owned b}^ Hugo Fischel, 
was not reopened by the Superior Magnesite Co. No operations 
were reported at the magnesite deposits near Cima or Yermo, San 
Bernardino County. 

The largest production of magnesite in California was made at 
the Red Mountain mine, near Livermore, Santa Clara County, oper- 
ated by C. S. Maltby. The roasting equipment consists of four up- 
right kilns for burning lump ore and a Scott furnace for handling 
fines. The ore is crushed to three-fourths inch in size. Pyrometer 
control of furnace heat at 2,100° F. is used in the Scott furnace. 

No magnesite was produced in 1924 in Sonoma County, but the 
Granitite Manufacturing Co., of San Diego, did some development 
on the old Sonoma mine, near Guerneville. 

A little ore was mined near Gustine, Stanislaus County. 

The Sierra Magnesite Co., the second largest producer of magne- 
site in California, operated the Rex, Lindsay, and Tulare mines, 
near Lindsay and Magnesite, and the Gill ranch, at the north end 
of Porterville Hill, Tulare County. Crude magnesite is calcined at 
a well-equipped plant at Porterville in rotary furnaces with pyrometer 
control. The grades of caustic magnesite produced are made and 
sold under rigid specifications. 

The California Magnesia Co. operated the Porterville Hill mines 
and produced caustic calcined magnesite in a vertical kiln on the 
ground. No magnesite was mined from the deposits near Exeter. 

No magnesite was produced from the Gray Eagle mine in Tuo- 
lumne County. 

Nevada. — No magnesite was mined in 1924 from the magnesite 
deposits in Clark County. It was rumored that the deposits were 
to be taken over by New York interests represented by Walker and 
Timmons. 

Washington. — The Northwest Magnesite Co., operating the 
Finch, Keystone, and Midnight deposits, near Chewelah, Stevens 
County, is the largest producer of magnesite in the State and in 
1924 mined more crude magnesite than any other company in the 
country. All of its output is dead-burned. Only one of the six 



MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 133 

electrically controlled rotary kilns was in operation in 1924, as the 
steel interests were overstocked with foreign magnesite for refractory 
products. 

An excellent account of the plant of the Northwest Magnesite 
Co. was published by Young. 7 

A small amount of magnesite was mined at the Double Eagle, 
near Valley, and used for plastic products. It is reported 8 that a 
new company financed to the extent of $50,000 will work the 
Double Eagle property for lead ore as well as magnesite. 

FOREIGN INDUSTRY 

A report 9 from the Transvaal indicates that South Africa has 
sufficient magnesite to meet any demands that may arise in the near 
future. An extensive stockwork deposit in serpentine near the 
railroad at Kaapumuiden was worked in 1918 for the preparation of 
carbonic acid gas. 

The magnesite producers of Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary 
have formed an export sales syndicate 10 known as the Veitscher 
Magnesitwerke of Austria, which began to function in February, 1925. 
It will handle 85 per cent of the export business, practically all 
dead-burned magnesite, on a quota basis, with the exception of sales 
to the United States. This syndicate includes three Austrian, three 
Czechoslovakian, two German, and one English company, and it is 
reported that the Italian producers, while not officially in the syndi- 
cate, will operate more or less in harmony with it. The shipments of 
magnesite from Austria in the first nine months of 1924 totaled 53,000 
metric tons, about two-thirds as much as in the period of 1923. 
Seventy per cent of the exports in 1924 were for shipment to the 
United States. The export price of dead-burned magnesite for 
United States delivery was $16 and for other delivery $20 a ton f. o. b. 
shipping point. 

A general article on the occurrence of magnesite in Manchuria n 
and a description 12 of some deposits near Tshihchiao, midway between 
Dairen and Mukden, indicate that China has very large reserves of 
excellent crystalline magnesite, and should not have to look else- 
where for her supplies. 

The Russian magnesite mines increased their production nearly 98 
per cent, to 30,600 tons, in the period 1923-24. 13 

7 Young, G. J., A Washington magnesite plant; Eng. and Min. Jour. -Press, vol. 119, 1925, pp. 440-442. 

8 Magnesite, financing a mine: Mining Truth, Mar. 16, 1925, p. 12. 

8 Trevor, T. G., Base metal resources of South Africa: South Africa Min. Jour, of Industry, July, 1924. 

10 Commerce Reports, Mar. 9, 1925, p. 572. 

11 Niinomy, Kunitaro, Magnesite deposits of Manchuria: Econ. Geol., vol. 20, 1925, pp. 25-53. 

12 Nishihara, Hironao, An enormous magnesite deposit in Manchuria: Eng. and Min. Jour.-Press, vol. 
119, 1925, pp. 488-499. 

« Eng. and Min. Jour-.Press, vol. 119, 1925, p. 691. 



134 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



DOLOMITE 



DOLOMITE PRODUCTS 

Dolomite sold for uses that are or have been also supplied by mag- 
nesite increased slightly in quantity in 1924. The approximate 
quantity of crude dolomite used in the manufacture of these products 
is as follows : 

Crude dolomite sold in the United States for certain uses, 1918—1924, in short tons 

[Includes dead-burned dolomite, basic magnesium carbonate, sulphite process of paper manufacture, and 

making of carbon dioxidej 



1918 1,413.000 

1919 -- 947,000 

1920 1,580,000 

1921 499,000 



1922. 1,074,000 

1923 1,226,000 

1924. 1,239,000 



DEAD-BURNED DOLOMITE 

The principal dolomite product included in the category of dead- 
burned dolomite is that for refractory use. Some manufacturers 
of this product buy their stone, the sales of which are reported by 
the quarry companies in terms of crude stone; others quarry their 
own stone and report only in terms of dead-burned material. The 
two kinds of material are represented in the accompanying table, 
as well as the estimated total output in terms of dead-burned dolo- 
mite. 

Dead-burned dolomite sold or used in the United States, 1918-1924 



Year 


Reported as raw stone 


Reported as dead- 
burned 


Total 
quantity 
calculated 
as dead- 
burned 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


(short 
, tons) 


1918 


490, 863 
254, 787 
612, 800 
79, 480 
146, 640 
205, 890 
309,010 


$560, 209 
394, 754 
742, 020 
85, 786 
172, 251 
249, 993 
287, 137 


318, 896 
222, 036 
316, 293 
107, 664 
348, 838 
357, 642 
328, 659 


$4, 097, 819 

2, 228, 602 

3, 732, 522 
1,113,010 
2, 813, 946 
3,599,116 
3, 209, 257 


564, 000 


1919 


349, 000 


1920 


623, 000 


1921 


147, 000 


1922 


422, 200 


1923 


460, 600 


1924 


483,200 







BASIC MAGNESIUM CARBONATE 

Basic magnesium carbonate, or " technical carbonate/' used in 
"85 per cent magnesia ;> pipe and boiler coverings also decreased 
in output in 1924. Most manufacturers of this product buy their 
stone and do not report their output of finished product, but the 
crude stone sold for this purpose has been reported as follows : 

Dolomite sold in the United States to magnesia works for manufacture of basic mag- 
nesium carbonate, 1918-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1918 


90, 989 
62, 652 
57, 300 
32, 050 


$126, 255 
82, 619 
107, 107 
60, 648 


1922.. 


53, 170 
116,410 
98, 160 


$79, 313 


1919 


1923 


146, 337 


1920 


1924 


129, 390 


1921 











MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 



135 



HIGH-MAGNESIUM LIME FOR SULPHITE PAPER MILLS 

An estimate of the high-magnesium lime sold to sulphite paper 
mills is given below. Exact figures are impossible to obtain, as many 
lime producers who sell burned lime to paper mills do not specify the 
kind of paper mill. The quantity sold is expressed as burned lime. 

High-magnesium lime sold in the United States to sulphite paper mills, 1918-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1918 


88, 631 
83, 962 
121,817 
68, 992 


$726, 610 

632, 930 

1, 347, 321 

711,345 


1922. 


70, 000 
75, 000 
70, 000 


$650, 000 


1919. 


1923. 


750, 000 


1920. 


1924. . 


625, 000 


1921. 











CARBON DIOXIDE 

Sales of crude dolomite for the manufacture of carbon dioxide, 
chiefly in California, are as follows : 

Dolomite sold in the United States for the manufacture of carbon dioxide, 1918-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1918. 


16, 770 
16, 870 

33, 040 

34, 090 


$22, 500 
39, 895 
73, 671 

124, 984 


1922 


38, 280 
38, 460 
34, 600 


$58, 748 


1919. 


1923.... 


52, 494 


1920. 


1924 


57, 105 


1921 











MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE 

Magnesium chloride from brines or bittern waters was produced 
and sold by three companies — the Whitney Chemical Co. and the 
Oliver Salt Co. in California, and the Dow Chemical Co. in Michigan; 
but as more than 90 per cent was sold by the last-named company, 
the total sales are not disclosed. All of the material sold was classed 
as "commercial" chloride, 97 per cent or more pure. Its average 
value f . o. b. plant was 1 J/£ cents a pound. If all the domestic and 
imported caustic calcined magnesite sold in 1924 could have been 
made into oxychloride cements during that year, the magnesium 
chloride required could readily account for the combined domestic 
sales and the imports for consumption. 

Imports of magnesium chloride (other than anhydrous) declined 
considerably in 1924, but exceeded those of 1922 and previous years. 
The steady decline in price continued, however. Imports of the 
anhydrous chloride, on the other hand, more than doubled. 

Magnesium chloride imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924 





Anhydrous 


Total 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1920. 


(») 
(«) 
(«) 

56, 110 
136, 082 


(") 

( a ) 
(») 

$2, 703 
1,820 




454, 334 

7,365,812 

11, 403, 837 

23, 052, 385 

15, 200, 433 


$7, 098 
85, 727 
113,618 
190, 748 
85,206 


$0. 016 


1921 




.012 


1922 




.010 


1923 


$0,048 
.013 


.008 


1924 


.006 







tt Not separately classified. 
44839°— 27 10 



136 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



MAGNESIUM SULPHATE 

Natural magnesium sulphate was produced from epsomite in 1924 
by the Epso Products Co. near Oroville, Wash., and by the American 
Magnesium Co. in southern California; from natural brines and 
bitterns by the Dow Chemical Co. at Midland, Mich., and the Oliver 
Salt Co. at Mount Eden, Calif. 

The total sales of these companies are shown in the following 
table : 

Natural magnesium sulphate sold in the United States, 1923 and 1924 





Year 


Pounds 


Value 




Total 


Average 


1923 


14, 300, 000 
18, 839, 901 


$231, 000 
293, 167 


$0 016 


1924 


. 016 







Some of this magnesium sulphate was exported to Canada, but 
was not separately recorded by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. Imports of magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) are shown 
in the following table : 

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) imported for consumption in the United States, 

1919-1924 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1919 


17, 647 

1, 803, 769 

12, 519, 778 


$1, 473 

66, 944 
88, 153 


1922 


25, 390, 734 
14, 455, 920 
8, 881, 181 


$200, 203 
71, 566 


1920 . 


1923... 


1921 


1924... 


57, 579 







MANUFACTURED MAGNESIUM SALTS 

Statistics in the preceding pages deal with substances as they left 
the raw-material producer. Supplementary figures compiled bien- 
nially by the Bureau of the Census, which show the quantity and 
value of manufactured magnesium salts, are given below. The raw 
materials from which these salts were made may include dolomite, 
magnesite, crude magnesium sulphate, and crude magnesium chloride, 
but the quantities of these materials so used have not been reported. 
They are partly or wholly included in the figures of production 
already given. 

Manufactured magnesium salts produced in the United States, 1921 and 1923 





1921 


1923 




Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Pounds 


Value 


Num- 
ber of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Pounds 


Value 


Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) 


12 

5 

1 


29, 846, 756 
2, 648, 678 


$753, 822 
141, 340 

1, 304, 125 


12 
5 


41, 351, 136 
13, 193, 112 
52, 065, 600 


$851, 103 


Magnesium oxide 


707, 975 


Magnesium chloride. . ... 


815, 398 








l_ 




699, 790 














2, 199, 287 






3, 074, 266 


















MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 



137 



Imports of magnesium compounds not shown elsewhere in this 
report are given below: 

Magnesium compounds imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924 



Year 


Calcined magnesia, 
purified 


Carbonate, 
precipitated 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


1920 - 


26, 859 
35, 182 
96, 792 
141, 375 
101, 998 


$9, 093 
7,593 
15, 969 
30, 802 
29, 252 


14, 930 

18, 514 

36, 254 

1, 046, 990 

481, 439 


$1, 512 


1921 .-. 


2, 061 


1922 


3,385 
55, 137 
25, 333 


1923 


1924 





METALLIC MAGNESIUM 



The estimated sales of domestic metallic magnesium, 1921-1924, 
are given below: 

Domestic metallic magnesium sold or used in the United States, 1921-1924 





Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Total 


Average 




Ingot 


Powder 


Sheet, 
wire, and 
castings 


1921. 


48, 000 

"60,000 

• 125, 000 

"128,000 


$86, 000 
"89,000 
" 155, 000 
« 150, 000 


$1. 30 
1.60 
1.25 

&1.07 


$2.36 
1.13 
1.00 

•1.10 




1922... 




1923. ... 


$3.60 


1924 


3.50 







° Estimated. 

6 Prices ranged from as low as 90 cents in large contracts to $1.10 for small quantities. The published 
price established about Mar. 1, 1924, was $1. 

c This price is an average for old powder sold in competition with old imported stocks and for new powder, 
manufacture of which began in October, 1924, at a sales price of $1.50 a pound. 

As usual, only the American Magnesium Corporation, of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., reported production and sales of domestic magnesium, 
made from calcined magnesite. One other domestic producer used 
magnesium chloride, and the Elektron Metals Corporation of America 
made castings from imported material during part of the year, mainly 
on an experimental basis. This company has suspended operations, 
and states that it is planning the establishment of a plant in Detroit. 

Although total sales increased somewhat in 1924, production of 
new metal decreased slightly both at home and abroad. These 
conditions reflect a slow but sound progress in market development, 
especially for partly manufactured products, and a closer adjustment 
of domestic production to demand. Decreased production abroad is 
reported due to suspension pending introduction of a superior method 
of refining by which injurious impurities are practically eliminated. 
With this improvement in use a large increase in German production 
is planned. 

The decrease in average value of ingot and increase in that of 
powder is noteworthy. The sales price of the new domestic powder, 



138 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



$1.50, is about the same as that of new powder from Germany. Old 
powder made during the war period was sold at prices as low as 60 
cents a pound. The publication of an average price for sheet, wire, 
and castings in the foregoing table marks the further growth of these 
products from the experimental stage. 

The sales of castings, rods, sheet, wire, and tubing are beginning to 
represent a larger proportion of the total consumption. The sales of 
ingot, in spite of its considerable reduction in price, decreased slightly 
in 1924, owing to a slower growth in the demand for magnesium- 
aluminum alloys than had been expected. 

Castings made by the American Magnesium Corporation during 
1924 include aircraft parts, such as crank cases, oil pans, pistons, 
control pulleys, gasoline line fittings, bearings, instrument parts, 
control levers, hinges, steps, and supercharger castings; also micro- 
scope parts, lens holders, field glasses, parts for moving-picture 
machines and surveying instruments, golf-club heads, artificial 
limbs, impellers for air compressors, shuttles, and special bobbins. 

IMPORTS 

Magnesium imported for consumption in the United States, 1921-1924 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 




Total 


Average 


1921 


39, 913 

182, 939 

13, 974 

8,738 


$30, 592 

54, 448 

11,576 

6,561 


$0.77 


1922 


.30 


1923 


.83 


1924 


.75 







Magnesium imported for consumption in the United States, 1923 and 1924, by 

classes 





1923 




1924 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 




11, 381 

510 

1,496 

587 


$7, 598 

572 

1,983 

1,423 


$0. 668 
1.122 
1.326 

2.424 


3,299 
1,637 
2,975 

827 


$1, 352 

641 

3,930 

638 


$0. 410 




.392 




1.321 


Sheets, tubing, ribbons, wire, and all other 
articles of magnesium 


.771 








13, 974 


11, 576 


.828 


8,738 


6,561 


.751 



Practically all the imports for consumption were withdrawals 
from warehouse. New imports in 1924 included 1,000 pounds of 
coarse powder, but their total was small. 



MAGNESIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS 139 

DEVELOPMENT AND OUTLOOK 

Interest in magnesium products and appreciation of their physical 
properties by potential consumers increased, but the general business 
depression during a considerable part of the year kept this interest 
from resulting in many additional sales. 

The use of magnesium as a deoxidizer and desulphurizer continues 
to broaden. All manufacturers of nickel and monel metal depend 
on magnesium, and it is still important as a scavenger for brass and 
bronze. 

Although the demand for magnesium-aluminum alloys in 1924 
grew more slowly than expected, it is probable that as the properties 
of these alloys become better understood and as equipment for 
their fabrication and heat treatment is supplied, they will gradually 
replace pure aluminum. The demand for high-strength aluminum 
alloys in which magnesium up to 0.5 per cent is essential is gradually 
increasing. Some interesting properties are being shown by alum- 
inum alloys containing a greater amount of magnesium. For ex- 
ample, an aluminum alloy containing about 4 per cent magnesium 
possesses electrical properties which make it useful for automobile 
speedometer cups. Lead hardened with about 0.04 per cent magne- 
sium is attracting interest as a covering for telegraph and telephone 
cables. 

A new alloy developed by the American Magnesium Corporation 
in 1924 is especially suitable for castings. It is very resistant to 
tarnish and corrosion and has physical properties superior to those 
of alloys previously made. Castings made from it have a tensile 
strength of 18,000 pounds per square inch and an elongation of 3 
per cent. The Elektron Metals Corporation of America, which is 
closely related to the Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron of 
Germany, reports that in Germany a casting alloy has been com- 
mercially developed and placed on the market with a tensile strength 
of 28,000 pounds persquare inch and an elongation of 5 to 8 per cent. 
It also reports that by its patented processes magnesium alloys can 
be cast in wet sand as easily and economically as aluminum can. 

The new magnesium powder introduced in 1924 is characterized 
by 40 per cent more volume for a given weight than had been previ- 
ously obtainable and is 99.9 per cent pure. Its efficiency in burning 
is correspondingly increased. It is receiving general approval and 
an increase in its consumption is expected in 1925. 

Important progress has been made in the manufacture of sheet 
and plate. Magnesium sheet of excellent appearance and good 
phj^sical properties is now produced with comparative ease, although 
still at high cost. The process requires special melting and alloying 
equipment, together with close temperature regulation and care 
in pouring the rolling billets. The American Magnesium Corporation 
is now rolling a magnesium-alloy plate suitable in size and strength 
for making the Liberty type of aircraft propeller. Other new uses 
of sheet and plate include lining material for airplanes and pilot 
boats for dirigibles, high-speed supercharger impellers and entrance 
buckets, radio diaphragms, and resonating disks for automobile horns. 

Improvement in the manufacture of extruded rod and tubing has 
been made by the addition of drawing equipment which makes 
possible the manufacture of articles within definite tolerances and 



140 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

with improved physical properties. Products developed experi- 
mentally and not mentioned in the report for 1923 are special screws 
for automatic signaling devices, window frames, steering wheels for 
airships, and lightweight meter pointers. 

The present demand for magnesium wire is limited to a few sizes. 
The most popular diameter is 0.025 of an inch. Magnesium ribbon 
0.125 of an inch wide and 0.006 of an inch thick is standard. Rib- 
bon, like powder, is now made 99.9 per cent pure. Considerable im- 
provement has been made during the past year in the method of 
packing these commodities so as to make marketing easier. Degasi- 
flcation of radio tubes continues to consume the major part of the 
ribbon and wire sold, and manufacturers of thermos bottles are 
becoming interested in these products for a similar purpose. Chem- 
ical laboratories consume a little. A new use that may consume 
large quantities consists of winding magnesium ribbon spirally on an 
electrical resistor element and subsequently treating it under steam 
pressure. The magnesium coating is thereby converted to magnesium 
oxide with high thermal but low electrical conductivity. 

Although the forging or hot pressing of magnesium continues to 
be one of the most promising developments, it is still in the experi- 
mental stage and no striking developments were reported in 1924. 

The high cost of manufacture is still the greatest difficulty in the 
development of a market for magnesium. Total sales of commercial 
products are hardly sufficient to permit a substantial reduction in 
selling price; but the field is believed to be gradually broadening, and 
as certain demands assume commercial proportions, reductions in 
costs and in sales prices are to be expected. 



SALT, BROMINE, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



By K. W. Cottrell l 



SALT 

PRODUCTION 



The decrease in salt sold or used by producers in the United States 
during 1924 as compared with 1923 has been variously ascribed to 
a price war in the East, the importation of low-priced salt from 
Germany and the West Indies, drought, and lowered consumption 
due to slackness of trade in the fish-packing and other industries in 
the West. 



Salt sold or used by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 





Short tons 


Value 


a 


Year 


Manufac- 
tured 
(evaporated) 


In brine 


Rock salt 


Total 


Total 


Average 


1915 


2, 335, 823 
2, 454, 836 
2, 482, 564 
2, 724, 203 
2, 392, 290 
2, 409, 924 
1, 931, 243 
2, 276, 683 
2, 239, 872 
2, 224, 555 


1, 851, 199 
2, 539, 717 
2, 890, 588 
2, 830, 600 
2, 850, 639 
2,819,916 

1, 577, 335 

2, 569. 042 
2, 787, 239 
2, 513, 853 


1, 165, 387 
1, 368, 353 
1, 605, 025 
1, 683, 941 
1, 639, 973 
1, 610, 189 
1, 472, 576 
1, 947, 124 
2, 103, 602 
2, 064, 707 


5, 352, 409 

6, 362, 906 
6, 978, 177 

7, 238, 744 
6, 882, 902 
6, 840, 029 
4, 981, 154 
6, 792, 849 
7, 130, 713 
6,803,115 


$11, 747, 686 
13, 645, 947 
19, 940, 442 
26, 940, 361 
27, 074, 694 
29, 894, 075 

24, 557, 966 
27, 464, 838 
27, 795, 941 

25, 747, 048 


$2.19 


1916 


2.14 


1917 


2.86 


1918 


3.72 


1919 -- 


3.93 


1920 


4.37 


1921 


4.93 


1922 


4.04 


1923.. 


3.90 


1924 


3.78 







• The values are f. o. b. mine or refinery and do not include cost of cooperage or containers. 

The total production of salt in the United States — reported from 
101 plants in 1924 — decreased 5 per cent in quantity and 7 per cent 
in value. The four leading States reported decreases in both quan- 
tity and value: New York, 5 per cent in quantity and 9 per cent in 
value; Michigan, 10 per cent in quantity and 9 per cent in value; 
Ohio, less than 1 per cent in quantity and about 1 per cent in value; 
and Kansas, 6 per cent in quantity and 22 per cent in value. Six 
States showed increases in quantity: California and Idaho, 6 per 
cent each; Louisiana, 7 per cent; West Virginia, 19 per cent; New 
Mexico, more than 200 per cent; and Porto Rico, well over 100 per 
cent. With the exception of West Virginia, these same States re- 

1 Statistics of imports and exports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

141 



142 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



ported increases in value: California, 3 per cent; Idaho, 13 per cent; 
Louisiana, 21 per cent; and New Mexico and Porto Bico, over 200 
per cent each. The value for West Virginia and Utah decreased 9 
per cent and 1 per cent, respectively, but for Virginia it increased 37 
per cent. 

Salt sold or used by producers in the United States, 1921-1924, by States 





1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


State 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


California 


193, 618 


$1, 043, 912 


257, 790 

21 

759, 459 

336, 852 

2, 005. 088 

718 

1, 960, 867 

1, 105, 757 

(•) 

81, 909 

25, 188 

259, 200 


$1,211,197 
240 

3, 849, 427 

1, 657, 708 

8, 693, 604 

5,747 

7, 066, 409 

3, 749, 564 

C°) 

387, 093 

283, 257 

560, 592 


252, 465 

31 

845, 163 

359, 161 

2, 127, 412 

525 

2, 065, 842 

1, 102, 387 

5, 875 

81, 449 

31, 589 

258, 814 


$1, 327, 917 

310 

3, 570, 135 

1, 808. 762 

8, 684, 148 

5,250 

7, 431, 155 

3, 695, 248 

8,225 

468, 765 

284, 196 

511,830 


268, 112 

33 

794, 303 

383, 104 

1, 918, 463 

1,700 

1, 972, 808 

1, 102, 214 

14, 466 

78, 577 

37, 561 

231, 774 


$1, 361, 166 


Idaho 


350 


Kansas 


665, 968 

(<*) 

1, 427, 465 

(•) 

1, 455, 014 

749, 349 

7,418 

68, 874 

27, 964 

385, 484 


3, 268, 661 
(•) 

7, 439, 445 

(") 

6, 505, 041 

3, 284, 952 

24, 908 

491, 354 

320, 537 

2, 179, 156 


2, 781, 217 


Louisiana 

Michigan 

New Mexico 

New York 

Ohio 


2, 182, 797 
7, 864, 838 
17, 000 
6, 739, 597 
3, 641, 585 


Porto Rico 

Utah 


29, 932 
463, 143 


West Virginia 

Undistributed <>.._ 


258, 089 
407, 334 




4, 981, 154 


24, 557, 966 


6, 792, 849 


27, 464, 838 


7, 130, 713 


27, 795, 941 


6,803,115 


25, 747, 048 



o Included under "Undistributed." 

6 1921: Hawaii, Louisiana, New Mexico, Texas, and Virginia; 
1923: Nevada, Texas, and Virginia; 1924: Texas and Virginia. 



1922: Porto Rico, Texas, and Virginia; 



A comparison of the quantities and values of the varieties of salt 
manufactured in 1924 with those of 1923 shows that solar evaporated 
and pressed blocks manufactured from evaporated salt were the only- 
varieties that increased in quantity. Salt in brine was the only variety 
that increased in value and this increase was very slight. All other 
varieties decreased in both quantity and value. The average value 
of all salt sold was 12 cents less than in 1923. 



Salt sold or used by producers in the United States in 1924, by methods of manu- 
facture 





Short tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 


Evaporated in open pans or grainers 


741, 056 

1, 028, 895 

318, 884 

135, 720 

2, 028, 083 

36, 624 

2, 513, 853 


$6, 721, 943 
7, 598, 168 
1, 294, 093 
1, 059, 484 
7, 238, 159 


$9.07 


Evaporated in vacuum pans 


7.38 


Solar evaporated 


4.06 


Pressed blocks from evaporated salt 


7.81 


Rock 


3.57 


Pressed blocks from rock salt 


263, 260 7. 19 


Salt in brine (sold or used as such) 


1,571,941 










6, 803, 115 


25, 747, 048 


3.78 



SALT, BROMINE, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



143 



The four leading States in the production of rock salt were New 
York, Kansas, Louisiana, and Michigan. These four States reported 
97 per cent of the total quantity and 96 per cent of the total value 
of rock salt sold in 1924. 

Rock salt sold by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919. 


1, 165, 387 
1, 368, 353 
1, 605, 025 
1,683,941 
1, 639, 973 


$2, 299, 894 

2, 665, 270 

3, 897, 595 

5, 684, 661 

6, 224, 920 


$1.97 
1.95 
2.43 
3.38 
3.80 


1920 

1921.. 

1922 

1923 

1924 


• 1, 610, 189 
« 1, 472, 576 
» 1, 947, 124 
« 2, 103, 602 

• 2, 064, 707 


« $7, 048, 315 
« 6, 693, 923 

• 7, 489, 644 

• 7, 843, 419 

• 7, 501, 419 


$4.38 
4.55 
3.85 
3.73 
3.63 



a Includes pressed blocks made of rock salt, as follows: 1920, 15,182 tons, valued at $172,211; 1921, 20,148 
tons, valued at $169,244; 1922, 38,593 tons, valued at $245,174; 1923, 38,043 tons, valued at $281,302; 1924, 
36,624 tons, valued at $263,260. 

Evaporated salt sold or used by producers in the United States, 1923-1924, by 

States 



State 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


California 


245, 015 

313, 701 

806, 165 

525 

391, 787 

301, 309 

5,875 

78, 993 

31, 589 

64, 913 


$1, 290, 667 

2, 305, 299 

7, 346, 432 

5,250 

3, 299, 203 

2, 884, 360 

8,225 

457, 662 

284, 196 

504, 887 


255, 252 
264, 222 
804, 385 
1,700 
393, 276 
310, 625 
14, 466 
76, 423 
37, 561 
66, 645 


$1, 309, 726 
1, 836, 749 


Kansas 


Michigan 


6, 587, 768 

17,000 

2, 929, 884 

2, 841, 063 




New York 


Ohio... 


Porto Rico 


29, 932 


Utah 


452, 980 


West Virginia 


258, 089 


Undistributed ° 


410, 497 






Percentage of decrease 


2, 239, 872 
1.6 


18, 386, 181 
0.5 


2, 224, 555 
0.7 


16, 673, 688 
9.3 







• 1923: Louisiana, Nevada, and Texas; 1924: Idaho, Louisiana, and Texas. 



The production of pressed blocks in the last seven years, as reported 
by the original producers Of the salt and shown in the following 
table, does not represent the entire pressed-block industry, because 
some firms that do not produce salt are making pressed blocks from 
salt bought in the open market. 



Pressed salt blocks sold 



original producers of the salt in the United States, 
1918-1924 



Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1918 


94,150 
119, 510 
129, 224 
117, 739 


$939, 900 
1, 358, 757 
1, 515, 041 
1, 275, 483 


$9.98 
11.37 
11.72 
10.83 


1922 


172,682 
166,116 
172, 344 


$1, 554, 429 
1, 544, 548 
1, 322, 744 


$9.00 


1919... 


1923 


9.30 


1920 


1924 


7.68 


1921 











144 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



In 1024. as in 1923, almost 99 per cent of the total new supply 
of salt in the United States was of domestic production, and less than 
2 per cent was imported. 

Supply of salt for domestic consumption, 1919-19:34. in short tons 



Source 


1919 


1020 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Domestic production 


5, 882, 902 
59,514 


6,840,029 

137.651 


4. 981, 154 
93, 095 


6,792,849 

113.922 


7. 130.713 
88, 750 


6,803, 115 




88, 938 








6,942,416 
119,416 


6. 977, 683 
139,272 


5, 074. 249 
109, 563 


06,771 
134,989 


7.219.463 


6, 892. 053 
114.945 






New supply 

Comparison with preceding 
year 


6, 823. 000 
-319, 251 

as 


6,838.411 

+15,411 

20 


4, 964, 686 
-1,873,725 

1.9 


6,771,782 
7,096 

1. 7 


7. 093, 934 

+322. 1 52 

1.3 


6, 747, 108 

-346. S26 


Percentage of imports to new 


1.3 







IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



According to figures obtained from the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce and converted from pounds, as reported by 
that bureau, to short tons, the salt imported into and exported 
from the United States in the last 10 years has been as follows: 

Salt imported for consumption in the United States, 1915-19:24 



Year 


In bags, barrel?, and 
other pack a cos 


In bulk 


Total 


: ton? 


Value 


Short ton? 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1215 


24. 402 

10, 259 

9, 676 

- 74 

40. 426 


139, 339 
148, 128 

• 216, 718 

• 24 
"209,641 


9". 602 

30,031 

49. 838 

48, 512 


$169. 859 

140. 796 
133. 340 

197. 749 
307. 


122, 126 
122, 079 

59, 7-14 
137. 654 

93.095 
113.923 


$366, 452 


1916 

1917 


342. 588 
280. 135 


I 


281, 468 
242, 704 


1919 





676, 499 




531,031 




1922 


522. 338 


1923 


142; - 

114.451 


383. 258 


1924 


324, 092 











• Include? salt imported for curinc fish, as follows: 1922, 2,252 short tons, valued at $5,549; 1923, 16,472 
tons, $46,260: 1924, 27,096 tons, $61,581. 



SALT, BROMISTE, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE 

Salt imported into the United States, 1921-1924, by countries 
[General imports} 



145 





1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


North America: 


1, 692, 000 


$13,560 


1, 889, 300 


$14, 547 5 n^ 1 z™ 


26 


3, 476, 843 


$20,554 


Guatemala.. 




500 


Mexico 


IS, 200 


' 










Newfoundland and 
Labrador 


115,000 


2, 800 






West Indies- 
British— 

Barbados 








1, 012. 600 

... - 


1,153 

4,169 












1, 034, 100 
11, 016, 100 


1,379 

3,668 


15, 422, 360 


16,548 


Trinidad 
and " 






Other British 
Dutch 

French ... 


9,603,200 
62,000 

902,500 


54,271 
- . 
151 

1,788 


77 


70, 100, 600 

3, 050. eoo 

2,390,000 




50, 040. 105 
180,000 


57,441 

5,181 
270 


Virgin Islands of 

the United 

s 






South America: 

Chile... 


17,300 


99 










Europe: 






440.000 
.. . 
10,304,000 


2.070 
- - 
135, 959 
10,350 








16. 676. 700 
52,712,7 


123,999 
250, 614 


14. 104. 100 
110, 656, 000 


105, 172 
274 \ 


15, 764, 896 
40, 951, 106 


1 9 1 173 


Germany 




Italv 


Malta, Gozo, and 
Cvprus Islands 






22.400 
896,000 




Netherlands 








561,100 


2,503 


1,200 


Portugal 


12, 494, 400 

1,100 
500 
700 


29,597 

n 

6 






Spain... 

Asia: 


.- 552 

3,"6o6 


27,047 
24 


1 277 

200 
100 


16,396 

57 
3 


35,996,400 

280 




29,947 
24 


Japan 




Turkey 




Africa: 






11. 200. 000 


5,646 


31, 997, 564 


18,626 




17, 506, 000 



33,251 








Portuguese 


243.200 


110 




380.800 


110 




1S6. 190, 100 


531,031 


227, 27, 


823,086196,879, l( 


404. 31S 199, 223. 6S3 


343. 391 



Salt exported from the United States, 1915- : 



Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


S2 , ™ue 

! 


1915 


SO. 474 
84.065 


$613,847 1 


1920 


139.272 $1,901,593 


1916 


" ' 


1921 


109.5^3 
134. 989 


1,415,471 


1917 


113. 9V3 1. 000. 773 

1,677,577 

119, 416 1 - 396. 6">5 






1918 




1923.. 

. 


1, 211, 226 


1919 


1, 288. 376 















146 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Salt exported from the United States, 1921-1924, by countries 



Country 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


North America: 
Bermuda 


128, 284 

262, 212 

163, 278, 742 

59, 380 

128, 559 

1, 859, 679 
451, 557 

2, 236, 694 

1,821 
9,305,018 

576 

603, 490 

724 
196, 438 

6,098 


$2,128 

2,813 

908, 753 

1,145 
2,182 

23, 202 
8,046 

24, 069 

82 
113,261 

11 

5,582 

25 
1,392 

244 


182, 100 

378, 984 
208, 495, 592 

200, 676 
891, 415 

2, 377, 529 
537, 263 

1, 403, 816 
792 

9, 562, 151 

1,500 
112, 200 


$2, 130 

3,833 

928, 477 

1,658 
5,373 

21, 294 
7,611 

13, 522 
54 

94,964 

40 
554 


186, 530 

344, 563 

188, 954, 715 

185, 474 
901, 808 

2, 938, 624 
633, 060 

1,802,170 
40, 096 

7, 375, 088 

2,564 
678, 640 

100 
4,496 


$2, 350 

3,028 

696, 709 

2,000 
5,394 

27, 093 
8,482 

16, 676 
274 

88, 071 

78 
1,135 

4 
107 


223, 036 

330, 945 

217, 560, 848 

187, 533 

189, 319 

2, 122, 121 

762, 409 

1, 730, 796 

948 

10, 292, 980 

1,080 

91, 635 


$2, 905 

2,843 

754,836 

2,378 
3,082 

20, 318 
8,856 

15, 499 


British Honduras.. 
Canada 


Central American 
States- 
Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 


Salvador 


22 


Mexico 


97, 881 


Miquelon, Lang- 
ley, etc 


34 


Newfoundland and 
Labrador 


1,107 


West Indies — 
British — 




Jamaica.. 

Trinidad and 
Tobago 


4,436 

24 

37, 369 

41, 443, 389 

186, 315 

96 

4,396 

4,678 

4,716 

275 


88 

3 
421 

268, 463 

4,621 

5 

122 

197 

76 
14 


272, 136 

350 

15, 472 

51,662,620 

202, 357 
620 


1,631 
10 


Other British.. 


15,415 
38, 895, 196 

199, 527 

440 

934 

4,428 

34, 634 
383, 216 


297 
267, 960 

5,423 
23 
27 
155 

159 
2,939 


297 


Cuba... 


30, 965, 628 

426, 830 

50 

8,500 

8,422 

12, 341 
20, 730 


234, 577 

7,083 

5 

320 

292 

261 

283 


292, 033 


Dominican Re- 
public 


4,601 


Dutch 


35 


French 




Haiti 


7,749 

2,852 

12, 500 
1,000 


294 


Virgin Islands of 
the United 
States 


86 


South America: 
Argentina 


163 


Bolivia 


165 


Brazil.... 


528, 136 


11, 130 


70 

1,460 

80, 150 

202 


11 

63 

1,348 

12 








Chile 


705 
100, 380 


24 
1,541 


1,030 

103, 332 

450 

96 


37 


Colombia 


55, 242 


770 


2,037 


Ecuador __ 


45 


Guiana — 
British 


280 
1,500 


4 
60 






2 


Dutch 






14, 255 
1,701 


232 

74 




Paraguay 






1,200 
60 


44 


Peru 






6,560 


40 


6 


Uruguay 






22, 000 
16, 102 

4,800 


118 
307 

165 




Venezuela... 


1,440 


29 


2,428 


36 






Europe: 
Denmark 






England 


10, 000 


150 


3,969 
300 


114 
10 


142, 274 


755 


Esthonia 








France 


1,344 


48 


24, 000 


210 


8,018 
8,625 


71 


Germany 


138 
8,800 

3,700 

672 

2,500 


4 
89 

115 
17 
79 


73 


Greece 












Iceland and Faroe 
Islands 


2,400 


95 






1,000 


36 


Latvia 








Netherlands 










1,526 


19 


Poland and Dan- 
zig 






880 


50 










700 
9,924 
2,240 


15 

127 

11 






Russia 


3,380 


44 


764 


28 






Spain.. 






Yugoslavia and Al- 
bania- 










1,400 


50 


Asia: 
Armenia and Kur- 
distan 






785 
29, 759 

112 
1,160 
4,448 

5,121 
2,387 


37 
2,344 

12 
125 
130 

242 
255 








China 


22, 093 
504 


1,996 
36 


31,522 

1,530 

1,503 
6,520 

5,404 
168 


2,239 

88 
165 
188 

535 

18 


54, 115 

3,000 
2,750 
1,398 

4,522 
696 


3,314 


Kwangtung, leased 
territory 


260 


Ceylon . 


273 


Chosen .. 


7,147 

6,900 

1,234 
3,920 
4,213 


425 

463 

126 

238 
262 


33 


East Indies- 
British— 
India 


412 


Straits Settle- 
ments... 

Other British 


70 


Dutch 






§84 


44 




. 



SALT, BBOMINE, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE 147 

Salt exported from the United States, 1921-1924, by countries — Continued 



Country 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Asia — Continued. 
Far Eastern Re- 
public 


3,240 

90, 574 


$280 
3,646 


7,488 
36, 853 


$264 
2,232 


20, 180 

30, 687 

1,417 

2, 167, 294 

3,726 


$168 

2,205 

87 

10, 762 

380 






Hongkong 


42, 700 


$2, 652 


Indo-China, French 




6, 708, 380 


28, 448 


496, 750 

5,736 

480 

185, 244 
2,100 
1,359 


1,944 

556 

47 

8,989 
115 
147 


159, 740 
2,220 


1, 013 
183 


Java and Madura. . 


Palestine and Syria. 








Philippine Islands . 
Russia 


72, 157 

10, 810 

1,065 

872 

2,420 


2,734 
278 
105 

48 

66 


2, 718, 770 


17, 955 


403, 938 


11, 105 


Siam.. 

Turkey 


3,492 


376 


1,550 


155 


Africa: 
Belgian Congo 


21, 000 


268 










British Africa- 
South 


2,880 


124 






West 


265 


7 


214 


8 












4,000 


120 


Egypt.. 










375 


14 




Liberia 


23 

1,215 


1 
31 












Portuguese Africa- 
East 






4,560 
399 

1, 647, 691 

364, 180 

11,500 

261, 357 

4,326 


50 
18 

31,862 

9,153 

187 

3,412 

73 






Other 






274 

2, 812, 921 

98, 300 

14, 750 

296, 762 

45, 150 


8 


Oceania: 
British — 
Australia 


900, 918 

486, 898 

14,240 

217, 218 


17, 317 

8,261 

345 

2.169 


2, 530, 774 

444, 488 

17, 170 

230, 601 


44, 137 

9,157 

316 

2,236 


49, 063 


New Zealand 

Other British 

French 


2,815 

298 

3,887 


Other 


4,446 103 


464 












219, 126, 247 


1,415,471 


269, 977, 554 


1, 429, 172 


251, 057, 170 


1, 211, 226 


289, 889, 103 1, 288, 376 

1 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION 



The quantities of salt produced in the chief countries of the world, 
during the five years 1919-1923 are shown in the following table 
compfled by Miss L. M. Jones, of the Bureau of Mines: 

Salt produced in the chief countries of the world, 1919-1923, in metric tons 



Country • 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


North America: 

Canada.. 


134, 536 

67, 000 

( d ) 

1, 487, 751 

4, 756, 280 

4,270 

1,260 

51, 000 

8,191 

140, 248 
29, 454 
29,000 
27, 724 
31, 479 

498 

95, 434 

4,944 


190, 376 

67, 000 

826 

1, 460, 731 

4, 744, 406 

« 1,830 

509 

48, 394 

25, 524 

82, 464 
33, 951 
29, 000 
27, 172 

2,455 
79, 431 
30,990 


149, 374 

67,000 

677 

1, 335, 891 

3,182,912 

«3,200 
(") 
14 
17, 810 

75, 968 
39, 466 
29, 000 
26,350 

1,816 
76,236 
91,200 


164,920 

67, 000 

826 

1, 766, 392 

4, 395, 945 

'2,100 
C) 

46, 693 
18, 459 

93, 698 
33, 743 
29, 000 
26,126 

2,328 
85,695 
128,179 


187, 773 


Mexico b 


67,000 


Panama" 


(") 


United States— Rock salt 


1,908,346 


Other 


4, 660, 494 


West Indies- 
British— 

Bahamas 


P> 


Ragged Island e 


Turks and Caicos islands' 

Dutch « 


41,320 
11,795 


South America: 

Argentina* 


M 


Chile... 


38, 242 


Colombia * 


29,000 


Peru. 


26, 522 


Venezuela 


O 


Europe: 

Austria — Rock salt 


1,520 


Other 


81, 771 


Czechoslovakia 


134, 080 



• In addition to the countries shown in the table there are others in which salt is produced, 
of these, figures of production are available for years prior to those given in the table and may 
earlier volumes of Mineral Resources. 

b Estimated annual production. 

• Exports. 

d Data not available. 

• Railway shipments. 



For some 
be found in 



148 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Salt produced in the chief countries of the world, 1919-1923, in metric tons — Con. 



Country 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


Europe— Continued. 

France — Rock salt and salt from 
springs 


649, 015 

597, 495 

1, 487, 849 

291, 719 

28, 831 

41,313 

494, 435 

5,244 

169, 203 

81, 427 
259, 167 
570, 000 

37, 801 
443, 490 
421, 000 

72, 545 
» 1, 743, 737 

19, 853 
(<0 

23, 400 

16, 229 

2, 146, 000 

50, 690 

1,503 

208, 625 

1, 712, 866 

12, 000 

589, 005 
73, 158 
32, 000 
63, 430 

27, 482 

80 

516 

227, 229 

20, 000 
1,830 

400 

1,671 

16, 942 

77, 265 

70, 284 
127, 423 


840, 001 

432, 776 
2, 596, 825 

335, 900 
57, 285 
46, 989 

675, 129 
24, 857 

245, 604 
118, 368 

246, 977 
579, 162 

62, 647 
928, 898 
448, 000 

86, 358 

' 1, 985, 459 

23, 460 

(0 

23,400 

16, 775 

2, 104, 000 

54, 921 

625 

213, 207 

1, 443, 079 

12, 000 

543, 956 
51, 976 
62, 383 
50, 737 

28, 169 

80 

504 

225, 811 

20, 000 

1,830 

400 

2,746 

41, 086 

80, 603 

72, 008 
135, 660 


793, 151 
212, 251 

1, 655, 753 
304, 466 

65, 000 

45, 440 
468, 151 

25, 465 
301, 612 

( d ) 

232, 818 
983, 676 

37,996 
475, 143 
339, 000 

24, 525 
o 1, 302, 609 

11, 760 
(<0 

34, 922 

13, 952 

2, 075, 000 

56, 000 
899 

150, 414 
1, 407, 881 

12, 000 
515, 103 
101, 540 

( d ) 
29, 824 

18, 255 

80 

906 

153, 651 

20, 000 

1,830 

400 

2,175 

32, 800 

62, 033 

57, 399 
133, 522 


541, 340 

238, 250 
2, 319, 896 

360, 464 
67, 500 
49, 802 

740, 507 
28,334 

295, 403 

285, 212 
789, 516 
114, 400 
566, 480 
64, 268 

26, 998 
1, 756, 017 

} ( d ) 

43, 872 

39, 623 

» 2,000, 000 

45, 000 

3,022 

210, 639 
1, 469, 804 

12. 000 
665, 096 

( d ) 

( d ) 

26, 542 

20, 208 

80 

1,572 

186, 793 

20, 000 

1,520 

400 

( d ) 

51, 950 
75, 806 

49, 438 
170, 887 


} 1, 145, 440 


Other 


Germany — Rock salt 


1, 583, 978 
291, 518 


Other 


Greece 


59, 908 


Italy — Rock salt 


52, 754 
711, 892 


Other. 


Netherlands — Rock salt 


26, 813 


Poland 


363, 307 


Portugal <• 


( d ) 


Rumania 


306, 612 


Russia' 


966, 456 


Spain — Rock salt 


98, 619 


Other 


617, 207 
( d ) 


Switzerland 


United Kingdom — 

Great Britain and Isle of Man — 
Rock salt 


38, 494 
1, 860, 170 


Other 


Ireland — Rock salt 


Other 


( d ) 


Yugoslavia 


( d ) 


Asia: 

Ceylon 


28,834 


China (including Kwangtung) A 

Chosen «' 


* 2, 000, 000 
( d ) 


Cyprus « 


778 


India- 
British (including Aden)— 

Rock salt 


121, 594 


Other.. 


1, 688, 150 
12, 000 


Portuguese b 


Japan — Japan proper » 


479, 908 




( d ) 


Philippine Islands 


( d ) 


Siam * 


32, 948 


Africa: 

Algeria 


25, 079 


Belgian Congo b ... 


80 




( d ) 
( d ) 


Egypt «__ 


Eritrea *> 


20, 000 


Mauritius * 


1,500 


Nigeria b 


400 


Portuguese West Africa (Angola)* 

Tunis 


( d ) 
72, 982 


Union of South Africa 


( d ) 


Oceania: 

Australia (South Australia) 1 


51, 093 


Dutch East Indies 


151, 582 







* Estimated annual production. 
c Exports. 

* Data not available. 
/Includes Asiatic Russia. 

» Brine-salt production of Ireland included with that of Great Britain. Separate data not available. 

* Estimated on approximate gross revenue under Salt Gabelle. 

* In 1920, additions were made to the salt works which increased the annual capacity to 71,400 metric 
tons. (Financial and Economic Annual of Japan, 1922). 

» Fiscal year ended March 31 of the year following that stated. The figures do not include output from 
salt beds which, though situated on Government beach lands, have no fixed areas. 

* Exports for fiscal year ended March 31 of the year following that stated. 

1 The other States of Australia produce salt, but figures of production are not available. 

BROMINE 

The bromine sold by producers in 1924 increased over 140 per 
cent in quantity and over 300 per cent in value compared with 1923. 
The average value per pound increased 12 cents. 

A large part of the output is not sold as bromine but in the form of 
potassium and sodium bromide and other salts. The figures given in 
the following table include the bromine content of these salts. The 
values given in the table are reported to the Bureau of Mines by the 
producers and represent averages for the year f. o. b. at the plants. 



SALT, BROMINE, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE 

Bromine sold by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



149 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1915 


855, 857 

728, 520 

895, 499 

1, 727, 156 

1, 854, 971 


$856, 307 
951, 932 
492, 703 
970, 099 
1, 234, 969 


$1.00 
1.31 

.55 
.56 
.67 


1920 


1, 160, 584 
711,953 

1, 005, 174 
842, 352 

2, 033, 804 


$745, 381 
172, 759 
150, 668 
146, 176 
594, 685 


$0.64 


1916 


1921 


.24 


1917 


1922 


.15 


1918 


1923.. 


.17 


1919 


1924 


.29 









The wholesale price per pound of bulk bromine as quoted in the 
New York market in 1924, according to Chemical and Metallurgical 
Engineering, was 28 to 30 cents during the first six months of the 
year. From July 1 through November 3 the price stood at 34 to 
38 cents; the week of November 10 it was 42 to 45 cents; November 
17, 44 to 45 cents; the following week the maximum price was 46 
cents: and bromine continued to sell at that rate — 44 to 46 cents — 
until December 22, when the maximum price fell to 45 cents. 

Bromine had not been imported into the United States for several 
years before 1921, when imports of 300 pounds, valued at $84, were 
reported by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. In 
1922 the imports were 1,094 pounds, valued at $339; in 1923, 782 
pounds, valued at $1,171; and in 1924, 37,318 pounds, valued at 
$8,958. 

CALCIUM CHLORIDE 

The calcium chloride reported in the following table is an original 
constituent of the natural brine produced in connection with the 
manufacture of salt and bromine in California, Michigan, Ohio, and 
West Virginia. The statistics cover the direct production of calcium 
chloride from mineral raw materials only. A further large output 
made by manufacturing processes used in the chemical industries is 
not reported. 



Calcium-magnesium chloride from natural brines sold 

States, 1915-1924 



producers in the United 



Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1915 


20, 535 
27, 709 
30, 503 
26, 624 
26, 123 


$130, 830 
224, 997 
451,480 
503, 452 
321, 596 


$6.37 
8.12 
14.80 
18.91 
12.31 


1920 


27, 849 
23, 672 
33, 067 
44, 961 
58, 791 


$539, 471 

510, 723 

571, 326 

663, 384 

1, 164, 848 


$19. 37 


1916.. 


1921... 


21.57 


1917 


1922 


17.28 


1918 -. 


1923 


14.75 


1919 


1924... 


19.81 









Imports of calcium chloride in 1924 amounted to 3,996 short tons, 
valued at $54,542, according to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. In 1923, 3,232 tons, valued at $48,527, was imported, 
and from September 22 to December 31, 1922, 740 tons, valued at 
$8,563. Similar imports were not recorded separately prior to the 
new tariff. 

Exports of calcium chloride are not shown separately. 



SLATE 



By G. F. Loughlin and A. T. Coons 



GENERAL, CONDITIONS 

The slate industry in the United States, which in 1923 was seem- 
ingly recovering from a period of depression, showed a further 
increase of 3 per cent in quantity in 1924. There was, however, a 
decrease of 2^ per cent in the total value of the slate sold. The 
sales in 1924 amounted to 727,700 short tons, valued at $11,776,016, 
compared with 707,100 tons, valued at $12,076,624, in 1923. 

The slate industry falls into three groups — roofing slate, mill 
stock, and crushed slate for granules and u flour." The first two 
groups are closely connected and a strike in some of the quarries in 
the Pennsylvania district in 1924 materially decreased the sales of 
both these classes of products. Sales of crushed slate granules, 
on the other hand, continued to increase, as they have done since the 
beginning of trade in that product, and were responsible for the small 
increase in total quantity of slate sold. The average unit value, how- 
ever, of both roofing slate and mill stock increased, whereas that of 
crushed slate decreased. Although roofing slate was reported in good 
demand during the greater part of the year, the total sales decreased 
1)4 per cent in quantity and increased but 1 per cent in value. The 
average value per square was $9.86 in 1924 as against $9.03 in 1923. 

Sales of mill stock, which includes slate for electrical, and structural 
and sanitary uses, for grave vaults and covers, blackboards, bulletin 
boards, billiard-table tops, and school slates, amounted to 10,009,180 
square feet, valued at $3,922,366, a decrease of 10 per cent in quantity 
and 6 per cent in value. All these mill products decreased in quan- 
tity in 1924 except that sold for vaults and covers. The decreased 
sales of electrical slate (17 per cent in quantity) were said to be due, 
aside from the strike, in part to substitution of manufactured material 
and in part to the use of stone imported for this purpose. The 
shortage caused by the strike was responsible for increase in the 
imports of stone. 

Slate sold for structural and sanitary use decreased 5 per cent in 
quantity in 1924. Demand for blackboards and bulletin boards was 
said to be exceptionally good, although there was a decrease of 8 
per cent in quantity of sales reported. This material is produced 
chiefly from the quarries in Pennsylvania, and many of the quarries 
were unable to supply it on account of the strike. Slate reported as 
sold for billiard-table tops decreased 35 per cent in quantity, and the 
number of pieces sold for school slates 20 per cent. Most of the 
school slates are exported, and the scarcity and cost of the raw material 
as well as unsettled political conditions in certain countries curtailed 
the sales in both 1923 and 1924. Slate sold for grave vaults and 
covers increased 25 per cent in quantity. There was a general trend 
44839°— 27 11 151 



152 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 

toward increased wages as well as toward increased prices throughout 
the roofing-slate and mill-stock districts. 

Slate for both roofing and mill stock meets keen competition from 
many materials, including slate granules used to surface manufac- 
tured roofing. For roofing and mill stock to hold their own with 
these competitive materials it has been found necessary to operate 
the quarries and to manufacture and sell the slate in such form 
and at such prices as will appeal to architects and builders as well as 
to purchasers of buildings, Roofing slate is now being marketed for 
its artistic contribution to the house, by colors and shapes being 
selected that correspond to the architecture and material used, as 
well as for its durability. Slate for structural and sanitary purposes, 
notwithstanding its satisfactory qualities, has not been used in many 
instances because its natural dark color does not harmonize with the 
designs or color effects desired. To overcome this difficulty, the 
Structural Slate Co. of Philadelphia has recently developed a finishing 
process by which structural slate is surfaced in white, light, or such 
colors as conform to any required condition. It is thought that use 
of the process will materially increase the demand for structural slate. 
In 1924 standardization of the sizes of the various slate products 
continued. Improved methods of production by means of modern 
equipment for quarrying, handling, and working up the material are 
gradually being introduced in the quarries and mills and are expected to 
counteract many of the present disadvantages of the labor situation 
and to enable the market to be supplied regularly and fully. 

Sales of slate roofing granules and " flour " increased 11 per cent 
in quantity in 1924. Companies selling both granules and "flour" 
reported the demand for " flour" greater than for granules. Granules 
were first manufactured from the red and green slates of New York 
and Vermont, but are now made also from the green slates of Georgia 
and Tennessee and the gray and bluish-black slates of Maine, Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, although the plant at Monson, 
Me., was idle in 1924. Yellow-brown or rusty-colored granules 
are also being manufactured. In 1924 the crushed slate reported 
included 30,510 short tons of pulverized slate or "flour," valued at 
$176,246. Other stone, chiefly "greenstone" or altered diabase, 
crushed into granules in 1924 amounted to 77,370 tons, valued at 
$527,656. 

The number of quarry companies reporting operation in 1924 was 
123, or 3 more than in 1923. In New York and Vermont there are 
many small quarries intermittently worked on a small scale for roofing 
slate. The product of these quarries is generally sold with the output 
of some of the larger quarries, and much of it consists of "freak" or 
odd-colored slate of unusual size or thickness for use in special pieces 
of work. 

As slate from many of the small producers is sold by the larger 
producing companies, the possibility of duplication of returns must be 
considered in the compilation of operators' reports. Special care has 
been taken in compiling the following figures to avoid duplication. 

PRODUCTION 

The following tables show sales of slate, by uses, from 1920 to 
1924. In approximating the tonnage for the different slate products 
given in the second table a specific gravity of 2.75 has been used as 



SLATE 



153 



the basis of calculation, and a thickness corresponding to an average 
for each product. The total quantity and value given for each use 
are the totals of the reports of the quarrymen (not the selling agents), 
and the value is that f. o. b. quarry or nearest point of shipment. It 
has been suggested that some of the mill stock is ultimately used for 
purposes other than those reported by the quarrvmen, but the Bureau 
of Mines has no means of verifying this suggestion. 

Slate sold by the producers in the United States, 1920-1924, by uses 





Roofing slate 


Mill stock 


Other 

uses b 
(value) ° 




Year 


Squares 

(100 
square 

feet) 


Value a 


Square feet 


Value • 


Total 
value ° 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 




1920. 


396, 230 
348, 085 
479, 243 
507, 587 
469, 393 


$3, 524, 658 
3, 197, 745 
4, 069, 761 
4, 582, 535 
4, 626, 614 


$8.90 
9.19 
8.49 
9.03 
9.86 


9, 910, 000 

8, 970, 000 

9, 276, 800 
11,109,480 
10, 009, 180 


$3, 147, 281 
2, 719, 723 

2, 899, 195 
4,159,644 

3, 922, 366 


$0.32 
.30 
.31 
.37 
.39 


$2, 054, 503 
1,404,538 

2, 207, 828 
3, 334, 445 

3, 227, 036 


$8, 726, 442 


1921. 


7, 322, 006 


1922. 


9, 176,784 


1923 


12, 076, 624 


1924. _. 


11,776,016 











F. o. b. at point of shipment. 



* Chiefly slate granules. 



Roofing slate, mill stock," and slate granules (including slate ii flour ,} ) sold by the 
producers in the United States, 1923-24, by uses 





1923 


1924 


Use 


Quantity 


Value b 


Quantity 


Value 


>> 




Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


Roofing squares.. 

Approximate equivalent in short 
tons 


507, 587 

171, 300 
2, 182, 890 

15, 600 
2, 479, 620 

17, 730 
451, 160 

6,450 

4, 415, 710 

« 11, 900 

527, 680 

3,770 
2, 144, 900 

1,052,420 

1,550 
462, 260 

16, 540 


$4, 582, 535 


$9.03 


469, 393 

158, 420 
1, 801, 450 

12, 900 
2,346,050 

16, 640 
566, 160 

8,100 

4,069,670 

10, 930 
341, 200 

2,400 
1, 710, 240 

884,650 

1,200 

512, 810 
4,300 


$4, 626, 614 


$9.86 


Electrical square feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short 
tons 


1, 754, 717 


.80 


1, 518, 092 


.84 


Structural and sanitary square feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short 
tons 


894, 757 


.36 


951, 964 


.41 


Grave vaults and covers square feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short 
tons 


111, 223 


.25 


142, 167 
1, 151, 767 


.25 


Blackboards and bulletin boards 

square feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short 
tons 


1, 186, 864 


.27 


.28 


Billiard-table tops square feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short 


180, 981 


.34 


131, 028 


.38 


School slates pieces.. 

Approximate equivalent in square 
feet 


31, 102 


^14.50 


27,348 


*15.99 


Approximate equivalent in short 
tons 










Granules short tons.. 

Other* short tons (estimated).. 


3, 268, 554 
65, 891 


7.07 


3, 178, 454 
48, 582 


6.20 


Total (quantities approximate, in 
short tons) 


« 707, 100 


12, 076, 624 




727, 700 


11, 776, 016 









« In 1923 the mill stock sold, including school slates, was 11,109,480 square feet, valued at $4,159,644; in 
1924, 10,009,180 square feet, valued at $3,922,366. 

» F. o. b. at point of shipment. 

• Revised figures. 

d Average value per thousand pieces. 

« Includes slate sold for flagging (249,540 square feet, valued at $54,493, in 1923, and 187,730 square feet, 
valued at $47,437 in 1924), tombstones, waste slate, and other uses not specified. 



154 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Slate sold by the producers in the United States in 1924, by States and uses 





Oper- 
ators 


Roofing 


Structural and 
sanitary 


Electrical 


Other 
uses ° 
(value) 




State 


Squares 

(100 
square 

feet) 


Value 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Total 

value 


California- 


1 

1 
3 
3 
14 

54 
1 

41 
5 


(») 


(») 












(*) 


Georgia 










(») 

$1, 370 

(»5 

791, 527 
1, 912, 718 

(») 
1, 378, 162 

( b ) 
d 595, 569 


(*) 


Maine 


5,313 

(") 

10, 974 
249, 450 


$65, 552 

( 6 ) 
170, 749 


20, 560 


$15, 615 


612, 150 


$585, 004 


$667, 541 

117,137 

962, 276 

5, 157, 868 

( b ) 


Maryland 


New York 












2, 020, 986 


2, 203, 040 


857, 602 


510, 850 


366, 562 


Tennessee 






Vermont 


168,683:1,986,911 
31, 706j 336, 627 
d 3,867 <* 45, 789 


122, 450 


78, 747 


678, 450 . : 


4, 010, 346 


Virginia 






<= 336, 627 
<* «524 221 


























Total, 1923 


123 
120 


469, 393 4, 626, 614*2, 346, 050 
507, 587 4, 582, 53*2, 479, 620 


951,964 1,801,4501,518,092 
894, 757 2, 182, 890i 1,754, 717 

1 1 


4,679,346 11,776,016 
4,844,615:12,076,624 



a For details see table of general sales on p. 153, and table on p. 157 for Pennsylvania. 

* Included under "Undistributed." 

« Exclusive of value of granules, etc., which is included under "Undistributed." 
d Includes output of States entered as " ( b ) " above. 

• Includes also value of granules, etc., for Virginia. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1 

Value of slate imported for consumption in the United States, 1919-1924 



1919 $691 

1920 4, 512 

1921 2, 923 



1922 $2, 753 

1923__ 16, 881 

1924 32, 095 



In view of the increased importation of this material, the follow- 
ing table showing imports by countries is given: 

Slate imported into the United States in 1924, by countries 
[General imports] 



Country 



Canada.. . 
England.. 
Germany. 

Italy 

Portugal.. 



Pounds Value 



930 

215, 735 

97, 466 

1, 045, 003 

229, 522 



$1,853 
8,794 
3,849 

15, 171 
2,367 



Country 



Sweden 

Hongkong. 
Japan 



Pounds Value 



6,393 
48 
70 



1, 595, 167 



$127 
17 
50 



32,228 



i The figures of imports and exports (except in second table on p. 155) were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of 
the Bureau of Mines, from records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



SLATE 155 

Roofing slate exported from the United States, 1923-24, by countries 





1923 


1924 


Country 


Number of 
squares 


Value 


Number of 
squares 


Value 




8,002 


$74, 357 


7,207 
24 


$69, 411 




116 




8 


132 






3 


55 


West Indies: 


5 
20 
108 
135 
12 


110 

98 

1,031 

1,296 

77 




Cuba - 


25 

240 

16 


132 




1,439 


Other British . 


79 








6 


36 




1 
72 
25 

74 


25 

657 
291 
706 






167 


1,567 








477 


4,587 








8,462 


78, 780 


8,165 


77, 422 



The following figures for exports of slate other than roofing were 
collected by the Bureau of Mines from shippers of the products 
named: 

Slate other than roofing exported from the United States in 1924, by destination 





Electrical 


Billiard tables 


School slates 


Blackboards 




Destination 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Cases a 


Value 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Total 
value 


North America: 


• 25, 980 
1,080 
2,400 
2,890 
3,770 
580 
5,980 
1,900 
3,290 


'$23, 414 
1,015 
2,246 
3,637 
3,533 
545 
5,625 
1,781 
3,078 


370 
430 


$150 
182 


1,960 
300 
550 
1,230 
1, 020 
1,470 
1,620 
1,290 
1,100 


$26, 426 
3,031 
5,861 

12, 872 

10, 625 
14, 295 
16, 258 

13, 229 

11, 268 


128, 180 


$38, 998 


$88,988 


Central America 


4,228 
8,107 
16, 599 
15, 422 










220 

3,160 

80 

80 


90 

1, 264 

40 

31 






South America 






Europe. 






14, 880 








21,914 








15, 010 
14, 346 
























■ 47, 870 


• 44, 874 


4,340 


1,757 


10, 540 


113, 865 


128, 180 


38, 998 


199, 494 



° Cases weigh from 130 to 165 pounds each; average is 135 pounds. 

6 There was also shipped to Canada 8,780 short tons of slate granules, valued at $54,400. 

• Includes a small amount of structural slate. 

REVIEW BY DISTRICTS 

The slate report for 1922 gave for each section of the country 
a list of the producers operating slate quarries and a brief description 
of the slate produced and its use. As few changes have taken place 
among operators since 1922, their names are not repeated here. 

Maine district.— In Maine where the chief product of the quarries 
is slate for electrical use, the demand was greatly curtailed in 1924. 
Both wa^es and prices advanced somewhat. The mill crushing slate 
granules in 1923 was idle in 1924. 

New York-Vermont district. — New York and Vermont produce all 
of the colored slates used for roofing. Red slate is the chief product 
of the New York quarries but they also produce, with those of Ver- 



156 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

mont, the various green, purple, variegated, mottled, and "freak'' 
slates at present in demand for artistic roofs. The output of the New 
York quarries is chiefly for roofing slate and granules. The sales of 
roofing slate in New York in 1924 were nearly two and one-half times 
as great as in 1923, and the quantity of granules sold was also some- 
what larger. Some of the New York slate is sold for flagging. In 
1924 the Amalgamated Slate Quarries Co., of Easton, Pa., took over 
the Superior, Red, and Dorrco quarries of the Laurel Slate Co. and 
the Dorrco Slate Co. in New York, and the Green Mountain Slate Co. 
quarries in Vermont. 

The Vermont quarries produce roofing slate, mill stock, and slate 
granules. The colors are m a wide variety and combinations of green 
and purple generally classed as green, unfading green, unfading mot- 
tled green and purple, weathering green (sea-green), purple, varie- 
gated, and "freak" colors. There are also black and gray varieties. 
The granules manufactured are generally green. In 1924 Vermont 
reported the largest sales of electrical slate although they were not 
so large as in 1923. Purple slate is most used for this product. 

The quantity of roofing; slate sold in Vermont in 1924 was 1 per 
cent more than in 1923. Much of the roofing slate in both Vermont 
and New York is quarried and shaped by owners of small quarries 
which operate at irregular intervals. This slate is generally of un- 
usual color and specially sized and is sold through operators of large 
quarries or through dealers. On account of the variety of colored 
slates found in the district much of the roofing slate commands a 
high price. Sales of slate granules in Vermont increased 23 per cent 
in quantity. The plant of the Vermont Milling Products Corpo- 
ration, at Fairhaven, one of the larger producers of granules, was 
destroyed by fire in November, 1924, and according to reports it is 
not to be rebuilt. 

Middle Atlantic States. — Pennsylvania furnishes practically all the 
slate in the Middle Atlantic district, but a small amount of roofing 
slate is generally produced annually in the "Peachbottom" region of 
Harford County, Md., and in New Jersey (idle 1924). Besides the 
roofing-slate quarries in Maryland mentioned in the report for 1922, 
a mill was erected in 1923 at Whiteford, Harford County, for the 
production of black roofing granules by the Staso Milling Co., of 
Chicago, 111. Pennsylvania is the largest producer of slate exclusive 
of slate granules in the United States and it also produces a greater 
variety of slate products than any other State, although Maine and 
Vermont both outrank it in the production of electrical slate. 

The demand for all slate products, except electrical slate, school 
slates, and billiard- table slate, was good in this State during 1924, but 
a strike in some of the Pen Argyl quarries in May, 1924, curtailed 
the output of roofing slate and affected the output of mill stock. 
Some of the quarries and mills increased wages and prices, but others 
did not. There were few changes in the operators of quarries. 
The sales of slate granules and " flour" in Pennsylvania increased 
17 per cent in quantity. The Atlas Mineral Products Co. of Penn- 
sylvania succeeded the Albany Co. at Albany, Pa., as a producer of 
slate "flour," and the J. Wilbur Co., of Providence, R. L, reported 
operations for this use at Greenawald, Pa. The Crushed Slate Co., 
at Bangor, Pa., constructed a mill on the property of the Bangor 
Central Slate Co. with the object of crushing slate to 1J^ to 8 inches 



SLATE 



157 



mesh, for use as a substitute for slag in built-up roofing. It is 
understood that the chips are attached flat to the under surface, 
so that walking on the roof does not puncture this under surface, 
and also that the chips do not wash off. 

Slate sold by the producers in Pennsylvania in 1924, by counties and uses 





Op- 
era- 
tors 


Roofing slate 


Mill stock 


County 


Squares 

(100 
square 

feet) 


Value 


Structural and 
sanitary 


Electrical 




Total 


Aver- 
age 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Square 
feet 


Value 


Berks, Lancaster, North- 
ampton, 6 and York 


6 
12 

37 


















26, 834 
222, 616 


$218, 988 
1, 801, 998 


$8. 16 
8.09 


37,280 
2, 673, 050 


$18, 592 
977, 868 


320, 320 
190, 530 


$192, 149 
174, 413 


Northampton 




Total, 1923 


54 
50 


249, 450 
300, 272 


2,020,986 
2, 373, 125 


8.10 
7.90 


2, 710, 330 
2, 741, 360 


996, 460 
885, 809 


510, 850 
676, 140 


366, 562 
453, 070 






Mill stock— Continued 


Other « 




County 


Blackboards and 
bulletin boards 


School slates 


Total 
value 




Square 
feet 


Value 


Square 
feet 


Value 




Berks, Lancaster, Northamp- 
ton,* and York 










$487, 779 

1,282 

d 107, 641 


$487, 779 
581, 321 


Lehigh 


624, 690 
3,439,830 


$126, 608 
1, 023, 202 


794, 450 
90, 200 


$23, 702 
3,646 


Northampton 


d 4, 088, 768 




Total, 1923 


4, 064, 520 
4, 415, 580 


1, 149, 810 
1, 186, 326 


884, 650 
1, 076. 220 


27, 348 
31. 102 


596, 702 
658. 238 


5, 157, 868 
5. 587. 670 





























8 Includes slate for grave covers and vaults. 

b For roofing granules. 

' In 1923 includes 454,810 square feet of billiard-table material, valued at $148,138, and 68,550 short tons 
of granules and "flour," valued at $496,933, and in 1924, 288,950 square feet of billiard-table material, valued 
at $106,674, and 80,340 short tons of granules and "flour," valued at $487,779. 

d Exclusive of value of roofing granules, which is included in first entry above. 

Other districts. — There was little change in conditions at the 
quarries in Virginia. The Blue Ridge Slate Corporation, Esmont, 
reported a production of roofing slate as well as granules. Demand 
for roofing slate was generally good, and while wages were somewhat 
higher, prices were reported the same. There was an increase of 
12 per cent in quantity of roofing slate sold. In Georgia and Ten- 
nessee the same quarries as reported in 1922 and 1923 were operated 
for granules and flour." In California, a small quantity of roofing 
slate was furnished on a special order by the quarry at Placerville. A 
new development in California was, however, reported by the Milton 
Slate Co., at Milton, Calaveras County. Installation of machinery 
was reported at this quarry with the intention of starting operations 
in 1925. 



158 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

SHIPMENTS 

In 1923 and 1924 an attempt was made to collect statistics of the 
initial shipments of slate from the quarry districts to the different 
States. The collection of these statistics was undertaken chiefly at 
the request of the National Slate Association. The localization of 
the slate deposits in the most thickly populated part of the United 
States makes the matter of transportation to markets in other areas 
where the development of cities and towns is steadily increasing one 
of considerable importance to the slate trade. Transportation and 
freight rates have long been a retarding factor in the slate industry, 
and the better rates that have recently been obtained have been given 
as one of the main reasons for the increased activity of the slate trade. 
It would therefore seem that a statement showing the location and 
size of markets already obtained would suggest where other markets 
may be available. The total quantity of slate quarried annually is 
small, compared with that of many other mineral products, and no 
individual company has an output of considerable magnitude. In 
order, therefore, to facilitate the marketing of the product the large 
quarry companies and joint selling agencies act as distributers for 
many of the quarries and also as buyers for the slate trade. For this 
reason many of the quarry operators have no record of the ultimate 
destination of their slate. 

As the statistics collected by the Bureau of Mines are obtained 
from the quarrymen rather than from the dealers and jobbers, the 
figures showing the distribution of the sales of slate were not very 
satisfactory for either 1923 or 1924, although some of the largest 
dealers cooperated with the Bureau of Mines by furnishing state- 
ments of the distribution of their sales for the year. Among the 
large jobbers of slate are the Vendor Slate Co., Easton, Pa., selling 
the roofing slate of many quarrymen in Pennsylvania and Vermont; 
John D. Emack Co., Philadelphia, Pa., distributer of roofing slate 
and other slate products from the New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Vermont quarries; the Natural Slate Blackboard Co., Pen Argyl, Pa., 
distributer of slate blackboards; the American Slate Works and the 
National School Slate Co., Slatington, Pa., distributers of school 
slates; and the Structural Slate Co., Pen Argyl, Pa., distributer of 
structural and sanitary slate, electrical slate, and slate for billiard- 
table tops. These companies act chiefly for the Pennsylvania 
quarries. In New York and Vermont the larger producing companies 
and other jobbers and dealers act as distributing agents. 

The table below shows the shipments in 1924 by States of such 
products as were reported. They range from one-half to practically 
all of the total sales reported. The States are grouped to follow as 
closely as possible the territories covered by the different freight 
associations. 



SLATE 



159 



Distribution of slate products reported to the Bureau of Mines in 1924, grouped by 

general freight districts 



Destination 



New England States: Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island 

Middle Atlantic States: New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land, District of Columbia, Virginia, 
and West Virginia 

South Atlantic States: North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.. 

Northeastern Central States: Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, and Michigan 

Southeastern Central States: Kentucky 
Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama-. 

Northwestern Central States: Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Mis- 
souri, and Colorado 

Southwestern Central States: Oklahoma, 
Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana... 

Northern Mountain States: Montana, 
Idaho, and Wyoming 

Southern Mountain States: Utah, Ne- 
vada, Arizona, and New Mexico 

Pacific Coast States: Washington, Ore- 
gon, and California... 



Exports. 



Total distribution reported. 
Total sales 



Structural! 

and ! Electrical 



sanitary 

(square 

feet) 



806, 020 
22, 390 

162, 470 
10, 520 

89, 250 

16, 970 

640 

760 

3,240 




(square 
feet) 



184, 680 

401,450 
9,290 

217, 010 
3,910 

26, 570 
5,340 



10 
5,590 



853, 850 
« 47, 870 



» 901, 720 
1,801,450 



Vaults 

and 
covers 
(square 

feet) 



98, 940 

359, 630 
11,210 
25, 570 



10, 010 
590 



505, 950 
566, 160 



Black- 
boards 

and 

bulletin 

boards 

(square 

feet) 



281, 100 

1, 171, 080 

102, 060 

■ 784, 590 

84, 940 

650, 120 
92, 950 
12, 900 
29,400 

189, 630 



3, 398, 770 
128, 180 



3, 526, 950 

4, 069, 670 



Billiard- 
table tops 
(square 
feet) 



700 



220, 360 



59, 470 



15, 160 



295, 990 
4,340 



300, 330 
341, 200 



Gran- 
ules 
(short 
tons) 



35,700 

189, 310 
2,000 

217, 050 
4,610 

7,830 
4,500 



467, 060 
8,780 



475, 840 
512, 810 



• Small amount of structural slate included with electrical. 



These figures show structural slate, although shipped throughout 
the United States, at present is sold mostly in the New England 
and Middle Atlantic States, which are nearest to the source of the 
material, and the northeastern and northwestern Central States, 
which include the markets of Chicago, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Denver, 
Detroit, St. Paul, Minneapolis, St. Louis, and other large cities. 
Electrical slate is sold chiefly in the same groups of States as those 
for structural slate, the consumption being concentrated in the 
industrial centers of Boston, Schenectady, Philadelphia, Newark, 
Pittsburgh, and in Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and other cities of 
the Middle West. Slate for blackboards and bulletin boards is 
shipped throughout the United States, but slate for school slates 
is mostly exported. (See p. 155.) Slate for billiard-table tops finds 
its chief market in the Middle Atlantic and northeastern Central 
States. Sales of slate for grave vaults and covers are apparently 
confined at present chiefly to the Middle Atlantic, New England, 
and Central States. In the northeastern Central States, where 
considerable quantities of other slate products are marketed, sand- 
stone quarried in Ohio is largely used for vaults and covers. 

It is regretted that figures showing the shipments of roofing-slate 
shingles by States in 1924 were not complete enough for publication. 
Better results were obtained, however, than for 1923. Distributers 
of roofing-slate shingles were not willing to furnish figures of their 



160 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924— PART H 

shipments by States, but the figures that were received showed a 
wide range of markets. Shipments of less than 30 per cent of the 
output showed that slate shingles were shipped to 33 States. The 
greater part of the shipments reported went in 1924, as in 1923, to 
places east of Mississippi River and north of Ohio River, but small 
quantities went to California, Colorado, Georgia, Louisiana, Okla- 
homa, Texas, Utah, and Washington. Slate granules and " flour" 
were shipped mostly to plants manufacturing prepared roofing, near 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, Detroit, and 
New Orleans. Some of the slate may not have been consumed in 
the States to which it was shipped, but may have been reshipped by 
dealers or distributers. 






ASPHALT AND RELATED BITUMENS 



By K. W. COTTRELL 



PRODUCTION 

In 1924 the production of asphalt and related bitumens was re- 
ported by 48 operators, of whom 18 produced native asphaltic 
materials, 15 manufactured asphalt from petroleum of domestic 
origin only, 10 from petroleum of foreign origin, and 5 from both 
domestic and foreign petroleum. 

Native asphalt and related bitumens sold at mines in the United States, 1915-1924 

[Value f. o. b. mine] 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


75, 751 
98, 477 
81, 604 
60, 034 
88, 281 


$526, 490 
923, 281 
773, 424 
780, 808 
682, 989 


1920 


198, 497 
296, 412 
327, 792 
400, 236 
562, 367 


$1, 213, 908 


1916 


1921 


1, 985, 583 
2, 253, 180 


1917_ . 


1922 . 


1918-. 


1923 _ .. 


2, 885, 631 


1919 


1924 


3, 958, 339 









Domestic asphalt sold at mines and refineries in the United States, 1919-1924, by 

varieties 

[Value f. o. b. mine or refinery] 



Variety 


1919 1920 


1921 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Petroleum asphalt a 


614, 692 
53,589 

} CO 

34, 692 


$8, 727, 372 
262, 309 

( b ) 
420, 680 


700, 496 
132, 353 

/ 56, 204 

I (") 

9,940 


$11,985,457 
531, 134 
548, 776 
( 6 ) 
133, 998 


624, 220 
284, 037 

10, 066 

( b ) 
2,309 


$9, 048, 221 




1, 788, 715 
178, 224 


Gilsonite 




( b ) 


Other bituminous substances c 


18, 644 




702, 973 


9,410,361 


898, 993 


13, 199, 365 


920, 632 


11, 033, 804 




1922 


1923 


1924 




805, 145 
298, 047 

29, 693 

( 6 ) 


$10, 385, 925 

1, 629, 440 

622, 107 


995, 654 

365, 601 

34, 425 


$13, 060, 174 

2, 190, 009 

681, 622 


1, 158, 456 

525, 831 

35, 907 

60 

300 

269 


$14, 305, 007 




3, 294, 059 




603, 620 




450 




10 
200 


2,000 
12, 000 


36, 000 




52 


1,633 


24, 210 


















1, 132, 937 


12, 639, 105 


1, 395, 890 


15, 945, 805 


1, 720, 823 


18, 263, 346 



° From domestic petroleum only. 

b Included under "Other bituminous substances." 

« 1919: Gilsonite, grahamite, impsonite, and wurtzilite; 1920, 1921, and 1922: Grahamite and wurtzilite. 

161 



162 



Native asphalt and related bitumens sold at mines in the United States, 1919-1924, 

by States 

[Value f. o. b. mine] 



State 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


California 


" 3, 614 

<■■ 4, 323 
d 33, 992 
/ 46, 352 


$15, 037 

18, 187 

406, 610 

243, 155 


c 7, 522 

«* 63, 522 

° 127, 453 


(a b) 
$45, 898 
659, 176 
508, 834 


(«b) 

« 25, 573 

<* 10, 371 

» 260, 468 


$87, 587 
190, 808 


Oklahoma .. ... _ 


Utah... 


Other States e 


1, 707, 188 








88, 281 


682, 989 


198, 497 


1, 213, 908 


296, 412 


1, 985, 583 





1922 


1923 


1924 








» 1,200 

« 2, 945 
» 184, 300 


$4, 200 

11,780 

1, 468, 396 


« 8, 498 

« 3, 731 

« 274, 743 

"300 

« 17, 961 

« 220, 598 

o 36, 536 


$29, 743 


California 

Kentucky... . _ 


(a (,) 
(a 6) 


( ab ) 


14, 088 

2, 386, 557 

3, 150 


Missouri... 


Oklahoma 


c 47, 597 
» 152, 567 
d 29, 704 
• 97, 924 


$164, 035 
558, 274 
623, 207 
907, 664 


• 25, 800 

« 151, 356 

b 34, 635 


150, 100 
555, 533 
695, 622 


80, 825 
779, 696 
664, 280 


Utah 


Other States « 














327, 792 


2, 253, 180 


400, 236 


2, 885, 631 


562, 367 


3, 958, 339 



° Bituminous rock. 
b Included under "Other States." 
« Bituminous rock and grahamite. 
d Gilsonite and wurtzilite. 

* 1919: Illinois, Kentucky, and Texas; 1920 and 1921: California, Kentucky, and Texas; 
and Kentucky. 
/ Bituminous rock, grahamite, and impsonite. 
« 1923: Gilsonite, ozokerite, and wurtzilite; 1924: Gilsonite, grahamite, ozokerite, and wurtzilite 



California 



Asphalt manufactured in the United States from petroleum and sold at refineries, 

1915-1924 

[Value f. o. b. refinery] 



Year 


From domestic petro- 
leum 


From foreign petro- 
leum 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


664, 503 
688, 334 
701, 809 
604, 723 
614, 692 
700, 496 
624, 220 
805, 145 
995, 654 
1, 158, 456 


$4, 715, 583 
6, 178, 851 
7, 734, 691 
8, 796, 541 
8, 727, 372 
11,985,457 
9, 048, 221 
10, 385, 925 
13, 060, 174 
14, 305, 007 


388, 318 

572, 387 

645, 613 

597, 697 

674, 876 

1, 045, 779 

908, 093 

1, 242, 163 

1, 378, 722 

1, 920, 915 


$3, 730, 436 


1916.. 


6, 018, 851 


1917 . 


7, 441, 813 


1918 


9, 417, 818 


1919 


7, 711, 510 


1920 


14, 272, 862 


1921 


11, 761, 358 


1922 


13, 899, 407 


1923 .. 


16, 840, 045 


1924 


21, 710, 793 







ASPHALT AND RELATED BITUMENS 



163 



Asphalt and asphaltic material manufactured in the United States from petroleum 
and sold at refineries, 1924, by varieties 

[Value f. o. b. refinery] 





From domestic oil 


From foreign oil 


Total 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Solid and semisolid products 
of less than 200 penetra- 
tion: ° 
Asphalt — 


392, 827 

315, 434 

4,352 

50, 831 


$5, 435, 225 

4, 358, 912 

126, 534 

601, 084 


836, 512 

537, 997 

8,710 

120, 426 


$10, 487, 105 

5, 782, 456 

176, 380 

1, 162, 724 


1, 229, 339 

853, 431 

13, 062 

171,257 


$15, 922, 330 


Roofing and waterproofing. 


10,141,368 
302, 914 


Other solid and semisolid 


1,763,808 








763, 444 


10, 521, 755 


1, 503, 645 


17, 608, 665 


2, 267, 089 


28, 130, 420 


Semisolid and liquid products 
of more than 200 penetra- 
tion: <* 
Flux- 


109, 218 

} 7, 121 

61, 945 


1,098,380 
90, 014 

585, 554 


73, 935 
f 232, 449 


689, 209 
1,956,492 


183, 153 

} 239, 570 

62, 240 


1, 787, 589 
2, 046, 506 


Roofing and waterproofing. 
Other 


Other liquid products 


295 


2,171 


587, 725 




178, 284 
216, 728 


1, 773, 948 
2, 009, 304 


306, 679 
110, 591 


2, 647, 872 
1, 454, 256 


484, 963 
327, 319 


4, 421, 820 
3, 463, 560 






1,158,456 


14, 305, 007 


1,920,915 


21, 710, 793 


b 3, 079, 371 


36,015,800 





o Definitions: 

Paving asphalt.— Refined native asphalt and asphaltic cement, fluxed and unfiuxed, produced for direct 
use in the construction of sheet asphalt, asphaltic concrete, asphalt macadam, and asphalt block pave- 
ments, and also for use as joint filler in brick, block, and monolithic pavements. 

Hoofing and waterproofing asphalt.-— Asphalt and asphaltic cement used in saturating, coating, and cement- 
ing felt or other fabric and in the manufacture of asphalt shingles. 

Mineral rubber.— Asphalt and asphaltic cement used by the rubber industry. 

Other solid and semisolid products.— Asphalt and asphaltic cement used as dips and in the manufacture of 
insulating material, acid-resisting compounds, putty, mastic, and briquets and not included in the 
preceding definitions. 

Flux.— Liquid asphaltic material used in softening native asphalt or solid petroleum asphalt for paving, 
roofing, waterproofing, and other purposes. 

Other liquid products.— Petroleum asphalt used in the manufacture of saturant, paint, varnish, or other 
coating, exclusive of fuel oil and not included in the preceding definitions. 

Road oil.— Residual asphaltic oil used for surface treatment. 
& The difference between this total and the total of the monthly refinery reports in Petroleum Refinery 
Statistics, 1924, is due to slight differences in classification at some of the refineries. 



NATIVE ASPHALT AND RELATED BITUMENS 

Native asphalt and related bitumens produced in the United 
States in 1924, including bituminous limestone and sandstone rocks, 
gilsonite, grahamite, ozokerite, and wurtzilite, amounted to 562,367 
short tons, valued at $3,958,339. This was an increase of 41 per cent 
in quantity and 37 per cent in value. Records of the production of 
these asphalts kept by the United States Geological Survey since 
1882 show a yearly output of 3,000 tons until 1886, when there was 
an increase of 500 tons. In 1887, 4,000 tons were reported. In 
1888 production increased from 4,000 to over 50,000 tons. In 
succeeding years it ranged from 41,000 tons in 1890 to 99,000 tons 
in 1909 — the largest recorded production until 1920. In 1918, 
60,000 tons were reported and since that time the trend of produc- 
tion has been steadily upward. 

In the quantity of native asphalt and related bitumens reported 
for 1924 Kentucky, Texas, Utah, and Oklahoma maintained their 
ranks of 1923. Alabama forged ahead of California, and Missouri 
entered the list with a small production of bituminous rock. With 



164 

the exception of Oklahoma the quantity produced in all the States 
increased, ranging from over 600 per cent in Alabama to 49 per cent 
in Kentucky, 46 per cent in Texas, 27 per cent in California, and 5 
per cent in Utah. The value increased correspondingly, except in 
Kentucky, where the increase was 63 per cent. Production in 
Oklahoma decreased 30 per cent in quantity and 46 per cent in value. 

Gilsonite. — Gilsonite, particularly valuable for manufacture of 
paints and varnishes and used also in manufacture of rubber sub- 
stitutes, was produced in Utah. The production in 1924 increased 
4 per cent in quantity, but decreased 11 per cent in value from the 
preceding year. 

Wurtzilite. — Wurtzilite, frequently sold under the trade name of 
elaterite, was mined in Utah, and is used in the manufacture of 
roofing material, waterproof felt, rubber substitutes, building paper, 
and paving materials. Its production increased 35 per cent in 
quantity and doubled in value in 1924. 

Ozokerite. — Ozokerite, a mineral wax or native paraffin, is used 
largely in the manufacture of phonographic records, also as a source 
of illuminating gas, oils, and other substances, as an insulator of 
electricity, and as a covering to protect metal surfaces against 
moisture, acids, or alkalies. The production which was all from 
Utah, increased from 10 tons in 1923 to 300 tons in 1924. The 
average value decreased from $200 to $120 a ton. 

Bituminous rock. — Bituminous rock used for road building was 
produced in all the States that reported, except Utah. The output 
increased 44 per cent in quantity and 50 per cent in value in 1924. 

MANUFACTURED ASPHALT 

In the production of asphalt manufactured from domestic petroleum 
in 1924, California, with 7 operators, ranked first in both quantity 
and value; Texas, with 3 operators, ranked second; and Illinois, with 
4 operators, ranked third. These three States produced 79 per cent 
of the total quantity of asphalt manufactured from domestic petro- 
leum. The total sales of asphalt products made from domestic 
petroleum in 1924 increased 16 per cent in quantity and 10 per cent 
in value over those of 1923. Of these products paving asphalt 
increased 31 per cent in quantity and 22 per cent in value; roofing 
and waterproofing increased 1 per cent in quantity but decreased 3 
per cent in value; mineral rubber increased 1 per cent in quantity 
but decreased 73 per cent in value; and road oil increased 22 per 
cent in quantity and 33 per cent in value. 

The total sales of asphalt products manufactured from foreign 
oil increased in quantity and value 39 and 29 per cent, respectively. 
Each variety of product sold reflected this increase; paving asphalt 
increased 37 per cent in quantity and 32 per cent in value; roofing and 
waterproofing 29 per cent in quantity and 15 per cent in value; and 
road oil over 100 per cent in quantity and about 70 per cent in value. 

ICHTHYOL 

No production of domestic ichthyol was reported for 1924. The 
property of the Meadows Chemical Corporation, of Durant, N. Y., 
which manufactured ichthyol from material obtained near Burnet, 
Tex., was purchased in 1923 by the Dayton Chemical Co. This 



ASPHALT AND RELATED BITUMENS 



165 



company plans to manufacture ichthyol and preparations containing 
ichthyol. Its plant is now in course of construction. The imports of 
ichthyol and ichthyol substitutes in 1924, according to the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, amounted to 9,300 pounds, 
valued at $17,058. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



Native asphalt and bituminous rock im.ported into the United States, 1921- 

countries 



, by 



[General imports] 





1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Source 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


North America: 


18 


$634 


52 
3 

36 

85, 480 

1,120 

113 


$2, 251 
25 

6,590 

721, 891 
11, 200 
2,711 


147 
3 

126 

97, 252 

560 

282 

15 

8 

18 

37, 320 

3 


$3, 358 
95 

16, 260 

688, 221 
14, 850 
7,933 
2,545 

768 

468 

246, 572 

124 


1,275 


$17, 105 




West Indies — 
British — 
Barbados 


101 

75, 305 
896 
371 


14, 760 

754, 503 
4,200 
7,020 


20 

84, 282 
134 
346 


2,430 
666, 669 


Trinidad and To- 
bago 


Other 

Cuba.. . ... . 


600 
9,203 


Dominican Republic . 
South America: 
















Colombia . 


18 
51, 676 

2 


1,556 
343, 535 

30 


C) 

37, 449 

(°) 
49 
39 
312 


5 
247,920 

3 

1,516 

948 

4,481 


55 
73, 309 


627 


Venezuela 


490, 895 


Europe: 
Belgium 


D enmark 






France 














Germany 


140 


1,889 


1,393 
2 


18,009 
1,010 


902 
11 


12, 123 

1,322 

5 


Italy 


Netherlands 


2 


25 






Spain 






8 
(•) 

7,496 
2 


208 
95 

79, 145 
245 




Switzerland 










1 
77 


233 


United Kingdom- 
England 






6 


920 


1,236 


Ireland 






Asia: 
Palestine and Syria 










7 


711 


Philippine Islands 


6 


5 

1,133 


(°) 


2 








Turkey 


























128, 535 


1, 129, 290 


124, 659 


1, 000, 463 


144, 635 


1,079,906 


160,419 


1, 203, 159 



° Figures for quantity not available. 

Ozokerite and other mineral waxes imported for consumption in the United States, 

1915-1924 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1915 


2, 795, 256 

3, 007, 676 
899, 405 

1, 809, 459 
3, 748, 080 


$210, 019 

196, 185 

90, 510 

147, 805 

454, 840 


1920.. 


4, 272, 341 
8, 548, 542 
8, 989, 972 
4, 856, 357 
3, 113, 819 


$499, 758 


1916.. 


1921... 


546, 054 


1917... 


1922... 


371, 161 


1918 


1923... 


213, 407 


1919.. 


1924 . 


207, 833 







1 Statistics of imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



166 



MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



Ichthyol and ichthyol substitutes imported for consumption in the United States, 

1915-1924 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1915 


24, 921 
116,738 
58, 397 
65, 752 
30, 976 


$28, 560 
93, 762 
36, 232 
39, 452 
38, 975 


1920 


98, 135 

76, 020 

74, 330 

20 

9,300 


$79, 133 

107, 752 

89, 150 

15 


1916 


1921 


1917.. 


1922 


1918 


1923° 


1919 


1924 «... 


17, 058 







"As recorded by Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Change in classification under new 
tariff may account to some extent for great decrease. 

Asphalt exported from the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Unmanufactured 


Manufac- 
tures of 


Total 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


42, 787 
40,816 
30, 107 
22, 108 
40, 208 

51, 706 
45, 367 
57, 362 
72, 628 

52, 568 


$735, 952 

759, 769 

587, 256 

577, 654 

1, 103, 930 

1,356,116 

1, 178, 038 

1, 344, 440 

1, 500, 869 

1,245,670 


$438, 685 

494, 895 

585, 472 

577, 936 

606, 918 

842, 074 

621, 224 

« 1, 261, 125 

a 2, 075, 628 

« 2, 212, 260 


$1, 174, 637 
1, 254, 664 
1, 172, 728 
1, 155, 590 
1, 710, 848 
2, 198, 190 


1916 . 


1917 .. 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1, 799, 262 


1922.. 


« 2, 605, 565 
° 3, 576, 497 


1923 


1924 


a 3, 457, 930 





"Inclusive of value of squares (10 by 10 feet) of roofing asphalt as follows: 1922, 588,636 squares, $870, 200; 
1923, 783,028 squares, $1,124,491; 1924, 697,293 squares, $998,469. Corresponding exports not separately 
shown prior to 1922. 

Asphalt exported from the United States in 1924, by countries 



Country 


Unmanufactured 


Manufactures of, 
except roofing 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


North America: 


7,121 


$131, 672 


5,537 

3 

1 

10 

374 

(•) 

213 

3 

(<0 

382 

(») 

73 

722 

232 

1 

(•) 

2 
(<0 

484 

348 

191 

9 

45 

14 


$119, 114 
711 


Central America- 




250 


8,680 


145 




690 




168 


3,508 


30, 203 


Salvador .. 


56 




43 


1,292 


11, 053 




487 


West Indies- 
British— 


3 


93 


3 




14, 797 


Trinidad and Tobago 






81 


Other 


59 
931 
724 

1 


1,695 

24, 173 

20, 175 

23 


667 


Cuba 


34, 083 




7,016 


Dutch... 


113 


French 


20 


Haiti ... _ . ... 






277 


Virgin Islands . 






27 


South America: 

Argentina 


231 
63 

496 
36 

290 


4,620 
2,322 
12, 315 
1,171 
6,679 


20, 086 


Brazil 


16, 452 


Chile 


8,686 


Colombia 


828 


Ecuador 


1,430 


Guiana- 
British 


3,212 


Dutch 


56 


2 





Less than 1 ton. 



ASPHALT AND RELATED BITUMENS 167 

Asphalt exported from the United States in 1924, by countries — Continued 



Country 


Unmanufactured 


Manufactures of, 
except roofing 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


South America— Continued. 


13 
43 
18 


$334 

1,415 

536 


910 

943 

55 

(°) 

532 

316 

68 

161 

790 

6 

121 

2 

59 

21 

22 

70 

243 

220 

7,089 

1 

406 

274 
330 
107 

2,504 
623 
(°) 


$23, 970 

37, 371 

6,769 




Venezuela... 


Europe: 

Azores and Madeira Islands 


56 


Belgium ._ 


598 

7 

56 

1,729 

3,474 


15, 467 

133 

1,425 

62, 987 

96, 291 


18, 631 
10, 518 


Denmark.. 


Finland 


1,690 


France 


8,542 


Germany 


21, 743 


Gibraltar 


284 








3,608 


Iceland and Faroe Islands . 






50 


Italy. 


452 


15, 729 


1,595 


Latvia ... 


3,061 


Netherlands 


507 
24 
71 

576 

19, 200 

263 

5,235 


17, 035 

579 

1,627 

10, 731 

444, 995 

9,068 

105, 581 


1,310 


Norway 


3,567 


Spain 


11,079 


Sweden . 


6,474 


United Kingdom — 
England 


292, 669 




16 


Scotland 


9,076 


Asia: 

Ceylon 


7,126 




914 


19, 234 


9,842 


Chosen... 


2,058 


East Indies — 
British — 

India 


1,345 
20 


32,600 
576 


88, 467 


Straits Settlements .,. 


17,863 


Far Eastern Republic 


12 


Indo-China (French)... 


47 

57 

1,616 

136 


1,275 

1,645 

41, 536 

3,835 






64 

1,882 

316 

137 

4 

420 


2,487 


Japan 


46, 684 


Java and Madura 


8,059 


Kwangtung, leased territory 


3,427 


Palestine and Syria 






212 


Philippine Islands 


96 
9 


2,101 
270 


12, 138 


Siam... 




Africa: 


1 

235 

3,951 
(") 
(*) 
448 

1 
(•) 

9 

128 

2,424 

1,747 

11 


336 


British- 
East 






8,881 


South 


528 


31, 637 


135, 424 


West 


45 


Canary Islands 






20 


Egypt 


133 


4,148 


19, 273 


French- 


102 


Other 






12 








256 


Portuguese East 


2 

2,484 

2,325 

118 


54 

49, 562 
52, 769 
2,075 


3,722 


Oceania: British — 

Australia 


69, 051 


New Zealand 


45, 465 


Other 


513 








52, 568 


1, 245, 670 


36, 295 


1, 213, 791 



° Less than 1 ton. 
44839°— 27- 



-12 



168 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924— PART II 
WORLD'S PRODUCTION 2 



Production of natural asphalt and related bitumens in the 'principal producing 
countries, 1920-1924, in metric tons a 



Country b 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Argentina c ___ 


538 

92 

3,043 

25, 024 

31, 904 

1,730 

107, 626 

431 

17, 162 

2,000 

368 

1,056 

4,222 

/ 14, 047 

143, 501 

180, 073 

23, 452 


( d ) 

111 

342 

39, 595 

29, 352 

486 

94, 120 

365 

11, 834 

( d ) 

260 

14,122 

3,533 

17, 394 

121, 651 

268, 899 

48, 489 


( d ) 
133 
109 

48, 477 
54, 619 
( d ) 

68, 647 
( d ) 

8,829 
(<0 

414 

13, 016 

5,933 

22, 045 

185, 587 

297, 366 

38, 476 


(<0 

152 

392 

35, 650 

46,244 

1,300 

151, 908 


( d ) 
( d ) 
400 


Barbados e 


Cuba/ 


France 


44, 865 

(") 
159, 063 


Germany 


Greece 


Italy ■ 


Japan 


( d ) 


Peru 


CO 

(") 

710 

21, 967 

3,936 

19, 904 

224, 900 

363, 086 

33, 321 


( d ) 


Philippine Islands 


( d ) 


Poland ».. 


732 


Rumania _ 


( d ) 


Spain 


5,476 


Switzerland. 


( d ) 


Trinidad.. . 


227, 460 


United States 


510, 168 


Venezuela ... 


69, 892 







° Minerals included are native asphalt, asphalt rock, asphaltite, manjak, ozokerite, and bituminous 
rock used for other purposes than the extraction of oil. Oil shales, including ichthyolic shale, are not 
included. 

6 In addition to those listed above, the following countries are reported to produce asphalt and related 
bitumens, but figures of output are not available: Albania, Canada (Alberta), Madagascar, Mesopotamia, 
Russia, and Syria. 

« Railroad shipments. 

d Data not available. 

« Exports of manjak. 

f Exports. 

t Ozokerite. 

PRODUCERS 

Native asphalt and related bitumens were produced commercially 
in this country in 1924 by the following operators: 

Absopure Gilsonite Co., 615 Cooper Building, Denver, Colo. 

Alabama Rock Asphalt Co., Florence, Ala. 

American Asphalt Association, 919 Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

City Street Improvement Co., 400 California Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Continental Rock Asphalt Co., Dwight Building, Kansas City, Mo. 

Crown Rock Asphalt Co., 911 Neave Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Gilson Asphalt um Co., 1900 Land Title Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Glafcke, Ludlow B., Soldier Summit, Utah. 

Kentucky Rock Asphalt Co., Marion E. Taylor Building, Louisville, Ky. 

Natural Rock Asphalt Corporation, Owensboro, Ky. 

Ohio Valley Rock Asphalt Co., Schmidt Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Raven Mining Co. of Utah, 140 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

Sattler & Stevens, Carpinteria, Calif. 

Texas Rock Asphalt Co., San Antonio, Tex. 

Utah Gilsonite Co., Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Uvalde Rock Asphalt Co., San Antonio, Tex. 

Vernon Asphalt Co., Nevada, Mo. 

White, R. L., City National Bank Building, San Antonio, Tex. 

The following operators reported that they produced asphaltic 
material from crude petroleum in the United States in 1924: 

Atlantic Refining Co., 260 South Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Beacon Oil Co., Ill Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

Byerlyte Co., 2484 West Fourth Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Craig Oil Co., Toledo, Ohio. 

Crown Bitumens Corporation, Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Freeport Asphalt Co., Freeport, Tex. 

Gulf Refining Co., Frick Building Annex, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Harbor Refining Co., 2475 East Ninth Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 

8 Compiled by L. M. Jones, of the Bureau of Mines. 



ASPHALT AND RELATED BITUMENS 169 

Indian Refining Co., Lawrenceville, 111. 

Magnolia Petroleum Co., Box 1667, Dallas, Tex. 

Mexican Petroleum Corporation of Louisiana (Inc.), 120 Broadway, 

New York, N. Y. 
Midwest Refining Co., Denver, Colo. 

New Orleans Refining Co., United Fruit Building, New Orleans, La. 
Paraffme Companies (Inc.), 475 Brennan Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
Pioneer Asphalt Co., Lawrenceville, 111. 
Pioneer Paper Co., 120 Arcade Station, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Root Refineries (Inc.), Commercial National Bank Building, Shreveport, 

La. 
Roxana Petroleum Corporation, Arcade Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Seaside Oil Co., Summerland, Calif. 

Sinclair Refining Co. of Louisiana, 45 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y, 
Standard Oil Co. of California, 225 Bush Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
Standard Oil Co. of Indiana, 910 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

(plants in Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri) . 
Standard Oil Co. of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, La. 
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, 26 Broadwav, New York, N. Y. 
Standard Oil Co. of New York, 26 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Standard Oil Co. of Ohio, East Ohio Gas Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Sun Co., Finance Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Texas Co., Houston, Tex. 

Union Oil Co. of California, Union Oil Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Warner Quinlan Asphalt Co., 79 Wall Street, New York, N. Y. 

The Asphalt Association. — The members of the asphalt industry 
established in 1919 the Asphalt Association, which, in addition to 
other activities, is engaged in collecting and disseminating informa- 
tion useful to both producers and users of asphalt. Any one desiring 
such information may address the association, at 441 Lexington 
Avenue, New York, K. Y. ; or branch offices at the following ad- 
dresses : 

729 Hearst Building, Hearst Square, Chicago, 111. 

Whitnev Central Building, New Orleans, La. 

314 Dwight Building, Kansas City, Mo. 

25 North Pearl Street, Albany, N. Y. 

302 Latta Arcade Building, Charlotte, N. C. 

The officers are: President, J. R. Draney, of the United States 
Asphalt Refining Co.; vice president, C. C. Lakin, of the Standard 
Oil Co. of Indiana; treasurer, Herbert Spencer, of the Standard Oil 
Co. of New Jersey; secretary and general manager, J. E. Penny- 
backer. 



MICA 



By Blanche H. Stoddard 



INTRODUCTION 

Mica is the name applied to a group of minerals having related 
chemical structure and similar physical properties. The most char- 
acteristic property is an extraordinary capacity to cleave easily in 
very thin flakes and this together with transparency, toughness, elas- 
ticity, high dielectric strength, and other qualities possessed by some 
varieties renders them commercially valuable. The name was prob- 
ably derived from the Latin "micare" which means to shine or glit- 
ter. The mineral is sometimes called " isinglass," which term, how- 
ever, is also applied to a gelatinous material obtained from certain 
fish. Of the many varieties of mica, only two yield the " sheet mica" 
of commerce. These are muscovite, also known as white mica, and 
phlogopite, or magnesium mica, also known as amber mica. These 
are the chief varieties of commerce, but small quantities of biotite, 
known as black mica, have been used. Other varieties have been 
used in a small way for other purposes. 

Muscovite is the only variety that is now mined on a large scale 
in the United States; no phlogopite deposits of commercial value 
have been worked for many years. Deposits of white mica (musco- 
vite) of commercial importance occur only in pegmatite, an igneous 
rock similar to granite in composition but much coarser grained. 
The chief minerals of pegmatite are quartz, feldspar, and mica, but 
the rock also contains smaller quantities of other minerals, such as 
tourmaline, garnet, and beryl. The mica in the pegmatite dikes is 
in the form of more or less imperfect crystals called " blocks" or 
" books," which may be rudely hexagonal, and which range in width 
from a few inches to several feet, and in thickness from a fraction of 
an inch to several inches. The terms " book mica" or "block mica" 
applied to domestic mica are synonymous with "mine-run" or "run- 
of-mine" mica. When these blocks of mine-run mica are split into 
thin sheets, about one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness, and the 
unusable waste removed, the mica is called "sheet" and the waste 
is called "scrap" mica. Only a small proportion of the blocks, aver- 
aging about 10 per cent, is convertible into marketable sheets. 

Mica also occurs as small flakes or scales in granite, gneiss, schist, 
sandstone, and shale, but on account of the small size of such flakes 
and the impracticability of separating them from the abundant 
quartz and other hard minerals present, their value as a source of 
scrap mica is doubtful. 

Muscovite is generally light colored, ranging from colorless in thin 
sheets, to amber yellow, green, brownish-red or "rum" and ruby red 
in sheets over one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness. 

171 



172 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924- -PART II 

Some of the properties which reader muscovite and phlogopite 
mica commercially valuable are perfect cleavage, toughness, elastic- 
ity, transparency, flexibility, low conductivity of heat and electricity, 
and high dielectric strength. This combination of properties is not 
found in any other natural or artificial product, and no satisfactory 
substitute has been found for sheet mica used in certain forms of 
high-voltage electric insulation. The most prominent characteristic 
of all the micas is the quality of being easily cleavable into thin, flex- 
ible, and generally transparent sheets, and in this characteristic they 
find their economic usefulness. 

Mica possesses other properties which are utilized by the indus- 
tries. The brilliancy of its small scales makes the mineral of value 
in the decorative arts. It has also been extensively used as a filler 
for various goods such as rubber, in the manufacture of patent roofing 
and as a lubricant. 

IMPERFECTIONS OF MICA 

The quality of mica is the most important factor in determining 
the use to which it may be put. Some of the defects that render 
mica unsuitable for certain purposes are cracks, rulings, markings, in- 
clusions or specks and stains, and color. Other terms for defects in 
mica used by miners and dealers are " ribbon," " A," " hairline," 
" fishbone" or " herringbone," " feather," " horsetail," " tanglesheet," 
" spearhead," " reeved," " cross-grained," and " wedge mica." For a 
description of some of these physical peculiarities and a discussion of 
flaws and defects, the reader is referred to Bulletin 740 on the mica 
deposits of the United States, by Douglas B. Sterrett, published by 
the United States Geological Survey. 

It is seldom that large quantities of mica are produced which do 
not contain one or more of the many flaws common to the mineral. 
It is not essential, however, that mica for some purposes be entirely 
free from all defects. Much electrical mica is spotted or slightly 
stained, although not enough to prevent its use in some forms of 
electrical insulation, but spotted mica which contains too many 
specks or inclusions of iron oxide is unsuited for high-voltage insu- 
lation. Some users, however, consider that the small spots or par- 
ticles of magnetite (black oxide of iron) greatly lessen the value of 
the mica, for the reason that if used for electrical insulation they 
form paths for the puncture of the plate. Stove mica is practically 
clear and has only a few spots or stains. 

PRODUCTION 

Most of the domestic mica when first sold is roughly trimmed by 
the fingers, hence the^ term thumb -trimmed, or it is poorly knife- 
trimmed. Mica in this form is referred to as "uncut" sheet mica; 
that is, mica not cut according to specification into special sizes or 
shapes. The statistics of sheet mica in this report represent mica 
in this uncut form, or approximately this form. 

The following table shows the quantity and value of uncut sheet 
and scrap mica sold by producers in the United States from 1920 
to 1924, inclusive. 



MICA 

Mica sold by producers in the United States, 1920-1924 



173 





Sheet mica 


Scrap mica 


Total 




Pounds 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1920 


1,683,480 
741, 845 
1,077,968 
2, 063, 179 
1, 460, 897 


$540, 972 
118,513 
194,301 
311, 180 
212,035 


5,723 

2,577 

« 6, 641 

« 8, 054 

4,709 


$167,017 
56, 849 
114,045 
129, 695 
87, 242 


6, 565 

2, 918 

• 7, 180 

» 9, 086 

5,439 


$713, 989 


1921 


175, 362 


1922 


308, 346 


1923 


440, 875 


1924 _ 


299, 277 







"Includes mica derived from mica schist. 



The figures for sheet mica in 1924 showed a decrease of 29 per cent 
in quantity and of 32 per cent in value, as compared with 1923. The 
average value per pound of all sheet mica sold in the United States 
in 1924 was about 15 cents, the same as in 1923, and the average 
value per ton of scrap mica increased from $16 in 1923 to $19 in 1924. 

Mica occurs in more than 20 States but was produced and sold in 
1924 in only 10 of them— North Carolina, New Hampshire, South 
Dakota, Virginia, New Mexico, Georgia, Colorado, South Carolina, 
Connecticut, and Alabama, named in order of total quantity sold 
from greatest to least. The important producing States are New 
Hampshire and North Carolina. 

Mica sold by producers in chief producing States, 1920-1924 





Sheet mica 


Scrap mica 


Total 


Year 


Pounds 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


New Hampshire: 

1920 _. - 


284, 862 
491,743 
475, 647 
835, 751 
744, 133 

1,084,946 
230, 532 
544, 495 

1, 130, 283 
597, 385 


142 
246 
238 
418 
372 

542 
115 
272 
565 
299 


$83, 811 
63, 249 
63, 240 

107, G74 
88, 737 

405, 654 
51, 851 
119, 767 
188,317 
108,656 


435 
537 
238 
1,078 
492 

2,823 
1,353 

• 4,205 

• 5, 005 
3,212 


$12, 877 

10,613 

5,838 

25, 871 

9,498 

91, 653 
30, 496 
65, 923 
65, 764 
59, 620 


577 
783 
476 
1,496 
864 

3,365 

1,468 

• 4, 477 

• 5, 570 
3,511 


$96, 688 
73, 862 
69, 078 


1921 . 


1922 


1923 


133, 545 
98, 235 

497, 307 
82, 347 
185, 690 
254, 081 
168, 276 


1924 


North Carolina: 

1920 _ _ 


1921 __ 

1922 


1923 


1924 



•Includes mica derived from mica schist. 



The most notable decreases in 1924 as compared with 1923 were 
shown by New Hampshire and North Carolina. In New Hampshire 
sales of uncut sheet mica dropped 11 per cent in quantity and 18 per 
cent in value, and in North Carolina 47 per cent in quantity and 42 
per cent in value. As far as the domestic industry was concerned, 
the market was reported dull for most of 1924. 

Of the other States Alabama reported production in 1924, com- 
pared with none in 1923; Colorado and Connecticut showed decreases 
in sales of scrap mica; Georgia reported sales of more than five times 
the quantity of sheet mica sold in 1923; New Mexico reported 
decreased sales of scrap mica; in South Carolina the sales of scrap 
mica were about the same as in 1923, and there were no sales of sheet 
mica in 1924, as compared with small sales in 1923; South Dakota 
showed an increase in quantity of scrap mica sold; and Virginia 
reported decreases in sales of both sheet and scrap mica. 



174 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 



CLASSIFICATION OF MICA 

Mica is valuable in sheet form and as scrap suitable for grinding 
into a powder. For commercial sheet mica the individual pieces 
must be large enough to contain a rectangular area measuring at 
least 1 y 2 by 2 inches, which must split easily and evenly and be nearly 
free from "cracks," "rulings," "markings," and all fracture lines and 
reasonably free from inclusions or specks of foreign mineral mat- 
ter. The size stated is the smallest rectangular size that is salable 
in the form of uncut sheet; the irregularly bounded rough-trimmed 
mica sheet must be nearly twice as large to yield this size — in 
other words, a sheet that would yield a suitable rectangle \y 2 by 2 
inches and would be classed as "lj^ by 2 inches" would have to 
measure nearly 3 by 4 inches. 

Splittings are the thin films or flakes of mica that are split from 
the smaller sheet or waste material. They are about one-thousandth 
of an inch thick and are irregular in shape. 

Material suitable as scrap mica for grinding must be free from all 
foreign matter, especially gritty material such as quartz and feldspar. 

The system of classification of mica, by sizes, is different in the 
United States, Canada, and India. The United States classification 
is as follows (figures represent inches): Punch, circle, 1% by 2, 2 by 
2, 2 by 3, 3 by 4, 3 by 5, 4 by 6, 6 by 6, 6 by 8, 8 by 10, and larger. 
For punch mica the uncut sheet must be of sufficient size to yield a 
circle 1J^ inches in diameter if stained and \ x /i inches if clear; circle 
mica should yield a disk nearly 2 inches in diameter. 

Canadian or "amber" mica is also classified on the basis of the size 
of the rectangle obtainable, but the sizes differ from those used for 
the United States mica. The sizes used for Canadian mica, in inches, 
are 1 by 1, 1 by 2, 1 by 3, 2 by 3, 2 by 4, 3 by 5, 4 by 6, and 5 by 8. 

The Indian classification is not based on the size of the rectangle 
obtainable but on the area of usable mica in the sheet. The follow- 
ing table shows the Indian system of grading, with the approximate 
corresponding sizes used in the United States classification: 

Grading of Indian mica 





Area of usable 
mica (in square 
inches), based 
on rectangular 
sizes 


Sizes of rectangles that can be cut (in inches) 


Approximate 
correspond- 


Grade 


Width 


Length 


ing sizes in 
United 

States classi- 




Minimum 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Maximum 


fication (in 
inches) 


6 














5 


3 to 5% 


1 

m 

V/2 

VA 

3 

4 


2 
3 

m 

5 
6 


2 

2K2 

3 

4K> 

5 

7 


2H 
3 

4% 
6 
7 
9 


2 by 2. 
(2 by 3. 
13 by 3. 

3 by 4. 

3 by 5. 

4 by 6. 


4 


6 to 9% - 


3 


10 to 14% 


2 


15 to 23% 


1 _ 


24 to 35% 


A-l 


36 to 47% 

48 to 59% _. 


5 by 8. 


Special 


6 by 8. 
8 bv 8. 


Extra special 

Extra extra special. . 


60 to 71% 




















8 by 10. 













MICA 



175 



In the following table 67 per cent of the total quantity of uncut 
sheet mica sold in 1924 has been classified to show the qualities of 
mica and the average value by sizes. It was not possible to classify a 
larger percentage, for the reason that some of the reports received 
did not contain this information. Several of the larger companies 
sent in returns in great detail, but others have not done so, owing in 
part to the fact that some mica is not sold by the miner in sheet 
form classified by sizes, and also to the fact that some of the com- 
panies either do not keep an accurate account of the mica they handle 
or do not wish to furnish the figures. 



Clear and stained uncut rough-trimmed sheet mica sold by producers in the United 

States in 1924, by sizes 



[Shows 67 per cent of the total for the United States] 





Clear 


Stained 


Total 


Size 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Percent- 
age 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


Punch or washer 


322, 255 


$37, 067 


$0.12 


466, 915 

59, 369 

141 

6,912 

5,565 

2,607 

1,853 

1,944 

1,293 

332 


$23, 150 
4,238 
17 
1,005 
1,752 
1,880 
2,205 
3,009 
2,496 
875 


$0. 05 
.07 
.12 
.15 
.31 
.72 
1.19 
1.55 
1.93 
2.64 


789, 170 

59, 369 

41, 623 

33, 443 

26, 837 

11, 236 

7,086 

8,014 

3,712 

1,048 


80.4 
6 1 


V/i by 2 inches 

2 by 2 inches 


41,482 
26, 531 
21, 272 
8,629 
5,233 
6,070 
2,419 
716 


7,372 
10, 279 
16, 104 
11,408 

9, 061 
13, 249 

7,016 

3,728 


.18 
.39 
.76 
1.32 
1.73 
2.18 
2.90 
5.21 


4.2 
3 4 


2 by 3 inches 


2.7 




1.2 


3 by 4 inches 


.7 


3 by 5 inches.. 


8 


4 by 6 inches 


.4 


6 by 8 inches 


.1 




434, 607 


115, 284 


.27 


546, 931 


40, 627 


.07 


981, 538 


100.0 



Value of mica sold by producers in the United States, 1920-1924 





Total 


Average 


Year 


Sheet and 
scrap ( per 
short ton) 


Sheet 

(per 

pound) 


1920 _ „ 


$713, 989 
175, 362 
308, 346 
440, 875 
299, 277 


$109 
59 
43 
49 
55 


$0.32 


1921 


. 16 


1922 . 


18 


1923 _ . 


15 


1924 ... 


15 







Scrap mica, or mica that can not be utilized as sheet or splittings, 
is ground and sold in powdered form. The following table gives the 
quantity and value of ground mica sold or used by the producers in 
the United States. The figures are based on all the information 
procurable from the mica grmders and are partly estimated. 



176 MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Ground mica sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1928-1924, in pounds 



Year 


Dry ground 


Wet ground 


Total 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


1923 


5, 660, 000 
5, 184, 000 


$123, 450 
101, 700 


4, 203, 000 
5, 735, 000 


$250, 170 
331,410 


9,863,000 
10, 919, 000 


$373, 620 


1924 


433, 110 





The approximate average value for dry ground mica for 1923 and 
1924, as indicated by the table, was $40 a short ton, and for wet ground 
mica $120 a ton. 

The consumption of mica splittings in the United States in 1924, 
as reported by consumers, was as follows: Indian splittings 1,410 
short tons, valued at $1,399,791, and Canadian splittings, 295 short 
tons, valued at $525,180. No domestic or South American splittings 
were reported, although it is possible that some were used by con- 
sumers who have not responded fully to the inquiries made of them. 

USES 

The most important and extensive use of mica is in the electrical 
industry, where a noninflammable, resistant insulating material is 
necessary. Its cleavage, transparency, toughness, softness, flexibil- 
ity, and elasticity, combined with its resistance to puncture, its infu- 
sibility, and imperviousness to moisture, render it an ideal insulator. 
Mica also finds application in the stove industry for glazing in the 
fronts of stoves, in furnace sightholes, for screens in front of highly 
heated material, for optical lanterns as a retarder of heat waves, and 
for making lamp chimneys, lamp shades, and lantern slides. Mica 
in fine flake or powdered form is used in the decorative trade, in the 
manufacture of patent roofing material, in fancy and fireproof 
paints, ornamental tile, concrete facing, as a lubricant both dry, as 
lor auto tires, and mixed with oil and greases, as an absorbent for 
nitroglycerin, for annealing steel, and in other ways. 

In the electrical industry mica is used largely for making conden- 
sers for magnetos for the engines of airplanes, automobiles, and trucks, 
for radio apparatus, for spark-plug cores, as an insulator between the 
copper segments of direct-current dynamos and motors, for several 
kinds of transformers, for washers and rings around many bolts and 
screens requiring insulation, and for many other electrical purposes. 
Large disks and washers are used in arc lights and smaller ones in 
the sockets of incandescent lamps. 

High-potential condenser mica must be clear or only slightly stained, 
must split easily and smoothly into films as thin as one-thousandth of 
an inch, and must be free from cracks, holes, foreign substances, stains, 
spots, and air bubbles, and the sheets must be plane and smooth, free 
from waves, wrinkles, rulings, or knots. 

Mica used between the copper segments of commutators must pos- 
high dielectric strength; that is, it must be able to withstand 



MICA 177 

charges of high-voltage electrical current, and be soft enough to wear 
down evenly with the copper segments. High-grade Indian white mica 
is considered by some to be preferable for this use, as it has the requisite 
softness, and its purity and uniformity are additional factors desired. 
Phlogopite or "amber" mica is also extensively used for this purpose. 
It is even softer than the Indian, but it is not preferred by some manu- 
facturers because of the greater difficulty in detecting impurities along 
the cleavage planes, and also because of its lower resistence to heat. 
For all other insulation, however, the domestic muscovite is satis- 
factory. 

Stove mica is essentially clear, hard, and rigid, and much of the 
North Carolina mica, especially the greenish, is well adapted for this 
use. The demand for mica for glazing is comparatively small, and 
only the best quality and the larger sheets are thus used. 

The resonant quality possessed by mica makes it of special value 
for use in sound-producing and sound-detecting devices such as 
phonographs, submarine detectors, radiophones and "loud speakers." 

Phonograph and other diaphragm mica must be of a very high 
grade; it must be clear and transparent, free from all cracks, inclu- 
sions, stains, air bubbles, or rulings, and must also split easily into 
perfectly flat sheets, the latter feature being essential. 

Mica for lamp chimneys and canopies must be clear and must 
split easily and be very flexible. Very little domestic mica can be 
used for this purpose. Indian and Brazilian mica are used instead. 

Mica splittings for built-up mica board, which is used in electric insu- 
lation, consist of thin flakes or films split from the smaller sheets of 
mica. Splittings are about one-thousandth of an inch in thickness, 
a<e irregular in shape, and contain a very small number of flaws. 
The built-up product is prepared by first coating a surface with shel- 
lac or other binder and laying the flakes thereon irregularly in a sin- 
gle layer. A second coat of binder is then laid over them in such a 
manner as to cover the spaces between the flakes of the first layer. 
This process is continued until any required thickness is reached, 
when the whole is subjected to pressure and baking. In this way 
large composite sheets are made of uniform thickness, which are free 
from foreign substances and such imperfections as tend to lessen the 
value of mica for some insulating purposes. The finished product 
may be bent, cut, sawed, or drilled. Mica board is used chiefly 
for plates between the copper segments of commutators, and in 
dynamos, motors, and transformers. 

MICA MINING 

Mica mining in the United States is not carried on regularly or 
systematically by every producer. Many of the mines are worked by 
small operators who mine only intermittently and use very primitive 
methods. Operations are frequently of the type known as "gopher- 
ing" or "groundhogging, " which consists of following the blocks of 
mica as long as the removal of one discloses the presence of an- 
other — in other words, obtaining all the mica available without refer- 
ence to any system of development. This method is popular in some 



178 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART H 

parts of the South and is considered efficient where the run of mica 
in a deposit is not constant. In this type of workings the waste rock 
is left to accumulate because of the difficulty of removing it through 
the small tunnels and openings, and this method soon becomes a hin- 
drance to future development. Improved methods of mining by sys- 
tematic shafts, tunnels, drifts, stopes, and crosscuts have in some 
places supplanted the gophering method, and some mines have been 
equipped with hoists, power drills, pumps, and electric lights, but 
many mines have not been supplied with such modern equipment. 

In some large masses of pegmatite regular quarry methods may be 
used. This system is common in the New England mica mines where 
mica is mined in open pits and derricks and inclined tracks are used 
to remove ore and waste. 

Mica deposits are seldom prospected by boring or drilling. The 
usual method is to prospect by pits, crosscuts, shafts, and tunnels. 
It is best to try to determine the extent of the deposit on the surface 
by a series of open cuts across the trend of the mica-bearing dike. 
The dike should also be tested for depth by one or more shafts. If 
a quantity of fairly large sheets of mica is not obtained it may not 
be profitable to continue operations, but if mica is obtained that will 
cut into perfect sheets several inches square and as clear as window 
glass, the deposit may prove of value. 

PREPARATION 

Mica as mined consists of rough crystals or blocks that range from 
a few inches to several feet across. These rough crystals are cobbed 
and cleaned of adhering quartz, feldspar, or dirt by rapping them 
with hammers, or they are cleaned with stout knives. The cleaned 
crystals are thrown into boxes, which are sent to the culling sheds. 
The crystals, which may be several inches thick, are first broken into 
plates about one-fourth of an inch thick. The edges of these plates 
are sometimes hammered, in order to loosen the laminae and soften 
the sides for the insertion of the splitting knife, which is a double- 
edged implement about 3 inches long with a V-point. The sheets 
of mica are split into thicknesses of one-sixteenth of an inch or less. 
The rough edges are cut from these plates by knives held at an angle 
to the cleavage, and the mica is graded for size and quality. Large 
shears and punches operated either by hand or by power cut the 
graded mica into patterns desired by the trade. If shears are used, 
the mica is cut into the desired form around a templet of wood, 
metal, or composition laid against the mica. Mica-punching ma- 
chines are supplied with dies to punch disks, washers, and other 
shapes. 

Mica splittings, which are made from the smaller sheets of mica, 
are "thin split" by a thin-bladed knife into sheets one five-hun- 
dredth of an inch or less in thickness. Several devices and processes 
have been patented to supplant hand labor for this part of the work, 
but hand splitting is still practiced in many factories. 



MICA 
WORLD'S PRODUCTION > 

World's production of mica, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



179 



Country 



1920 



1921 



1922 



1923 



1924 



North America: 

Canada __. 

United States 

South America: 

Argentina** 

Brazil o _ 

Europe: 

Norway o 

Rumania 

Russia 

Spain _ 

Sweden 

Asia: 

Ceylon a 

Chosen... 

India (British) 

Japan 

Africa: 

Madagascar o _ 

Rhodesia 

Tanganyika Territory^ 

Union of South Africa (Transvaal) 

Oceania: 

Australia- 
Northern Territory 

Queensland _ _ 

Western Australia « 



1,999 
5,956 



65 



31 
135 
00 
5 

00 

13 

00 
2,385 

00 



C) 



637 
2,674 



00 

2 
( c ) 

5 

11 

1,650 

(<0 

141 

77 



3,038 
6,514 



1,604 
15 

92 
60 
11 
3 



(>) 



3,197 
8,243 

102 
56 

O) 

6 
00 



1 

11 

1,720 

430 

165 
82 
33 
15 



3,711 

4,934 



130 
79 



( c ) 



00 



2,0/ 

( e ) 



'23 



286 
136 
57 
735 



•Exports. 



Less than one-half Ion. 



c'Data not available. 



The sheet mica from the United States, as reported, is practically 
all uncut sheet. That from India is uncut sheet 2 and splittings. 
The Canadian mica is uncut sheet and splittings; the proportion of 
splittings to sheet is not known but is estimated to be much greater 
than that for India. For the other countries the mica reported is 
essentially trimmed sheet. 

World's production of sheet mica, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



Year 


United 
States 


India 


Canada 


Other 
coun- 
tries ° 


Total 


Percent- 
age of 
total in 
United 

States 


1920 


764 
337 
489 
936 
663 


2,385 
1,650 
1,604 
1,720 
2,078 


«• 1,000 

180 

179 

412 

00 


487 
296 
296 
912 
1,453 


4,636 
2,463 
2,568 
3,980 
(<0 


16 


1921 


14 


1922. 


19 


1923 


24 


1924 


( c ) 







• Data incomplete, as no figures of production are available for some of the countries. 

* Estimated by the U. S. Geological Survey on the basis of one-half of the total reported production of 
mica in Canada 

c Data not available. 



iThe figures for world production were compiled by L. M. Jones, of the Bureau of Mines. 
^Although the Madras square-trimmed mica is termed "cut mica" in import schedules, in reality it 
is uncut trimmed mica. 



180 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART EC 
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 3 



The imports of uncut sheet mica in 1924 were 671,793 pounds, 
valued at $419,154. Imports of mica in 1924 were received from 
23 countries. 

Mica imported for consumption in the United States, 1921-1924 



Kind 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Unmanufactured « 


328, 444 

( c ) 
134, 650 


$331,219 

758, 521 

2,166 

(/) 


385, 653 

313, 745 

e42,579 
el, 063, 306 

e 1, 807 

« 2, 562 

. e 7, 842 


$359, 793 

d 555, 243 

4,514 

e 18, 372 
e 371, 801 

« 2,860 

«675 

e 17, 364 


1,044,366 

(d) 
1,867,385 

60, 135 
4,301,727 

30, 032 
20, 164 
7,044 


$532, 375 
(d) 
28, 324 

49, 268 
1, 730, 532 

37, 382 
6,776 
20,191 


671, 793 

(*) 

1,342,107 

74, 534 
3, 619, 229 

18, 205 
18, 517 
56, 766 


$419, 154 


Cut and split b 


(d) 




22, 034 
69, 018 


Cut mica (dimension 
sheets) 


Splittings 


1, 681, 774 


Built-up mica boards, cups, 

tubes, and mica plates 

Washers 


41, 455 
5,325 


Other manufactures 


88, 146 






1,091,906 




1, 330, 622 


7,330,853 


2, 404, 848 


5, 801, 151 


2,326,906 







a Essentially uncut trimmed sheets. 

6 Includes the Madras square-shaped uncut sheets. 

c Quantities not recorded prior to new tariff, Sept. 22, 1922. 

d Classification discontinued with new tariff and items shown separately. 

<Sept. 22-Dec. 31. 

/Not separately classified prior to new tariff. 

The import duty on mica as fixed by the tariff act of September 
22, 1922, paragraph 208, is as follows: 

Mica, unmanufactured, valued at not above 15 cents per pound, 4 cents per 
pound, valued above 15 cents per pound, 25 per centum ad valorem; mica, cut 
or trimmed, and mica splittings, 30 per centum ad valorem; mica plates, and 
built-up mica, and all manufactures of mica or of which mica is the component 
material of chief value, 40 per centum ad valorem; ground mica, 20 per centum 
ad valorem. 

Mica and manufactures of mica were exported to 48 countries in 
1924, but about 88 per cent of the total quantity, which was 
1,519,636 pounds, went to Canada, England, and France, in the 
order named. The total value of the mica exported was $169,741, 
against $182,162 in 1923. 



» The figures for imports and exports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau, of Mines, from 
records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



MICA 



181 



3 

"o 
6h 


3 


■*• OO NOOOOOOlOOWNOOcOOmoOONOOOlM 
CN IO rH HtDOO»M00'l<CiC<3tCam(NN'<l<M00NH 
lO tO IO COIOCNlO t-i rH ^OlOlOCif, r-l r-l OS 00 >0 

"-fad of co" co*r>* io"e6*co*o*o~ tCt-TuJ 
eo -<fno ioiooo o> cn 
M« rH Tjl 


M 

sf 

CO 
CM* 


•3 

a 

3 
o 
CM 


2,801 

3,553 
19, 211 

3,615 

959 

58, 862 

333 

179 

41, 785 

2, 109, 025 

219 

263, 842 

155, 867 

69, 469 
28, 094 

3, 188, 913 
185 
90 
198 
200 
2,679 
2,219 

70, 540 


00 

S3 

CN* 

O 
CO* 


Other manufac- 
tures, not 
specially pro- 
vided for (duty 
40 per cent) 


"c3 

> 


it-- I itNOS lOCO itinaooo i I I • no I 

1 IOO 1 IOS-* ICOCO ICCIOf-lrHCO 1 1 1 1 It-. 1 
1 l CM llTfiCOlOOtNiCDOSCOrHOIII''<-HI 

1 1 1 lO'rtV IO* 1 1 1 1 1 O* 1 
1 1 II 1 1 rH IO CN 1 1 1 1 1 -H 1 


00 
t— 
T}l 




o 
Ph 


1 IOS 1 ICOOS ICOO ICOIOOOOO I 1 1 1 100 1 

i i os i ioo i r- r- iaocffl--im i i i i 100 i 

1 IN . 1 00 r-l 1 IO r-l 1 CO t- CO O <-l 1 1 1 1 1 r-l 1 

• 1 II 1 1 Tj*r-* CO* r-*0* rH 1 

I 1 ■ 1 1 -CH 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CS 
CD 

CO* 
CD 


Washers (duty 
40 per cent) 


© 

3 

■a 
> 


1 II till , .O 1 1 1 1 1 1 » 

1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 1 1 1 1 I 

II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CO* 1 

1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i«/> 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


O 
OS 
CO 

CO* 


CO 

-a 

3 
3 
o 
Ph 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ICO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IOS j J J J j J J 

! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!! co !!!!! ' ! 
| | 1 | CN | J j j j J J 


t— 

CO 

OS 

8f 


Built-up mica 

products, 

boards, cups, 

tubes, and mica 

plates (duty 

40 per cent) 


© 

3 

> 


1 II 1 1 1 1 1 ICO ICOIOOO IOS 1 1 1 1-rptN 1 
1 II 1 1 1 1 1 IOS 1 CD CN CO HO 1 ! 1 INO) 1 
1 II 1 l 1 l l l»V3- l^HO let) III' OS 1 

I II 1 rH CO" 1 -^ 1 1 CO* 1 




00 

Os" 
CO 


03 

3 
3 


1 II 1 1 1 1 I 1 OS l OS OS t— 100 1 1 1 t rH rH 1 

i ii i i i i i i cn icocooo ioo i i i ir-co i 

11 • • 1 l I I 100 CN 'OS 1 1 l IHN 1 

-* i o* i i i i 


rH 


.2 8 

3 


© 
3 
*c3 
> 


1 II I 1 1 l 1 I rf I GO ICN 1 1 l I I I i I I 

1 II l 1 1 1 1 1 CN l till 

t I 1 IO l ' 1 

1 II 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 CJ 1 1 II II 

1 II 1 1 1 1 I l<M 1 1 1 1 1 1 l l l 1 1 
1 11 6r> 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■■ 1 1 


1 

cm" 

CM 


to 

"3 
3 
3 
o 
Ph 


1 IIO IO ICN 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 IO 'rH 1 1 1 ! ' 1 1 I 
1 II 1 1 1 1 1 ICN 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 II 1 1 1 1 1 I-* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 II 1 1 I 1 1 ICO 1 i 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 l 



cm" 


CO rl 
3 o 
+■£ s-< 

»«-? 

Is 


© 
3 

> 


""$4,~825" 

"38i,"225~ 

"~33,~948~ 

32, 198 

2,207 

1,987 

1, 269, 002 

142 
130 


*CH 

CO 
CD 


3 
3 
o 
Pm 


1 III ICO 1 1 1 ■* lOSCMGCOlO 1 ICOO 1 1 1 

1 II lllOlllrHlrHlOOSlOCNllOSOlll 

1 II 1 1 CD 1 1 100 lt-O>O00CO 1 1 -H CN 1 1 1 

1 II 1 ICO 1 1 IOO lr-"co"r-" CM" CD II III 
1 II II 1 1 1 rH ICO CM rH OS 1 1 III 

1 no ihh OS 1 1 III 

1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 CN 1 I III 


OS 

°. 

00" 
00 

CO* 


Cut mica, di- 
mension sheets 
(duty 30 per 
cent) 


■a 

> 


J ! I loOO I 1-rJ-CNT* itNrHOO 1 1 1 lOCN ! 
1 II 1 nO CN 1 1 t-- -rl< CO 1 rn OS c ! 1 1 1 1 CN H 1 
1 III l lO i IOO "? 1 rH OS -^l I 1 1 HON 1 

1 II II 1 IrH* <N* ith"iocn" 1 1 1 1 1 
1 II II II CM 1 CO 1 1 1 1 1 


00" 
co 


CO 

■3 
3 
3 
o 
Ph 


1 III fcHO I ITfOSCO l-^COOO 1 1 1 1 CN O 1 

i ii iics»oiicorHi--ioor-t-iiiii— Oi 

i ill no 1 ICNCNlO ICOCMCO I 1 1 ICOCO 1 

1 Iff CD IHHN I ! ! I 
1 II II II rH 1 r-l CN 1 1 1 1 1 
1 'III II 1 1111 1 


t- 
t- 

OS 


-3 

© 

o 

s 

a 

3 

o 

© 

•3 

5 


Valued at above 

15 cents per 

pound (duty 25 

per cent) 


© 

3 

> 


$524 

1,650 
8,223 

2,317 

560 

26, 410 

139 

69 

42, 278 

47, 562 

"867358" 

18, 736 

3,858 

1,404 

160, 389 

228 

20 

~~~7,~386~ 


06* 


*CM 


to 
■3 

3 
3 
o 
Ph 


2,801 

3,553 
18, 412 

3,615 

959 

43, 523 

114 

179 

41, 212 

177, 005 

"77,-564" 

29, 939 

1,500 

2,961 

123, 505 

185 

90 

""~2,"l36~ 


s? 

CN 

O* 
CM 
IO 


Valued at not 
above 15 cents 

per pound 
(duty 4 cents 

per pound) 


3 
> 


1 111 ico 1 1 1 rn icno 1 no 1 1 1 1 1 ico 

1 II 1 IH 1 1 It- i-<*CN 1 lO 1 t 1 1 1 IrH 
1 III IO 1 i IrH ICN 1 ICO 1 1 1 1 1 nO 

1 III IrH - 1 1 IrH 1 1 1 r-~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 IO* 
1 II 1 i&e- 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 


co 
CN 


CO 

-3 
3 
3 
o 
Ph 


II 1 ICO 1 1 100 1 -* CN 1 lO 1 1 1 1 1 10 
1 II 1 KM 1 1 IO ICOO 1 IO 1 1 1 1 1 iTf 
1 II 1 ICN ' 1 it- 1 CO rH 1 10 1 1 1 ' 1 no 

1 lo" I 1 IOC lCN*rH* 1 IO" 1 ! lO* 


O 
O 
O 

co" 

CO 




! 




Aden 

Africa: 

East 

South 

Portuguese- 
East 

Other 

Argentina 

Australia. 

Austria 

Brazil 

Canada 

China 

England __ 

France 

Germany 

Guatemala 

India (British).. 

Italy 

Japan 

Madagascar 

Mexico 

Scotland _ 

Switzerland. 
Venezuela 





SILICA 



By Frank J. Katz * 



INTRODUCTION 

Silica (Si0 2 ) occurs in deposits of commercial importance in many 
different forms, such as vein quartz, as a constituent of pegmatites, 
as sand, sandstone, quartzite, or flint, as tripoli, and as diatomaceous 
(infusorial) earth. In some forms, such as rose, smoky, and ame- 
thystine quartz, it has value as gems. This chapter deals with silica 
of all kinds except gem quartz, silica sand or sandstone used for 
making glass, and silica used in the form of sand, gravel, and crushed 
material for building, for concrete and mortar, for foundry and 
furnace work, and for cutting and grinding stone. Such material 
as is not here included is either gem material or sand, is com- 
mercially so designated, and is therefore considered in other chapters 
of Mineral Resources. Tripoli and diatomaceous earth are to a 
large extent consumed as abrasives and are considered in the chapter 
on abrasive materials. 

USES 

Silica as considered in this chapter is used for many purposes, 
principally in the manufacture of pottery, paints, and scouring soaps, 
as a wood filler, as a polisher, and in metallurgical and chemical 
processes. In the pottery industry, where it is generally called flint, 
silica is used in the body of the ware to diminish shrinkage and is 
also used in glazes. Silica for use in pottery should contain less than 
0.5 per cent of iron-bearing minerals. Manufacturers of paint use 
considerable quantities of very finely ground silica, which forms as 
much as one-third of the total pigment in some paints. For this 
purpose finely ground crystalline material is superior to fine sand in 
its natural state because of the angularity of the grains, which makes 
them adhere more firmly to the article painted and after wear affords 
a good surface for repainting. The same angularity makes arti- 
ficially comminuted crystalline quartz superior to natural sand for 
use in wood fillers. For soaps and polishing powders ground ma- 
terial is preferred to natural sand on account of its whiteness and 
angularity. For all these purposes large quantities of pure quartz 

1 Statistics for production were prepared by Estelle R. Phillips, of the Bureau of Mines, 
Figures for imports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Comnserce. 

44839°— 27 13 183 



184 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

sand and sandstone are finely ground and yield a product fully 
equal to that obtained by grinding massive crystalline quartz. 

Quartz crushed and graded to various sizes is used in making 
sandpaper and sand belts, as a scouring agent, for "frosting" glass 
with sand-blast apparatus, and for other purposes. Blocks of mas- 
sive quartz and quartzite are used in the chemical industry as a filler 
for &cid towers and as a flux in copper smelting. Crushed and ground 
quartz is also used in filters. Finely ground quartz is used in tooth 
powders and by dentists as a detergent. Silica of one form or 
another fused with soda ash makes sodium silicate ("water glass"), 
of which large quantities are manufactured for a great variety 
of uses. 

Sand and crystalline quartz have been used in making silicon and 
alloys of silicon with iron, copper, and other metals in the electric 
furnace. Quartz may be fused in the electric furnace to make 
chemical apparatus, such as tubes, crucibles, and dishes. The report 
on silica in Mineral Kesources for 1922 may be consulted for an ac- 
count of the manufacture, properties, and uses of quartz glass thus 
made. The art of making fused quartz is nearly a hundred years 
old, but most of the early work was concerned with the opaque 
varieties made from sand. Only during the present century has 
progress been made in the development of clear fused quartz. 

The material known commercially in the United States as tripoli, 
which is the siliceous residue of decomposed limestone, also yields 
an excellent grade of pulverized silica, which is used for the same 
purpose as silica powder obtained from massive crystalline quartz 
and from sand and sandstone. Diatom aceous (infusorial) earth is 
also used to make polishing powder and other products that are em- 
ployed for uses similar to those for which quartz, sand, and tripoli 
powders are employed, but diatomaceous earth has somewhat dif- 
ferent properties, and most of it finds different application as 
insulating and filter material. 

SHIPMENTS 

The total production of the silica materials considered in this 
report, including tripoli and diatomaceous earth, as given in the table 
on page 185 showed a decrease of 5 per cent in quantity, following 
the 46 per cent increase of 1923. Quartz (crude and ground) from 
pegmatite dikes, from veins, and from quartzite increased, as did 
tripoli, but ground sand and sandstone as well as diatomaceous earth 
decreased. 

Shipments of crude and crushed quartz were reported by producers 
in California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nevada, New 
Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Utah, Wash- 
ington, and Wisconsin. Values for the crude ranged between $2.36 
and $10 a short ton f. o. b. mines, with an average value of $4.84, and 
for the crushed quartz between $3.69 and $17.03, with an average of 
$10.12 f. o. b. plants. Ground quartz amounting to 3,191 short tons, 
valued at $80,078 was manufactured by producers of the crude in 
four of these States: California, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Wis- 
consin. Including other ground quartz which duplicates some of 
the crude in this report and which was manufactured in California, 



SILICA 



185 



Connecticut, and New Jersey by purchasers of the crude, the total 
quantity of ground quartz reported amounted to 11, 265 short tons, 
valued at $262,639. Values per ton commonly ranged between $17.05 
and $36.67 f. o. b. mills, exceptional lots being reported as low as 
$4.06, and the average value w y as $23.31. Some grinders obtained 
the crude quartz from other States, as in California where consider- 
able material from Nevada was ground. 

Sand and sandstone were ground in six States: Illinois, New 
Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, 
the production amounting to 230,432 short tons, valued at $1,655,056. 
Values ranged commonly between $4.23 and $10.50 a ton, with excep- 
tional values reaching as high as $28.63, and with an average value of 
$7.18. To avoid duplication of figures some high-grade material 
made by regrinding purchased material previously ground by others 
is not included here. 



Silica sold by producers for pottery, paints, fillers, polishers, 
other uses in the United States, 1022-1924 



abrasives, and 





1922 


1923 


1924 


Material 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Quartz (vein quartz, pegmatite, and 


10, 653 
163, 295 

30, 205 
44, 761 


$101, 347 
1, 061, 057 

316, 728 
386, 669 


20, 601 
249, 467 

27, 082 
65,833 


$193, 630 
1, 672, 961 

382, 757 
699, 406 


23, 761 

230, 432 

28, 476 
63, 163 


$203, 177 




1, 655, 056 


Tripoli (ground and otherwise pre- 


389, 409 




693, 917 








248, 914 


1, 865, 801 


362, 983 


2, 948, 754 


345, 832 


2, 941, 559 



Includes only finely ground material. Figures probably incomplete. 



IMPORTS 



Data on imports of silica materials are found in the records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce under the classifications 
" silica, crude," " silica, for use as pigment," and " flint, flints, 
and flint stones, unground." Imports of crude silica amounting to 
12 short tons, valued at $254, are reported for 1924 and 34 tons, 
valued at $550, for 1923. No imports of silica for use as pigment 
have been reported. The imports of ." flint, flints, and flint stones, un- 
ground," are flint pebbles for use in grinding mills and for uses 
such as are listed in this report. 

" Flint, flints, and flint stones, unground," imported for consumption in the 

United States, 1919-192J, 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1919... _. 


19, 798 
26, 636 
10, 084 


$250, 096 
338, 630 
116, 157 


1922 


16, 040 
15, 952 
17, 473 


$145, 805 


1920. 


1923... 


130, 974 


1921 


1924 . 


114,958 









186 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



As shown by the following table, France was the source of 67 
per cent of this imported material in 1924, Denmark 21 per cent, 
Belgium 11 per cent, and the balance came from Germany, Ireland, 
England, Canada, and Argentina, in the order named. 

''Flint, flints, and flint stones, unground," imported into the United States, 

1923-24, by countries 



Argentina 

Belgium 

Canada. 

Czechoslovakia. 

Denmark 

England 

France 

Germany 

Ireland 

Japan 

Norway 



Country 



1923 



Short tons 



2,012 

766 

32 

3,908 

34 

8,955 

226 



« 



19 



15, 952 



Value 



$22, 152 

3,409 

484 

43, 886 

365 

57, 401 

2,572 



5 

700 



130, 974 



1924 



Short tons 



C) 
1,929 
6 



3,681 

9 

11, 636 

184 

28 



17, 473 



Value 



$20 

26,089 
84 



33, 892 
157 

53, 080 

1,497 

139 



114,958 



<* Less than 1 ton. 



FUEL BRIQUETS 



By W. F. McKenney 



PRODUCTION 



Along with the mining of soft coal, the manufacture of fuel briquets 
reacted sharply in 1924 from the high record established in 1923. 



700.000 
650.000 
600.000 
550.000 



1 

g 350,000 

£ 300.000 

I 

£ 250.000 

1 

£ 200.000 



























/ 


\ 


























/ 


\ 


































































































4 


/ 




















































V 


1 


























V 












/ 






y 




















N \ 


1 
1 


/ 


\ 
\ 

> 




/ 














/' / 


k », 


/ 1 


Y, 


/ 








\ 








•rat- 


5ta 1 ,- , 




\ 


i 
i 
i 


\ 


/ / 
/ 

/ 








/' 


■ >j s.. 


,.?' 


\ 




4 




-A 


■r-" 




/ 






. 


— 


,s^ 




\' : 



















1910 1911 1912 1913 /S/4 1915 1916 19/7 1918 1913 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 

Figure 1.— Fuel briquets produced in the Eastern, Central, and Pacific Coast States and in the 

United States, 1910-1924 

The total output was 580,470 net tons, a decrease of 116,340 tons, 
or 17 per cent. This decline carried production to a point well 
below that recorded in 1922 and nearly to the level of 1920. The 
curve in Figure 1 shows the trend of production during the last 15 
years. 

1 The tables in this report were prepared by Miss J. M. Corse, of the Bureau of Mines, who has com- 
piled the statistics on fuel briquets since 1911. 

187 



188 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Fuel briquets produced in the United States, 1923-24 





1923 


1924 




Net tons 


Value 


Net tons 


Value 




252, 166 
289, 314 
155, 330 


$1, 678, 038 
2,705,019 
1, 515, 641 


121, 022 
308, 370 
151,078 


$726, 976 
2, 775, 544 
1,484 102 


C entral States 


Paoific Coast States . 








696,810 


5, 898, 698 


580, 470 


4. 986. 622 



« List of producers shown on p. 191. 

A noteworthy feature of 1924 was a decrease of 52 per cent in the 
output of plants in the Eastern States, which accounted for nearly 
the entire loss in total production. As the demand for fuel briquets 
in that territory is closely related to the supply and price of com- 
peting raw coals, this decrease may be traced to the heavy stocks 
of coal held by consumers and dealers at the beginning of the year, 
to the uninterrupted production of anthracite, and to the low prices 
on soft coal throughout the year. Production at plants along the 
Pacific coast was about 3 per cent less than in 1923, but at the plants 
of the Central States there was an increase of nearly 7 per cent. 

Fuel briquets produced in the United States, 1919-1924 



Year 


Net tons 


Value 


Year 


Net tons 


Value 


1919 


295, 734 
567, 192 
398, 949 


$2. 301, 054 
4, 623, 831 
3, 632, 301 


1922 


619,425 1 $5,444,926 


1920 


1923 


696,810 5,898,698 


1921 


1924 ... 


580, 470 4. 986. 622 











The State of Wisconsin again stood first in point of production, and 
the output of its two plants more than trebled that of any other State. 
The other producing States listed in the order of their output were 
Washington, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Virginia, Missouri, California, 
and New Jersey. The largest actual decrease in comparison with 
1923 was in Pennsylvania, where production in 1924 was less than 
48 per cent of that in the preceding year. 

VALUE 

The value of the briquets manufactured in 1924 was $4,986,622, a 
decrease of $912,076, or 15 per cent, when compared with 1923. The 
average value per ton, however, rose from $8.47 to $8.59. Despite 
this increase the average value per ton was $0.20 less than in 1922. 
The increase in average value in the face of a decrease of 15 per cent 
in total value is explained by the fact that the low-priced product of 
Pennsylvania formed a much smaller part of the total output than 
in 1923. The following table, which shows the course of the average 
value per ton in Pennsylvania and in the Central States during the 
last 14 years, illustrates better the trend in prices of briquets. In 
both regions the average value declined. 



FUEL BRIQUETS 



189 



Average value per ton (/. o. b. plant) of briquets produced in Pennsylvania and in 
the Central States, 1911- 



Year 


Pennsyl- 
vania 


Central 

States 


Year 


Pennsyl- 
vania 


Central 

States 


1911 


$2.37 
2.68 
2.65 
2.48 
2.90 
3.83 
3.15 


$4.34 
4.47 
4.92 
4.83 
4.26 
4.73 
6.81 


1918 


$4.11 
4.17 
5.60 
6.14 
5.93 
5.95 
5.82 


$8. 17 


1912 


1919 


8.47 


1913. 


1920 


9.23 


1914 


1921... 


9.28 


1915 


1922 


9.02 


1916 


1923. 


9.35 


1917 


1924... 


9.00 









These figures of value per ton do not represent prices but are 
merely the number of dollars per ton, on the average, received by 
the manufacturers f. o. b. their plants. Since the plants very often 
are hundreds of miles from the points of consumption, consumers pay 
in addition the cost of transportation. A large part of the total 
output of briquets, probably about 80 per cent, is sold by the manu- 
facturers to wholesalers or retailers whose margin is included in the 
price paid by the consumers. (See notes on marketing and dis- 
tribution in Mineral Resources, 1923, Part II, p. 43.) 

The great difference between the average value per ton of the 
product of plants in the Eastern States and that of plants in the 
Central West is due in large measure to the situation of the plants. 
The eastern plants are in or near the coal-producing districts that 
supply the raw fuel, whereas the plants in the Central West are far 
from coal districts. Transportation is an important item in the 
cost of production and is reflected in the average value of the manu- 
factured product at the plants. 

SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN THE PRODUCTION OF 

BRIQUETS 

Since briquets are used in the United States almost exclusively 
for household heating, the demand is highly seasonal, and most 
plants are forced to curtail production sharply during the summer, 
if not to close entirely for a period. The variations in each month 
of 1924 are shown in the following table. In May and June, the 
months of lowest production, the output was less than one-fifth 
of that of December. Indeed, 6 of the 12 plants were closed for 
one or more months during the summer. 

Monthly production of fuel briquets in the United States in 1924, in net tons 



January 80,938 

February... 42,609 

March 24,953 

April 20,183 

May 17,795 

June 16,017 

July 25,611 



August 40,743 

September 65,745 

October - 74,873 

November. 80,936 

December 90,067 



580, 470 



RAW MATERIALS AND BINDERS 

The total quantity of raw fuel used in 1924 was 583,365 net tons, 
of which 39 per cent was anthracite and semianthracite, 51 per cent 
was semibituminous and bituminous slack, and 10 per cent was 
oil-gas residue. As the quantity of binders added was less than the 



190 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



weight of the moisture expelled, there was a net loss of 2,895 tons 
during the process of manufacture. Of the 12 plants that reported 
production in 1924, 4 used anthracite culm or fines as fuel constit- 
uent, 2 semianthracite, 2 a mixture of anthracite culm or fines and 
bituminous slack, 1 semibituminous slack, 1 bituminous slack, and 
2 carbon residue from the manufacture of oil gas. 

As in previous years, the binder most commonly used was asphaltic 
pitch, and its use was reported by 6 of the 12 plants operated in 
1924. Another plant used a mixture of asphaltic pitch and coal- 
tar pitch, and still another a mixture of asphaltic pitch and starch; 



100.000 



75.000 



50.000 



25.000 



80.900 




















90.100, 
m900 


















*65.700 


r 74.900 






142.600 










f2 5.600 


'40.700 










24.900' 




20.200 


17.800 


'16.000 













Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 
Figure 2.— Fluctuations in monthly production of fuel briquets in 1924 



Dec. 



one used coal-tar pitch alone, one used sulphite liquor, and two 
used no binder. 

Raw fuels used in making briquets in the United States, 1920-1924, in net tons 



Fuel 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Anthracite culm and fine sizes and semianthracite... 

Semibituminous and bituminous slack and coke 

Lignite, subbituminous coal, and oil-gas residue 


356, 877 

» 125, 506 

89,656 


190, 964 
121, 925 

» 85, 352 


254, 563 

235, 542 

* 123, 339 


331, 102 
« 225, 508 
» 125, 880 


224, 539 

• 297, 814 

• 61, 012 




572, 039 


398, 241 


613, 444 


682, 490 


583, 365 



° Includes no coke. b Includes no brown lignite. c Includes no brown lignite or subbituminous coal 



FUEL BRIQUETS 
BRIQUETTING PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES 



191 



Of the plants that were active in 1923 the Burnrite Coal Briquette 
Co., Newark, N. J., and the Scran ton Anthracite Briquette Co., 
Dickson City, Pa., were idle throughout 1924. An experimental 
plant was put in operation at Akron, Ohio, by the P. E. Welton 
Engineering Co. for demonstration purposes only. In all 12 plants 
were active in 1924. 

Briquetting plants operated in the United States in 1924 



Group and State 


Name and address of operator 


Location of 
plant 


Date 
put in 
opera- 
tion 


Raw fuel used 


Eastern States: 

New Jersey.. .. 

Pennsylvania 

Do 


Anthracite Manufacturing Co., 520 

Brunswick Avenue, Trenton, N. J. 
American Briquet Co., 402 Land 

Title Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Anthracite Briquette Co., Sunbury, 

Pa. 
Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., 437 

Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Delparen Anthracite Briquette Co., 

Parrott, Va. 
Virginia Fuel Corporation, 930 High 

Street, Portsmouth, Va. 

Standard Briquet Fuel Co., 319 
North Fourth Street, St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Berwind Fuel Co., 122 South Michi- 
gan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Stott Briquet Co., Merchants Na- 
tional Bank Building, St. Paul, 
Minn. 

Los Angeles Gas & Electric Corpora- 
tion, 810 South Flower Street, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

Portland Gas & Coke Co., Gasco 
Building, Portland, Oreg. 

Pacific Coast Coal Co., 612 L. C. 
Smith Building, Seattle, Wash. 


Trenton 

Lykens 

Sunbury 

Lansford 

Parrott 

Portsmouth... 

Kansas City . . 

Superior 

do 

Los Angeles. _. 

Portland 

Ronton.. 


1918 
1920 
1919 
1909 
1915 
1923 

1909 

1912 
1909 

1905 

1913 
1914 


Anthracite. 
Do. 
Do. 


Do 


Do. 




Virginia semi- 


Do . 


anthracite. 


Central States: 

Missouri 


tuminous slack. 


Wisconsin 

Do 


thracite. 

Semibituminous 
slack. 


Pacific Coast States: 
California 

Oregon 


and bituminous 
slack. 

Carbon (petroleum 
residue). 

Do. 


Washington 


Bituminous slack. 



NEW FORMS OF MANUFACTURED FUEL 

An event of interest in 1924 was the organization of the Superfuel 
Corporation of New York to develop the Trent process and apply 
it to the manufacture of a compressed fuel known as superfuel 
cylinders. 

Briefly, the Trent process consists of crushing and grinding coal to 
a very fine powder and thoroughly mixing it with an emulsion of fuel 
oil and water. The mixture is violently agitated and the fuel oil 
and carbonaceous content of the coal combine to form pellets. 
In this form the fuel is soft and yielding and is known as amalgam. 
It may be burned in boilers without further treatment. To prepare 
the amalgam for domestic utilization it is pressed into cylindrical 
form by passing through an extruding machine which cuts it into the 
required lengths. These cylinders are then passed through a Vander- 
grift retort, which bakes them into a hard fuel and at the same time 
recovers a part of the oil and volatile matter. An important result 
of the process is a great reduction in the ash content of the coal 
constituent; in the process of amalgamation the ash tends to remain 



192 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924— PART TI 



with the water, and the coal combines with the oil. This fact places 
the fuel in a somewhat different class from the average briquet, m the 
manufacture of which in American practice no attempt is made to 
lower the percentage of ash in the raw coal. 

The Superfuel Corporation is operating an experimental plant at 
Newark, N. J., which it proposes to put on a commercial basis during 
the coming year. The corporation has contracts to erect and operate 
several plants on a royalty basis. One plant — that of the Ohio 
Trent Coal, Coke & Amalgam Co., Toledo, Ohio — produced and 
shipped a considerable quantity of amalgam in 1924. This fuel may 
not be classed as a fuel briquet, and the quantity produced has not 
been included in the output of briquets. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF FUEL BRIQUETS 

The following table, prepared by W. I. Whiteside, of the Bureau 
of Mines, presents the information now available on the world's 
production of fuel briquets from 1919 to 1924. The figures are 
taken in the main from official sources but some have been obtained 
from trade publications and are subject to revision upon receipt of 
more accurate data. The figures are in metric tons (2,204.6 pounds) 
which are roughly equivalent to long or gross tons (2,240 pounds). 






World's production of fuel briquets, 1919-1924 
[In metric tons of 2,204.6 pounds] 



Country ° 



Algeria. 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia.. 
France 

Germany: 

Coal 

Lignite.. 

Saar 

Indo-China 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Spain 

United Kingdom 

United States 

Venezuela 



1919 



19,000 

2, 548. 000 

229, 000 

2, 839, 000 

4, 081, 000 

19,611,000 

(") 

( c ) 

584, 000 
(») 

587, 000 
2, 094, 000 
268, 000 
( c ) 



31,000 

2, 846, 000 

284, 000 

4, 012, 000 

4, 894, 000 

23, 882, 000 

33,000 

56,000 

634, 000 

(») 

742, 000 

2, 332, 000 

515, 000 

2,000 



1921 



33,000 

2, 677, 000 

334, 000 

4, 204, 000 

5, 736, 000 
28, 031, 000 

28,000 
( c ) 

585, 000 
( 6 ) 

733, 000 

1, 081, 000 

362, 000 

2,000 



1922 



27, 000 

2, 497, 000 

237, 000 

4, 885, 000 

5, 758, 000 

29, 422, 000 

( c ) 

31, 000 
626, 000 
( d ) 

676, 000 

1, 354, 000 

562, 000 

7,000 



1923 



31, 000 

1, 929, 000 

296, 000 

3, 056, 000 

1, 942, 000 

26, 854, 000 

( c ) 

46, 000 
474, 000 
309, 000 
664,000 
1, 168, 000 
632, 000 
4,000 



1924 



79,000 

2, 012, 000 
251, 000 

3, 221, 000 

3, 743, 000 
29, 665, 000 
(0 

75, 000 
542, 000 
444, 000 
627, 000 

1,209,000 
527, 000 
(<) 



° In addition to the countries listed, Canada reports 37,000 tons produced in 1923; other briquet-manu- 
facturing countries,~for which figures have not been obtained, are Hungary (production unimportant), 
Russia, and Switzerland. 

b Included with Germany. 

" Data not available. 

d The production of briquets in Polish Upper Silesia in 1922 was 198,000 tons. This figure is not included 
in the table as it duplicates the output from January to May, which is already included in the German 
production. 



LIME 



By G. F. Loughlin and A. T. Coons 



GENERAL CONDITIONS 

Sales of lime by producers in the United States in 1924 show 
practically no change in quantity and a reduction of 1 per cent in 
value from the figures for 1923. A decrease of 3 per cent in quantity 
of chemical lime sold during the year offset increases of 2 per cent 
and 3 per cent, respectively, in the quantities of building and agricul- 
tural lime sold. Of the lime sold in 1924, 97 per cent was manufac- 
tured in 22 States, each of which produced more than 25,000 tons. 
Of these producing States 8 showed increase and 14 decrease in quan- 
tity of sales. Ohio, the largest producing State, increased 8 per cent, 
and Pennsylvania, the second State, decreased 9 per cent in quantity 
sold. The increase in Ohio was chiefly in sales of building lime, and 
the decrease in Pennsylvania was in sales of chemical lime. Ohio 
also showed increases in sales of agricultural and of chemical lime. 
The total number of plants reporting operations was 28 less than in 
1923. The number of burners of lime for purely local, including 
farm, use continued to decrease as is shown by the decreased num- 
ber of plants in Maryland and Pennsylvania. Labor conditions at 
the plants apparently changed little during 1924. Wages remained 
about the same as in 1923; the cost of materials, except coal, was 
slightly more than in 1923, and prices showed a downward trend. 
The average value, at the plants, of lime sold, decreased from $9.81 
a ton in 1923 to $9.72 in 1924. 

PRODUCTION 



Lime sold hy producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Number 
of plants 
in oper- 
ation 


Short tons 


Value a 


Total 


Average 


1915 


906 
778 
595 
496 
539 
515 
520 
530 
467 
439 


3, 622, 810 
4, 073, 433 
3, 786, 364 
3, 206, 016 
3, 330, 347 
3, 570, 141 
2, 632, 153 
3, 639, 617 
4, 076, 243 
4, 072, 000 


$14, 424, 036 
18, 509, 305 
23, 807, 877 
26, 808, 909 
29, 448, 553 
37, 543, 840 
24, 895, 370 
33, 255, 039 
39, 993, 652 
39, 596, 423 


$3. 98 


1916 .- 


4.54 


1917 . 


6.29 


1918 


8.36 


1919 


8.84 


1920 


10.52 


1921 


9.83 


1922 


9. 14 


1923 


9.81 


1924 . 


9.72 







• The value given represents the value of bulk lime f. o. b. at point of shipment and does not include 
cost of barrel or package. 

193 



194 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Lime sold by producers in the United States, 192S-24, by States 



1923 



Number 
of plants 
in opera- 
tion 



Short tons 



Value 



1924 



Number 
of plants 
in opera- 
tion 



Short tons 



Value 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas , 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Jersey 

New Mexico — 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island... 
South Dakota... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia... 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Undistributed.. 



2 

1 
1 
2 

11 
7 
2 
1 
4 

14 

10 
7 
4 

16 
2 
1 
2 
3 

15 

31 

2 

1 

143 

24 

1 

2 

16 

9 

11 

10 

33 

6 

11 

25 

1 



193,429 
18,764 
14, 941 
66, 703 

59, 158 
O 



(•) 

92, 633 
126, 296 



139, 781 
63, 858 

180, 720 
59, 629 
29, 805 

246, 326 

ft 

(•) 

1,859 
100, 862 

(•) 
867, 982 

772,839 
6,167 

<•) 

C) 
131, 995 

62, 822 

12,228 

58,681 
182,604 

25,895 
241, 601 
227,549 

(•) 

91, 116 



10 
3 
3 

10 
4 
6 
2 
1 
1 
1 

10 
7 
2 
3 
4 

11 

11 
7 
4 

18 
3 
1 
3 
3 

12 
1 

21 

1 

2 

136 

19 
1 
2 

18 
5 

10 

10 

31 
6 

10 

25 
1 



204,059 
27,972 
13, 984 
59, 583 
C) 

58, 851 
•) 



(•) 

89,132 
116, 927 
(•) 

8,091 

125, 688 

56, 178 

194, 402 

73, 096 

25, 764 

243, 465 

2,374 

C) 

204 

2,389 

98, 592 

(•) 

934, 407 

700, 380 
8,264 

8 

144, 292 
60, 565 
12, 853 
56, 484 

172, 776 
28, 188 

238, 714 

235, 030 
(-) 
79,296 



$1, 812, 282 
331, 756 
131, 108 
658, 138 
(«) 

796, 541 
(•) 

w 

(•) 

934, 199 

991, 003 

C) 
58,228 
1, 809, 929 

470, 105 
2, 693, 028 

702, 072 

319, 066 

2, 354, 175 

25, 316 

(•) 
1,516 
23,975 

991,799 

(•) 
9,511,270 

C) 

(») 
5, 634, 806 

132, 365 

1, 111, 781 
570, 334 
172, 434 
710, 739 

1,409,447 
353, 450 

1,884,682 

2, 129, 701 

871, 178 



467 4,076,243 



39, 993, 652 



439 



4,072,000 



39, 596, 423 



• Included under " Undistributed. ** 



LIMB 
Lima sold by producers in the United States, 1928-2%, by uses 



195 





Quantity 


Value 


Use 


Percent- 
age of 
total 


Short tons 


Total 


Average 


1923 


5.9 

52.3 


240, 551 
2, 131, 533 


$1,825,519 
22, 521, 638 


$7.59 




10.57 






Chemical: 


1.9 
9.2 
7.6 
8.8 
.3 
1.3 
12.7 


78,942 
373,020 
311,309 
357,642 
13,044 
53, 906 
516, 296 


676, 291 
3, 044, 383 
2, 768, 909 
3, 599, 116 
164,039 
523, 994 
4,869,763 


8.57 




8.16 




8.89 




10.06 




12.58 




9.72 




9.43 








41.8 


1, 704, 159 


15, 646, 495 


9.18 








100.0 


4, 076, 243 
1, 225, 928 

248, 336 
2,169,700 


39,993,652 
12, 229, 598 

1,864,514 
23,011,935 


9.81 
9.98 


1924 
Agricultural 


6.1 
53.3 


7.51 




10.61 








1.8 
8.3 
7.3 
8.1 
.4 
1.3 
13.4 


72,822 
336,813 
300, 101 
328, 659 
17, 061 
53,349 
545, 159 


622,456 
2, 727, 518 
2, 528, 242 
3, 209, 257 
246, 079 
515, 133 
4,871,289 


a 55 




8.10 




8.42 


Refractory lime (dead-burned dolomite) 


9.76 


Sugar refineries 


14.42 




9.66 


Other usee ° 


8.94 






Total ch*mical 


40.6 


1, 653, 964 


14, 719, 974 


8.90 








100.0 


4, 072, 000 
1, 316, 664 


39, 596, 423 
13, 199, 846 


9.72 
10.03 









• Derails of distribution shown in following tabi*. 



196 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Chemical lime sold by producers in the United States for " other uses," 1923-2/^ 



Use 



1923 



Short tons Value 



1924 



Short tons Value 



Acetic acid 

Acid neutralization.. - 

Alcohol manufacture and dehydration-- 

Alkali works (ammonia, soda, potash)-- 

Bleaching powder 

Bleach, liquid 

Calcium acetate- 

Calcium carbide 

Coke and gas manufacture (gas purification and plant 

by-products) 

Creameries and dairies 

Disinfectants (chloride of lime, etc.) 

Flour mills 

Glue -.- 



13,536 
2,374 
(•) 

27, 535 

28, 202 



$132, 757 
39, 180 
(•) 

244, 378 
287,509 



Insecticides (spraying materials) 

Oil and fat manufacture. 

Paint (kalsomine, whitewash, varnish, etc.) 

Rubber 

Salt refining 

Sand-lime and slag brick 

Sanitation (sewage and garbage purification, etc.) . 

Silica brick 

Soap. 



Textiles 

Water purification. 
Wood distillation.. 

Undistributed 6 

Unspecified 



12,833 
5, 513 

11, 889 
388 

(») 
659 

10, 484 

10, 972 

6,256 

5,829 

767 

968 

14, 854 
1,473 

13,993 
18, 186 
(„) 

92, 406 
8,771 

15. 439 
212, 969 



127, 401 
51, 709 

71, 477 
4,242 
(•) 

9,041 

97, 977 

116, 181 

68, 601 

55, 287 

9,162 

8,959 

139, 945 

12,464 

117,376 

123, 222 

(«) 

905, 401 

84, 583 

191,289 

1,971,622 



(-) 
9,182 

13, 351 
18, 723 
15, 405 

4,125 

14, 921 

25, 142 

1,546 

530 

185 

6,469 

11,593 

3,036 

4,756 

1,631 

1,480 

26, 549 

7,396 

10, 495 

32, 807 

2,386 

113,577 

5,871 

11,008 

202, 995 



(•) 

$74, 324 
117,401 
179, 473 
150,222 
33, 062 
140, 196 

197, 122 

31, 826 

3,674 

2, 793 

58, 740 

121, 365 

34, 709 

45, 760 

19, 801 

13,631 

231,804 

56, 326 

90, 127 

197, 272 

20, 772 

1,073,080 

56, 486 

118,254 

1,803,069 



516, 296 



4, 869, 763 



545, 159 



4, 871, 289 



• Included under "Undistributed." 

b 1923: Lime used in alcohol manufacture and dehydration, in baking powder, buffing compounds, can- 
dles, corn products, correction of acidity of oil, disinfectants, dyes, explosives, food products, gelatin (edible), 
ice, magnesia, nitrates, oxygen, pottery, poultry food, and textiles; 1924: Lime used in acid neutralization, 
artificial silk, asphalt, buffing compounds, corn products, dyes, explosives, food products, gelatin (edible), 
magnesia, oxygen, proprietary medicines, sheep dip, and snuff. 

It is necessary to classify much material as " unspecified," because 
many of the manufacturers do not report the uses of the part of their 
lime which they sell for chemical purposes. This lime is known to 
be applied to several of the uses enumerated, but the figures given 
are the best available. 

The above figures do not include a considerable amount of lime 
which is not a commercial product but is burned, for use in manufac- 
turing, from stone either quarried or purchased by the manufacturer. 
This stone is reported to the bureau as raw limestone and is included 
in the statistics on stone. It is used mainly by alkali works, car- 
bide works, sugar refineries, and smelters. 



LIME 



197 



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ICOS 



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N 



04 1-C ■* 

Tf ©OS 






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,z,^% 



OS Ifl CON .2 




198 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART il 



2s 

00 "" 



6 



o a 

CO*" 



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eoco-^mooo t- 



NHOWOON 



00-^03' 
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iot» 

5C«0 



832 
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oo 

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oo o>. 



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oo Tt< oo ■<*< io oi a& 

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Sill 



MR1 



LIME 



199 



Building lime. — Sales of lime for construction work, which 
had increased 49 per cent in 1922 and 15.5 per cent in 1923, increased 
only 2 per cent in 1924. Demands on producers for building lime 
differed greatly in the different States. Some producers reported 
considerable increases, some large decreases, and still others little 
change from the demand in 1923. Competition was very keen. 
Only eight of the larger producing States showed increased sales, 
and these ranged from less than 1 per cent in Pennsylvania to 16 
per cent in Massachusetts. 

Chemical lime. — Sales of chemical lime in 1924 decreased 3 per 
cent in quantity. Sales of lime for use in metallurgy and as a 
refractory decreased because of the diminished activity of iron blast 
furnaces and smelters in 1924. The quantity of lime sold for use 
by paper mills, glass works, and tanneries also decreased, but lime 
sold for use by sugar refineries increased. Among the lime prod- 
ucts listed under " other uses " the increase in sales of lime for water 
purification is noteworthy. 

Agricultural lime. — From 1914 through 1923, with the exception 
of the year 1919, there was a steady decrease in sales of agricultural 
lime. In 1924 there was an increase of 3 per cent in the quantity 
as compared with 1923. Sales of pulverized limestone for agricul- 
tural purposes increased 6 per cent in quantity in 1924. Of the chief 
States producing agricultural lime, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West 
Virginia reported increases in sales and Maryland and Virginia 
decreases. Sales of calcareous marl reported used for agricultural 
purposes decreased 27 per cent in quantity in 1924. More lime was 
reported burned from oyster shells in 1924 than in 1923. Approxi- 
mately 185,000 tons of crushed oyster shells were reported as sold 
during 1924, but the greater part was sold for poultry food and 
road metal. 

Agricultural lime sold ~by producers in the United States, 1923-24, oy kinds 





Short tons 


Value 


Kind 


Gross 


Effective 

lime 
content 


Total 


Average 


1923 

Lime from limestone: 
Quicklime 


109, 108 

131,443 

18, 820 

1, 278, 770 

99, 410 


91, 600 
92,000 
15, 800 
549, 870 
42,700 


$648, 882 

L 176, 637 

138, 530 

2, 160, 249 

328, 932 


$5.95 


Hydra ted _ 


8.95 


Lime from oyster shells 


7.36 


Limestone (pulverized) 


1.69 


Calcareous marl 


3.31 






1924 
Lime from limestone: 

Quicklime _ 


119, 926 
128, 410 

40, 267 
1, 352, 600 

72, 710 


100, 700 
89, 900 
33, 800 

581, 600 
31, 200 


703, 692 
1, 160, 822 

242, 789 
2, 046, 860 

225, 383 


5.87 


Hydrated 


9.04 


Lime from oyster shells 


6.03 


Limestone (pulverized) 


1.51 


Calcareous marl 


3.10 







The method by which the effective lime content of the different 
forms of land lime is calculated was set forth in Mineral Resources 
for 1921. 



44889°— 27- 



14 



200 



-PART II 



Detailed statistics of pulverized limestone sold for agriculture in 
1924 are given in the chapter on stone. All the calcareous marl 
sold in the United States in 1924 was used for liming the soil. Vir- 
ginia produced 28,940 short tons, valued at $74,059, and West Vir- 
ginia 17,G86 tons, valued at $53,058. 

HYDRATED LIME 

The statistics of the output of hydrated lime include only the 
product made in hydrating machines and omit hand-slaked lime. 
There was an increase of 7 per cent in the quantity of hydrated lime 
sold in 1924 but a decrease of 2 in the number of plants. The 
increased sales of hydrated lime were for construction, as the 
quantities sold for agricultural and chemical uses both decreased. 

Hydrated lime sold by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Number 
of plants 
in opera- 
tion 


Short tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


1915 


84 
89 
90 
90 
93 
98 
105 
114 
121 
119 


581, 114 

717, 382 

709, 157 

620, 216 

777, 408 

853,116 

792, 970 

1, 106, 063 

1, 225, 928 

1, 316, 664 


$2, 457, 602 
3, 626, 998 
4, 643, 004 
5,342,113 
7, 061, 146 
9, 287, 562 
7, 421, 637 
9, 868, 980 
12, 229, 598 
13, 199, 846 


$4.23 


1916 


5.06 


1917 


6.55 


1918. 


8.61 


1919.. 


9.08 


1920 


10.89 


1921 


9.36 


1922. 


8.92 


1923 


9.98 


1924 


10.03 







Hydrated lime sold by producers in the United States, 1923-24, by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




131,443 
920, 203 


$1, 176, 637 
9, 303, 586 


128, 410 
1, 029, 384 


$1, 160, 822 




10, 420, 151 






Chemical: 


3,048 
12, 638 
15, 674 

2,704 
20, 093 
120, 125 


38, 513 
117,819 
151, 276 

28, 460 

199, 523 

1, 213, 784 


862 
5,765 
11, 907 
4,145 
18, 349 
117,842 


10, 338 




65, 412 


Paper mills.. 


119, 834 




51, 065 




177, 062 




1, 195, 162 




Total chemical 


174, 282 


1, 749, 375 


158, 870 


1,618,873 








1, 225, 928 


12, 229, 598 


1, 316, 664 


13, 199, 846 



LTME 201 

Eydrated lime sold by producers in the United States, 1923-24, by States 



State 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




19, 526 
15, 590 
43, 051 
34, 783 
63,823 
601, 082 
177, 836 
40, 558 
22, 935 
32, 189 
52, 954 
19, 736 
101, 865 


$173, 571 

158, 818 

435,313 

339, 392 

674, 848 

5,984,240 

1, 740, 209 

385, 955 

223, 735 

280, 444 

428, 587 

208, 142 

1, 196, 344 


23, 465 
C) 

44, 697 
29,134 
60, 651 
654, 763 
189, 431 
44, 242 
25, 496 
38, 001 
44, 841 
18, 246 
143, 697 


$215, 468 




(•) 




400, 965 




274, 195 




642, 995 


Ohio... - 


6, 734, 863 




1, 727, 749 




455, 641 


Texas - 


243, 147 




334, 393 




386, 250 




201, 745 




1, 582, 435 








1, 225, 928 


12, 229, 598 


1, 316, 664 


13, 199, 846 



• Included under "Undistributed." 

b 1923: Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, and 
Washington; 1924: Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, and 
Washington. 

CONSUMPTION 

The statistics at hand afford no measure of the actual consumption 
of lime. The consumption in each State can be determined approxi- 
mately, however, by estimating the new supply annually made 
available. In the following table the supply of lime is estimated 
by subtracting from the production (sales) the quantities reported 
snipped by producers out of the producing State and adding the 
quantities reported shipped in by producers in other States. No 
account is taken of jobbers' or dealers' interstate business nor of 
producers', jobbers', dealers', or consumers' stocks, which are quite 
unknown. Foreign trade is largely ignored, but is insignificant in 
quantity. The estimates are therefore not precise, but afford the 
best approximations possible. On this basis more than half of the 
States show r ed the same or a lower per capita supply in 1924, and 
the average for the country was slightly lower. The lime produced 
in Ohio is shipped more widely than that from any other State; 
that of Missouri and Pennsylvania has the next wddest distribution. 
To publish a table showing the detailed shipments of lime by States 
is not possible, as such a table would disclose the output of many 
individual companies. Some of the factors that govern the rela- 
tions between production, shipments, and consumption are the geo- 
graphic distribution of large workable deposits of limestone among 
the States, transportation facilities from the deposits, and the dis- 
tance from the plants to localities without large deposits of limestone 
but with centers of population furnishing a market for lime. Small 
quantities of lime of an exceptional quality may be shipped long- 
distances for special purposes. This is illustrated by the shipments 
of the finishing limes manufactured in Ohio, and by shipments of 
certain chemical limes. A State may produce large quantities of 
lime for which there is little demand within the State, but this lime 
may go to neighboring States less favored with a supply of lime- 



202 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1934 PART H 



stone. There is also much interstate shipment by reason of the con- 
figuration of the country and the availability of transportation 
lines, which make it easier and cheaper for many consumers to 
obtain lime from a neighboring State than from their own State. 

Lime supplies available for consumption in the United States in 1924, oy States, 

in short tons 





Sales 

by 

producers 


Ship- 
ments 
from 
State 


Ship- 
ments 
into 

State 


Supply 


State 


Total 


Hydrated 
lime 


Quick- 
lime 


Pounds per 
capita » 




1923 


1924 


Alabama 


204, 059 


44,735 


8,046 
18 
4,302 
3,853 
42, 458 
10, 678 
31,351 
23, 522 

20, 554 
( b ) 

29, 103 
( fc ) 

1,504 

302, 142 

60, 074 

46, 826 

24, 458 

26, 139 

45, 500 

25, 568 

65, 756 

93, 805 

139, 127 

15, 790 

19, 664 

25, 958 

1,695 

12,454 

1,798 

16, 271 

163,019 

1,503 

410, 186 

70,456 

2,959 

101, 368 

15, 795 

5,575 

250, 698 

431 

14,062 

21. 754 

12,760 

1,154 

270 

823 

35,065 
724 

47,958 

49, 631 

43,915 


167, 370 

18 

14, 603 

10, 015 

99, 341 

19, 720 

46, 182 

23, 522 

20,554 

45, 588 

38,163 

6,399 

2,136 

360, 036 

110,738 

49, 580 

24, 458 

31, 088 

45, 500 

70, 074 

92,446 

142, 239 

180, 367 

32, 789 

19,664 

103, 713 

4,069 

12, 454 

3,474 

16,271 

163, 223 

2,677 

471,377 

74,562 

2,959 

376, 852 

15, 947 

5,688 

711, 323 

8,695 

16, 576 

21, 754 

10,023 

61,810 

47, 874 

7,915 

5,387 

87, 664 

15,200 

64,805 

107, 134 

2,149 


18, 139 


149, 231 

18 

13, 459 

7,207 
84,284 
14,682 
38, 767 
12, 582 

8,390 
15,585 
10,773 

4,957 

1,881 
280, 722 
60, 845 
32,103 
12, 278 
19, 072 
31, 194 
66, 587 
49, 356 
122, 409 
83,234 
15, 631 
14,233 
80, 668 

2,513 

5,406 

2,998 
14,568 
69, 137 

2,124 

299, 781 

45, 611 

1,235 
225, 213 

7,220 

3,468 
519, 339 

8,264 
13, 809 
12,093 

6,697 
36,661 
25,592 

6,155 

4,753 
57, 855 
12,347 
48,963 
87,228 

1,195 


125 

""37" 
14 
53 
36 
56 

199 
86 
71 
25 
38 
10 
80 
69 
34 
29 
25 
42 

199 

150 
68 
85 
29 
18 
63 
14 
23 

165 
66 
95 
14 
82 
51 
14 

129 
14 
17 

161 
9 
62 
22 
17 
45 
20 
35 
51 
76 
15 
96 

142 
30 


136 




1 


Arizona 


27, 972 
13, 984 
59, 583 
(») 

58, 851 


17, 671 
7,822 
2,700 

44, 020 


1,144 

2,808 

15, 057 

5,038 

7,415 

10, 940 

12, 164 

30, 003 

27,390 

1,442 

255 

79, 314 

49, 893 

17, 477 

12, 180 

12,016 

14, 306 

3,487 

43, 090 

19,830 

97, 133 

17, 158 

5,431 

23,045 

1,556 

7,048 

476 

1,703 

94,086 

553 

171, 596 

28,951 

1,724 

151, 639 

8,727 

2,220 

191, 984 

431 

2,767 

9,661 

3,326 

15,249 

22,282 

1,760 

634 

29,809 

2,853 

15, 842 

19, 906 

954 


73 


Arkansas 


11 


California 


50 


Colorado 


39 


Connecticut 


61 




201 








83 


Florida 


( 6 > 

( b ) 
C) 

89, 132 
116,927 




84 


Georgia 


(») 


25 




44 


Idaho 


(>) 

31, 238 
66, 263 


9 


Illinois 


104 


Indiana 


73 


Iowa ... 


40 


Kansas 


27 


Kentucky 

Louisiana 


8,091 


3,142 


25 
49 


Maine 

Maryland 


125, 688 
56, 178 

194, 402 
73, 096 
25,764 


81, 182 
29,488 
145, 968 
31, 856 
8,765 


179 
121 


Massachusetts 


69 


Michigan _ 


88 


Minnesota 


26 


Mississippi 


22 


Missouri 

Montana 


243, 465 
2,374 


165, 710 


60 
13 


Nebraska 




18 


Nevada 


( b ) 


(*) 


90 


New Hampshire 


72 


New Jersey . 


204 
2,389 
98, 592 
( b ) 




94 


New Mexico 

New York 


1,215 
37,401 


14 

85 


North Carolina 

North Dakota 


64 

9 


Ohio 


934, 407 

(") 

(") 
700, 380 

8,264 


658,923 
239, 755 


120 


Oklahoma 


14 


Oregon 


14 


Pennsylvania 


154 


Porto Rico 


12 


Rhode Island 


( fc ) 


52 


South Carolina 


25 


South Dakota 


(>) 

144, 292 
60, 565 
12, 853 
56, 484 

172, 776 
28, 188 

238, 714 

235, 030 

( fc 5 

79, 296 




30 


Tennessee 


105,242 

13,845 

6,208 

61,920 

120,177 
13,712 

221, 867 

177, 527 


43 


Texas 


19 


Utah 


32 


Vermont „. 


31 


Virginia . 


72 


Washington 


21 


West Virginia 


82 


Wisconsin 


77 


Wyoming .. 


20 


trndistribntpd , .. 


29,003 










4, 072, 000 


•2,356,355 


2,348,520 


4, 064, 165 


1,313,892 


2, 750, 273 


72 


71 



• Based on Bureau of the Census estimates of population for Jan. 1, 1924 and 1925. 
» Included under "Undistributed." 

• Includes 6,472 tons shipped to Canada, 383 tons to Mexico, 198 tons to Cuba, 18 tons to Salvador, 16 tons 
to South America, 120 tons to New Zealand, 450 tons to the Philippine Islands, and 178 tons unspecified, as 
reported by the shippers. 



IJTVTE 



203 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS* 

Lime exported from the United States, 1915-1924 





Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


1915 


16,223 
23, 973 
18, 794 
7,191 
6,372 


$106, 312 
132, 769 
168, 671 
105, 803 
108, 370 


$6.55 
6.54 
8.97 
14.71 
17.01 


1920 _ 

1921.. 


5,921 
5,192 
8,289 
11, 789 
14, 905 


$128,296 
109, 769 
116, 649 
170, 289 
212, 340 


$21 67 


1916 


21 14 


1917 „ 


1922 


14 07 


1918 


1923 


14-44 


1919 


1924. 


14.25 









Lime exported from the United States, 1923-24, &# countries 



Country 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


North America: 


6,895 
4 


$83,781 
73 


6,647 

C) 

2 

1 

89 

106 

132 

22 

5,137 

C) 


$83, 530 
3 


Central America- 




84 








29 


Honduras 


310 
117 
94 
44 
2,486 
5 

27 

5 

C) 

109 

245 

951 

30 

3 
9 
17 


5,994 
3,251 
2,189 
1,787 
34,664 
114 

774 

146 

38 

2,820 

5,100 

18,543 

843 

60 
217 

581 


1 801 


Nicaragua- . 


4,262 

3,156 

591 




Mexico 


50,643 
42 




West Indies- 
British — 

Bermuda.. 




Jamaica. 






Trinidad and Tobago 






Other British 


27 
598 
767 
119 

3 
13 

77 

30 

141 

19 

43 

4 

353 

11 
8 

4 

1 
C) 

503 

6 

14 
2 
26 


587 


Cuba 


10, 791 
19,745 
3,094 

60 

407 

2,182 

901 


Dominican Republic 


Virgin Islands bf the United States 


South America: 

Bolivia ^— 

Chile... -. 


Ecuador 


Peru 


303 
C) 


6,772 
20 


3,450 
412 


Europe: 

Belgium 


894 


"Rnglariri , , , . . . _ _ _ 


2 


35 


167 


Germany 


14,126 








227 


Sweden — 

Asia: 

fThfriH 


1 


50 


360 
145 


Dutch East Indies 






14 








4 


Philippine Islands 


77 


1,605 


9,572 


Africa: 

Liberia- 


108 


Oceania: 






339 


French Oceania _ _ 






83 


New Zealand.. 


55 


832 


531 




11, 789 


170, 289 


14, 905 


212,340 



, • Less than 1 ton. 

1 Statistics of exports and imports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



204 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART U 



Lime imported far consumption in the United States, 1915~J92J f • 





Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


1915 


1,956 
7, 959 
7,353 
6,650 
8,679 


$22, 489 
71,663 
70, 505 
73, 458 

128, 519 


$11. 50 
9.00 
9.59 
11.05 
14.81 


1920 


22, 688 
10,811 
14,112 
25, 407 
20, 480 


$392, 137 
234, 798 
290, 845 
428, 903 
377, 994 


$17. 28 


1916 


1921 


21.72 


1917. . 


1922 


20.61 


1918 .. 


1923 


16.88 


1919... 


1924 


18.46 









• Most of the lime imported into the United States comes from Canada. 

PRODUCING LOCALITIES 

The Bureau of Mines has received many requests for general in- 
formation concerning location of plants manufacturing lime of vari- 
ous grades and for various uses. To supply this information a list 
of the lime-manufacturing plants that report their annual sales of 
lime to the bureau has been prepared. The States are grouped 
geographically and a brief statement of conditions in the group deal- 
ing chiefly with shipments and consumption of the lime in the States 
is given. This statement supplements the figures given in the table 
on page 202. Publication of analyses of the lime and limestone of 
different manufacturers was intended, but the information received 
on the schedules in 1924 was not complete enough for the purpose. 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 



CONNECTICUT, MAINE, MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, VERMONT 

In the New England States the production of lime is confined to 
localities on the Maine coast, northwestern Vermont, western Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, and northeastern Rhode Island. In this 
region 32 plants were in operation in 1924 and 11 per cent of the 
quantity and 15 per cent of the value of the total production in the 
United States was manufactured by them. About 8 per cent of the 
product of these plants is hydrated lime, which is produced at 6 
plants. Massachusetts is the largest producer of lime in New Eng- 
land, followed by Maine. Connecticut and Vermont produce about 
equal amounts. In 1924, 72 per cent of the product of these plants 
was reported as sold for construction work and most of the re- 
mainder for chemicals, although a small amount was sold for agri- 
culture. The paper mills consume most of the chemical lime sold. 
The main markets for the lime produced in each State, as reported, 
are outside of the State itself, although there is also intrastate 
shipment. Outside shipments of lime from the New England States 
in 1924 were chiefly to the New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jer- 
sey markets, although there were shipments recorded to Ohio and 
Canada, and the requirements of New Hampshire, which produces 
no lime, were supplied from other New England States. The prin- 
cipal States shipping lime into these New England States were New 
York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, although shipments were also re- 
ported from Indiana, Missouri, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wis- 



LIME 20 



consin. Following are the names of the lime manufacturers in the 
New England States: 

CONNECTICUT 

Fairfield County : 

New Milford — New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield, Mass.) ; high- 
magnesium ; 9 patent kilns ; 80 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. 

Redding — New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield, Mass.) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 2 patent kilns ; 18 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction; open quarry. 
Litchfield County : 

Canaan — Fred. W. Barkoff (address, Hartford) ; high-magnesium, low- 
magnesium ; 4 patent kilns ; 48 tons a day ; bituminous coal and wood ; 
quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. 

Connecticut Lime Co. (address, Lee, Mass.); high-magnesium; 6 

patent kilns; 100 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, chemical, agriculture ; open quarry. 

East Canaan — New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield, Mass.) ; high- 
magnesium ; 8 patent kilns ; 80 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. 

North Canaan — New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield, Mass.) ; 
P. & F. plant ; high-magnesium ; 7 patent kilns ; 70 tons a day ; bitumi- 
nous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; hydrated, 
mason's, finishing, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 

MAINE 

Knox County: 

Rockland and Rockport — Edward Bryant & Co. (address, Boston, Mass.) ; 
high-calcium ; 7 patent kilns ; 91 tons a day ; wood, bituminous coal ; 
quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. 

Rockland, Rockport, and Thomaston — Rockland-Rockport Lime Corporation 
(address, Rockland) ; high-calcium; 26 flame kilns, 6 gas kilns; 359 tons 
a day; bituminous coal, producer gas, wood; quicklime (lump, ground), 
construction, agriculture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agri- 
culture ; Kritzer modified hydrator ; ready-mixed dry plaster ; open 
quarry. 

Rockland and Thomaston — New England Portland Cement & Lime Co. 
(address, Boston, Mass.) : plant under construction. 

Thomaston — A. J. Bird (address, Rockland); low-magnesium; 1 patent 
kiln; 8 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; 
open quarry. 

J. A. Creighton & Co. ; high-calcium ; 9 patent kilns ; 72 tons a 

day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Berkshire County: 

Adams — New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield); high-calcium: 4 
rotary kilns; 165 tons a day; oil; quicklime (granular), construction, 
chemical : open quarry. 

Cheshire — Cheshire Lime Manufacturing Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 flame kilns ; 
40 tons a day; coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical, 
agriculture ; open quarry. 

Farnams — Cheshire Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 8 patent kilns, 9 gas kilns ; 
200 tons a day; producer gas, coal and wood; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, agriculture, chemical ; open quarry. 

Lee — Lee Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 10 flame kilns ; 180 tons a day : 
bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), chemical; hydrated, mason's, finish- 
ing ; Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 

Richmond — Pittsfield Lime & Stone Co. (address, New York, N. Y.) ; high- 
calcium ; 4 patent kilns ; 48 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 

Sheffield — Berkshire Hills Co. ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 5 flame 
kilns; 53 tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction ; open quarry. 

West Stockbridge — Clifford L. Miller ; high-calcium, low-magnesium : 8 
flame kilns ; 67 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime, construction ; 
hydrated, construction. 



206 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Berkshire County— Continued. 

West Stockbridge — New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield) ; high- 
calcium, low-magnesium ; 2 flame kilns ; 15 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; 
quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 

New England Lime Co. (address, Pittsfield); Rockdale plant; 

low-magnesium; 1 rotary kiln; 33 tons a day; oil; quicklime (granular), 
construction ; open quarry. 

■ Tobey Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 flame kilns, 1 rotary kiln ; 18 tons 

a day; wood, oil; quicklime (lump, granular), construction; open quarry. 

Zylonite — Hoosac Valley Lime Co. (Inc.) (address, Adams) ; high-calcium; 
4 patent kilns ; 30 tons a day ; bituminous coal and wood, wood ; quick- 
lime (lump, granular), construction, agriculture. 

RHODE ISLAND 

Providence County: Lincoln — Burton K. Harris (address, Saylesville) ; low- 
magnesium ; 3 patent kilns, 1 gas kiln ; 25 tons a day ; coal and wood ; quick- 
lime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finishing, agri- 
culture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 

VERMONT 

Addison County: 

Brandon — Leicester Lime Corporation ; high-calcium ; 3 patent kilns ; 3G 
tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), con- 
struction, chemical; open quarry. 
Leicester Junction — Brandon Lime & Marble Co. ; high-calcium ; 2 patent 
kilns; 20 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, 
agriculture, chemical ; open quarry. 
Middlebury — Green Mountain Lime Corporation (address, care of Brewer 
& Co., Worcester, Mass.) ; high-calcium ; 5 pot kilns ; 50 tons a day ; bitu- 
minous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, chemical; 
open quarry. 
Crittendon County: Winooski — Champlain Valley Lime Co. (address, care of 
Brewer & Co., Worcester, Mass. ) ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 3 pot 
kilns; 30 tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump, ground), 
construction, chemical ; open quarry. 
Franklin County: 

High Gate Springs — Missisquoi Lime Works (Inc.) ; high-calcium, low- 
magnesium ; 4 pot kilns, 2 patent kilns ; 45 tons a day ; wood and bitu- 
minous coal ; quicklime, construction, chemical. 
St. Albans — Fonda Lime Kilns ; high-calcium ; construction, chemical. 
S wanton — S wanton Lime Works ; high-calcium ; 5 gas kilns ; 50 tons a day ; 
producer gas; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 
Rutland County: 

Danby — Vermont Lime Products Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 patent kilns ; coal 

and wood ; quicklime, construction, chemical. 
West Rutland — Vermarco Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 2 rotary kilns ; 120 tons 
a day; oil; quicklime (granular), construction, chemical; hydrated, ma- 
son's, finishing, chemical, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator ; tunnel quarry. 
Windsor County: Amsden — Amsden Lime Co. (address, Felchville) ; high- 
magnesium; 3 patent kilns; 30 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction ; open quarry ; another kiln will be erected and hydrator installed 
in 1925. 

NORTH ATLANTIC STATES 
NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA 

Pennsylvania produced 88 per cent of the lime manufactured in 
the North Atlantic States and 17 per cent of the total for the United 
States in 1924. The product is both high-calcium and high-mag- 
nesium lime. Prior to 1922 Pennsylvania ranked first among the 
States that manufacture lime, but in that year Ohio took first place 
chiefly because of its production of finishing hydrates, but also be- 
cause of the decrease in sales of agricultural lime, which forms a 



LIMB 207 

large part of the lime made in Pennsylvania. There were 136 
lime plants in operation in Pennsylvania in 1924, but the output of 
a large part of these — probably 70 per cent — was used almost wholly 
for local supply. The number of plants of this kind has been gen- 
erally decreasing for several years due to lack of common laborers, 
fuel and labor costs, and substitution of patent fertilizers and of 
pulverized limestone as a soil corrector. In 1924, 42 per cent of the 
output of the lime kilns of the State was sold for chemical purposes, 
including metallurgical processes — mainly iron blast furnaces, steel 
plants, wire-drawing works, and electric furnaces — and lime used by 
paper mills, tanneries, etc. Lime sold for construction amounted 
to 41 per cent of the total and the rest was for agriculture. The 
quantity used for agriculture increased about 4 per cent in 1924. 

Next to Ohio and Missouri, the lime manufactured in Pennsyl- 
vania was more widely distributed than that of any of the other 
States. Sixty-six per cent of the output was consumed within the 
State, and the largest shipments were made to New York, New Jer- 
sey, and Ohio. Other States receiving lime from Pennsylvania were 
principally those of the eastern coast. Pennsylvania received more 
lime from Ohio than it shipped there, and also received lime from 
Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, 
Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. The amount reported as 
shipped from the State was 4 per cent less than that shipped in, and 
the total supply was 1.6 per cent more than the total sales of do- 
mestic manufacture. Pennsylvania produced 71 per cent less 
hydrated lime than Ohio, but ranked next to Ohio in the total pro- 
duction for the United States. Fifty-nine per cent of the hydrated 
lime sold in Pennsylvania in 1924 was for construction, and 35 per 
cent for agriculture. 

Of the lime manufactured in New York in 1924, 71 per cent was 
for chemical use, chiefly in metallurgical works as a refractory, by 
paper mills, and by tanneries. Most of the building lime in New 
York was supplied by the large quantities shipped from the New 
England States, Ohio, mainly hydrated lime, Pennsylvania, and 
the Middle Atlantic States, with small shipments from some of the 
Central States. New York shipped out of the State 38 per cent of 
its production, chiefly to Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the New England 
States, but the amount consumed in the State was nearly five times 
the sales of the lime produced in the State. 

New Jersey produces a very small quantity of lime, chiefly for 
local use, but large quantities are shipped into the State from "Ohio, 
chiefly hydrated, and Pennsylvania, and smaller quantities from 
New York, the New England States, the Middle Atlantic States, 
and some of the Central States. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the North Atlantic States are 
as follows: 

NEW YORK 

Clinton County: Chazy— Chazy Marble Lime Co. (Inc.) ; high-calcium; 8 pot 
kilns; 80 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical; open quarry. 

Dutchess County: Dover Plains — Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, 
Cleveland, Ohio) ; high-magnesium; 6 patent kilns; 60 tons a day; bitami- 
nous coal; quicklime (lump), construction; hydrated, mason's, finishing, 
agriculture ; Clyde hydrator. 



208 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 

Erie County: Buffalo— Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleve- 
land, Ohio) ; high-calcium; 2 rotary kilns; 100 tons a day: producer gas; 
quicklime (pebble), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical, 
agriculture; Schaffer hydrator. Stone burned at this plant is not quarried 
in New York, but comes from quarries at Calcite, Mich. 
Fulton County : 

Gloversville — Willard A. Kegg ; 1 pot kiln ; 7 tons a day ; wood ; quick- 
lime (lump), chemical; open quarry. 
Mayfield — Merl Haines; wood; quicklime (lump), chemical. 
Jefferson County: Natural Bridge — Basic Refractories Corporation (address, 
York, Pa.); high-magnesium; 2 rotary kilns; 80 tons a day; bituminous 
coal ; dead-burned dolomite. 
Niagara County: Niagara Falls — Union Carbide Co. (address, New York); 
high-calcium ; 3 rotary kilns ; 180 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), chemical; stone not quarried in New York, but purchased from 
quarry companies in Michigan and Ohio. Lime used by producing company. 
Seneca County : Seneca Falls — George M. Fisher ; small plant for local supply. 
Ulster County : 

Accord — H. L. Devoe ; small plant for local supply, chiefly for agriculture. 
Hurley — Ralph F. Hiller ; low-magnesium : 2 pot kilns ; anthracite ; quick- 
lime, agriculture : small plant for local supply. 
Rosendale — A. J. Snyder & Co. ; high-calcium ; 8 pot kilns ; agriculture ; 
supply chiefly local market. Idle 1924. 
Warren County : 

Glens Falls — Finch, Pruyn & Co. (Inc.); high-calcium, low-magnesium; 
3 field kilns ; 60 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction, agriculture, 
chemical. 

F. W. Wait Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 patent kilns ; 60 tons a day ; 

bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, chemical; 
open quarry. 
Washington County : Smiths Basin — Keenan Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 patent 
kilns; 34 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), finishing, construc- 
tion, agriculture, chemical. 

NEW JERSEY 

Hunterdon County: Clinton — M. C. Mulligan; small plant for local supply. 

Morris County: A T ernoy (P. O., Calif on) — E. J. Neighbour; high-magnesium; 
4 pot kilns; anthracite (pea) ; quicklime (lump), agriculture; open quarry. 

Somerset County : Peapack — Todd & Cordes ; high-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 15 
tons a day ; coal ; quicklime. 

Warren County : Carpentersville — Twining & Large Lime & Chemical Co. ; 
high-magnesium ; 3 pot kilns ; 24 tons a day ; anthracite ; quicklime ; hyd rat- 
ing plant. Idle 1924. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Adams County: Hanover— Steacy & Wilton Co. (address, Wrightsville) ; high- 
calcium ; 6 pot kilns, 4 flame kilns ; 82 tons a day ; bituminous coal, coke ; 
quicklime, construction, agriculture ; hydrated, construction, agriculture, 
chemical ; Clyde hydrator. 
Armstrong County: Small plants for local supply. 
Bedford County: 

Hyndman — Enterprise Lime & Ballast Co. ; low-magnesium ; 4 pot kilns ; 
40 tons a day; bituminous coal and coke; quicklime (lump, granular), 
construction, agriculture ; tunnel quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Berks County: 

Temple — Dietrick Bros, (address, Reading); high-magnesium; 5 pot 

kilns, 2 flame kilns ; 45 tons a day ; anthracite and bituminous coal ; 

hydrated, mason's, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; tunnel quarry. 

Wernersville — Wernersville Lime & Stone Co. ; low-magnesium ; 3 pot 

kilns ; 15 tons a day ; coke ; hydrated, agriculture ; own make of hydrator. 

Other small plants for local supply. 



LIME 209 

Blair County: 

Duncansville — Duncansville Liine & Stone Co.; high-calcium, low-magne- 
sium; 2 pot kilns; 12 tons a day; bituminous coal, wood; quicklime 
( lump ) , agriculture. 

Frankstown — American Lime & Stone Co. (address, Belief onte) ; high- 
calcium ; 5 flame kilns; 40 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime 
(lump), agriculture, chemical; open quarry. 

Hollidaysburg — Calcium Products Co. ; 3 gas kilns ; 60 tons a day. Idle 
1924. 

Tyrone — American Lime & Stone Co. (address, Belief onte) ; high-calcium, 
low-magnesium; 5 pot kilns; 20 tons a day; bituminous coal; hydrator. 
Idle 1924. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Bucks County: Small plants for local supply. 
Butler County : Wick — Climax Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium ; 9 pot kilns ; 

45 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; agriculture. 
Cambria County: Johnstown — Schry & Nightengale (address, Conemaugh) ; 
high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 3 pot kilns ; 10 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; 
agriculture. 
Center County : 

Belief onte — American Lime & Stone Co. (Buffalo Run-Armour Gap plant) ; 
high-calcium ; 43 flame kilns, 1 rotary kiln ; 360 tons a day ; bituminous 
coal, producer gas; quicklime (lump, ground), construction, agricul- 
ture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Schaffer 
hydrator ; stone taken from both open quarry and mines. 

Centre County Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 6 flame kilns ; 80 tons a 

day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, 
chemical ; open quariy. 

— Chemical Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 10 flame kilns ; 125 tons a day ; 

bituminous coal ; quicklime ( lump ) , construction, agriculture, chemi- 
cal ; hand-mix hydrating ; open quarry. 

Valley View Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 2 flame kilns ; 14 tons a day ; 

bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemical; hand-mix 
hydrating; open quarry. 

— — — Whiterock Quarries ; high-calcium ; 18 flame kilns ; 125 tons a day ; 
bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, 
chemical ; installing Kritzer hydrator for 1925. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Chester County: 

Devault — Charles Warner Co. (address, Wilmington, Del.) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 15 flame kilns, 1 gas kiln, 1 rotary kiln ; 300 tons a day ; 
bituminous coal, producer gas; quicklime (lump), construction, agri- 
culture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Clyde hy- 
drator ; open quarry ; ready-mixed dry plaster. 

Malvern — Knickerbocker Lime Co. (address, Philadelphia) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 11 flame kilns ; 300 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, agriculture, chemi- 
cal ; Schaffer hydrator ; ready-mixed dry plaster ; open quarry. 
Columbia County: 

Almedia — H. N. White ; high-calcium ; 2 pot kilns ; 15 tons a day ; anthra- 
cite ; quicklime (lump), agriculture; open quarry. 

Bloomsburg — B. W. Hess ; 3 field kilns ; quicklime, agriculture. 

—Low Bros. & Co. ; low-magnesium ; 11 pot kilns ; 45 tons a day ; an- 
thracite ; quicklime (lump), agriculture. This company also sells lime 
to a hydrating company. 

John F. Summers ; agriculture ; small plant. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Cumberland County : 

Carlisle — Goodyear Bros. ; agriculture ; small plant for local supply. 

Newville — W. I. Spangler ; low-magnesium ; 3 pot kilns ; 12 tons a day ; 
coke; quicklime (ground to 16 mesh), agriculture. 

Other small plants for local supply.. 
Dauphin County : 

Hershey — Reinhard Lime Works (address, Lebanon); high-calcium; 3 
pot kilns ; 15 tons a day ; coke ; quicklime, agriculture ; open quarry. 

Harrisburg — J. M. Whittock ; high-calcium; 4 pot kilns; 30 tons a day; 
coke; quicklime (lump), agriculture. 



210 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Dauphin County — Continued. 

Paxtang — Bonnymead Farms (address, Harrisburg) ; high-calcium; 4 pot 
kilns; 20 tons a day; coke and anthracite screenings; quicklime (lump), 
construction, agriculture, chemical ; open quarry. 

Swatara — Walter T. Bradley (address, Philadelphia) ; high-calcium; 7 
draw kilns; 35 tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump), chemical. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Fayette County : Small plants for local supply. 
Franklin County : Small plants for local supply. 
Huntingdon County: 

Orbisonia — E. I. Grove ; small plant for local supply. 

Union Furnace — American Lime & Stone Co. (address, Belief onte) ; high- 
calcium ; 10 flame kilns ; 70 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; agriculture. 
Idle 1924. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Jefferson County : Small plants for local supply. 
Juniata County : Small plants for local supply. 
Lancaster County : 

Bainbridge — J. E. Baker Co. (address, York) ; high-calcium, low-mag- 
nesium, high-magnesium ; 10 pot kilns, 62 flame kilns, 2 rotary kilns ; 
310 tons a day; bituminous coal, coke; quicklime (lump), dead-burned 
dolomite, chemical ; hydrated, mason's ; Clyde batch hydrator ; open 
quarry. 

Lime Rock — Ramoth Lime & Stone Co. (address, Lebanon) ; high-calcium ; 
4 pot kilns; 40 tons a day; coke; quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemi- 
cal ; open quarry. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Lawrence County: 

Ellwood City — Consolidated Stone & Mining Co. (address, Newcastle) ; 
low-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 30 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quick- 
lime (lump, ground), agriculture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, agri- 
culture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 

Rose Point — Rose Point Lime & Stone Co. (address, Newcastle) ; high- 
calcium ; 10 patent kilns ; 150 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump, ground), agriculture; hydrated, construction, agriculture. 

Wampum — Crescent Portland Cement Co. ; 5 pot kilns ; 20 tons a day ; 
quicklime. Idle 1924. 
Lebanon County : 

Annville — Annville Lime Co. ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 6 pot kilns ; 
30 tons a day; coke; hydrated, agriculture; Clyde hydrator; open 
quarry. 

H. E. Millard ; high-calcium ; 5 pot kilns ; 20 tons a day ; coke ; 

quicklime (lump), chemical, agriculture; open quarry. 

Lebanon — S. J. Lightner ; high-calcium ; 2 pot kilns ; 16 tons a day ; coke ; 
quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemical; open quarry. 

Thomas A. Wagner ; low-magnesium ; 5 pot kilns ; 35 tons a day ; 

coke; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, chemical; open 
quarry. 

Myerstown — John Ebling; high-calcium; 6 pot kilns; 15 tons a day; 
coke; quicklime (lump), chemical; open quarry. 

1. W. Peifer (address, Lebanon); high-calcium; 4 pot kilns; 28 

tons a day; coke; quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemical; open 
quarry. 

Palmyra — Walter T. Bradley (address, Philadelphia) ; high-calcium; 13 
draw kilns; 75 tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump), agriculture, 
chemical ; open quarry. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Lehigh County: 

Allentown — Trexler Lime & Supply Co. ; high-magnesium ; 4 pot kilns ; 
20 tons a day; quicklime (lump), construction. 

Trexlertown — Irving I. Stettler ; high-calcium ; 3 pot kilns ; 5 tons a day ; 
anthracite; quicklime, agriculture. 
Lycoming County: 

Jersey Shore — Pine Creek Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium ; 6 pot kilns ; 
15 tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump, ground), agriculture; 
hydrated, agriculture; Clyde hydrator; open quarry. 



LIME 211 

Lycoming County — Continued. 

Muncy — Henry Kilgus ; high-calcium ; 6 pot kilns ; 18 tons a day ; coal ; 
quicklime (lump), agriculture. 

Reeder Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium ; 24 pot kilns ; 65 tons 

a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump, ground to 16 mesh), agriculture; 
open quarry. 
Williamsport — West Branch Lime Co. ; low-magnesium ; 7 pot kilns ; 25 
tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump, ground to 10 mesh), agricul- 
ture; hydrated, agriculture. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Mifflin County : Lewistown — Mifflin County Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium ; 
2 pot kilns; 6 tons a day; anthracite screenings; quicklime (lump), agri- 
culture. 
Monroe County; Small plants for local supply. 
Montgomery County : 

Bridgeport — Pennsylvania Lime Products Co. (address, Philadelphia) ; 
low-magnesium, high-magnesium ; 4 pot kilns ; 36 tons a day ; bituminous 
coal ; quicklime, hydrated lime. 

Charles Warner Co. (address, Wilmington, Del.); McCoy plant; 

high-magnesium ; 2 flame kilns ; 70 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quick- 
lime (lump, ground), construction, agriculture, chemical; hydrated, con- 
struction, chemical, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 
Flourtown — Blue Bell Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 6 pot kilns ; 30 tons a 

day. Idle 1924. 
Norristown — Merion Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 7 flame kilns ; 
100 tons a day; anthracite and bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), 
agriculture, chemical, construction; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agri- 
culture ; pug mill hydrator ; dry ready-mixed plaster ; open quarry. 
Plymouth Meeting — G. & W. H. Corson ; high-magnesium ; 3 pot kilns, 4 
patent kilns; 50 tons a day; coke, bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), 
agriculture, construction ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Clyde 
hydrator ; open quarry. 

Cox Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 4 flame kilns, 2 rotary 

kilns ; 54 tons a day ; bituminous coal. 
Willow Grove — John J. Cannon ; high-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 15 tons a 
day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; open 
quarry, 
Montour County: 

Danville — Alonzo Mauser ; 3 pot kilns ; 20 tons a day ; anthracite ; quick- 
lime, agriculture. 

McMahan & Bangs; quicklime, agriculture. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Northampton County: 

Easton — Easton Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 3 flame kilns ; 13 tons a day ; 

bituminous coal. Idle 1924. 
Portland — Luther Keller Co. ; high-magnesium ; 11 pot kilns ; 35 tons a day ; 
wood ; quicklime, agriculture, construction. 
Northumberland County: Small plants for local supply. 
Perry County: 

Landisburg— Dyson & Rice; 1 pot kiln; coke; quicklime, agriculture; 

open quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Schuylkill County : Small plants for local supply. 
Snyder County: Small plants for local supply. 
Somerset County: 

Elk Lick — Keystone Lime & Coal Co.; low-magnesium; 4 pot kilns; 20 
tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture; open 
quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Union County : 

Winfield — Vance Co. ; high-calcium ; 17 pot kilns ; 35 tons a day ; anthra- 
cite; quicklime, agriculture; open quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Westmoreland County: 

Ligonier — Naugle Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 pot kiln ; 6 tons a day ; 

bituminous coal ; quicklime, agriculture ; open quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 



212 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

York County: 

Hellam — Emig Lime Co.; high-calcium; 6 pot kilns; 18 tons a day; an- 
thracite; quicklime (lump), agriculture; open quarry. 

Mount Wolf (Saginaw) — J. E. Baker Co. (address, York) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 10 flame kilns ; 70 tons a day ; coke ; dead-burned dolomite ; 
open quarry. 

Thomasville — J. E. Baker Co. (address, York) ; high-calcium, low-mag- 
nesium ; 2 pot kilns, 8 patent kilns ; 65 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; 
quicklime, construction, agriculture, chemical ; open quarry. 

Thomasville Stone & Lime Co. ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 14 

flame kilns; 100 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, agriculture, chemical ; open quarry. 

York — Palmer Lime & Cement Co. (address, New York, N. Y.) ; high-cal- 
cium, low-magnesium ; 3 pot kilns, 10 flame kilns, 2 gas kilns ; 251 tons 
a day; bituminous coal, producer gas; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical, agriculture; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture; open 
quarry. 

United States Gypsum Co. (address, Chicago, 111.); high-calcium, 

low-magnesium ; 12 flame kilns ; 75 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quick- 
lime (lump, pebble), construction; hydrated, mason's; Clyde hydrator ; 
open quarry and tunnel. 

SOUTHEAST ATLANTIC STATES 

FLORIDA, GEORGIA, MARYLAND, NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, WEST 

VIRGINIA 

In Florida the production of lime is confined to one small area 
near Ocala. The product is a high-calcium lime, used for construc- 
tion, and is all consumed within the State. In 1924 Florida received 
lime from Alabama, Georgia, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. 

The one lime-burning plant in Georgia is in the northwestern part 
of the State and produces a high-magnesium lime used chiefly for 
construction. In 1924 lime was shipped from Georgia to all the bor- 
dering States, and lime was shipped into Georgia from Alabama, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. 

Most of the lime manufactured in Maryland is used for agricul- 
ture, the State ranking second in 1924 in sales of this class of lime. 
Besides the commercial lime there is a small production by farmers 
who burn for local use on farms. The output of this lime is much 
smaller than it was, because many operators have abandoned their 
kilns on account of cost of production. In 1924 the supply of lime 
in Maryland was somewhat less than half of the lime it produced. 
Shipments were confined to neighboring States, New Jersey, and 
New York. Most of the lime entering the State came from Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. 

High-calcium lime, used mostly for construction, is manufactured 
in the southwestern part of North Carolina. Most of it is con- 
sumed within the State. The chief sources of supply of the lime 
used in the State in 1924 were Ohio (hydrated lime), Tennessee, and 
Virginia. Smaller amounts were shipped from Alabama, Georgia, 
Maryland, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. 

Lime is manufactured in Virginia along the western border of 
the State and in the north. The product is sold chiefly as chemical 
and building lime, but Virginia is one of the few States producing 
a considerable quantity of agricultural lime. The supply in Vir- 
ginia in 1924 was about 30 per cent of the lime produced. The 



LIME 213 

largest shipments were made to Maryland, New Jersey. New York, 
North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Smaller quantities were sent to 
Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Ohio, and West Vir- 
ginia, with scattered shipments to Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, Michigan, Rhode Island, and South Carolina. 

West Virginia produces more lime than any other Southeast 
Atlantic State. Outside of small operations for local agricultural 
supply, lime burning is confined to the extreme northeastern part of 
the State, in the limestone belt that extends from the southeastern 
part of Pennsylvania across Maryland and West Virginia and into 
Virginia. Both high-calcium and magnesian lime are manufac- 
tured in the State, and in 1924 80 per cent of it was sold as chemical 
lime, chiefly to iron and steel plants. Lime for construction and for 
agricultural purposes was also sold. Ninety-three per cent of the 
lime made in 1924 was shipped from the State; the largest market 
was in Pennsylvania, but considerable amounts were shipped to 
neighboring States, to the New England and North Atlantic States, 
and to some of the Central States. The largest amounts shipped 
into the State were from Ohio and Virginia, with small amounts 
from Pennsylvania and some of the Central States. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the Southeast Atlantic States 
are as follows: 

FLORIDA 

Marion County : 

Ocala — Florida Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 kilns ; 25 tons a day ; wood ; 
quicklime (lump), construction; hydrated, mason's, finishing; Clyde 
hydrator. 
Reddick — Commercial Lime Co. (address, Ocala); high-calcium; 10 shaft 
kilns; 50 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; hydrated, 
mason's ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 



Bartow County : Cartersville — Ladcl Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 8 
pot kilns; 80 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion, agriculture ; hydrated, mason's, finishing ; Clyde hydrator ; open 
quarry. 

MARYLAND 

Allegany County : Small plants for local supply. 
Baltimore County : 

Texas — W. P. Lindsay ; high-calcium ; 4 pot kilns ; 18 tons a day ; bitu- 
minous coal and wood ; quicklime, construction ; open quarry. Lessee 
plant of Maryland Calcite Co. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Carroll County : 

Union Bridge — Tidewater Portland Cement Co. (address, Baltimore) ; 
high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 6 flame kilns ; 75 tons a day ; bituminous 
coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, chemical; hydrated, 
construction, agriculture, chemical ; Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 
Wakefield — John S. Hyde (address, Westminster); low-magnesium; 3 
pot kilns; 10 tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump), agriculture, 
construction ; open quarry. 
Frederick County : 

Buckeystown — O. J. Keller Lime Co. (address, Frederick); high-calcium; 
7 pot kilns; 90 tons a day; coke; quicklime (lump), construction, chem- 
ical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; open 
quarry. 
Fountain Rock— Fountain Rock Lime Co. (address, Woodsboro) ; high- 
calcium ; 8 pot kilns ; 25 tons a day ; anthracite ; quicklime, construction ; 
hydrated, construction. 



214 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART H 

Frederick County — Continued. 

Frederick (near) — M. J. Grove Lime Co. (address, Lime Kiln) ; low- 
magnesium ; 16 pot kilns, 4 flame kilns ; 115 tons a day ; coke ; quick- 
lime (lump, ground), construction, agriculture; hydrated, mason's, agri- 
culture ; open quarry. 

Shank & Etzler ; high-magnesium ; 6 pot kilns ; 25 tons a day ; 

anthracite and coke; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), agricul- 
ture; hydrated, agriculture; open quarry. 

LeGore — LeGore Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 17 pot kilns ; 200 tons a day ; 
anthracite; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), agriculture; hydrated, 
mason's, agriculture ; Schaffer continuous hydrator ; open quarry. 

Woodsboro — S. W. Barrick & Sons ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 20 pot 
kilns ; 150 tons a day ; anthracite ; quicklime, agriculture ; hydrated, 
agriculture. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Garrett County : Small plants for local supply. 
Washington County : 

Cavetown — Geo. M. Bushey & Sons (Inc.) ; high-calcium; 6 pot kilns; 40 
tons a day ; coke ; quicklime, construction, agriculture. 

Keedysville — D. D. Keedy ; small plant for local supply. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Henderson County : Fletcher — Blue Ridge Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 patent 
kilns; 20 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction. 

VIRGINIA 

Augusta County: 

Staunton — Staunton Lime Products Co. (Inc.); low-magnesium; 2 flame 
kilns ; 20 tons a day ; anthracite and coke breeze ; quicklime ( lump, 
ground to 16 mesh), agriculture, construction, chemical; open quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 
Botetourt County : 

Eagle Rock — Eagle Rock Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 flame kilns ; 40 tons a 
day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hy- 
drated, mason's ; Schaffer hydrator ; open quarry. 
— Moore Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 flame kilns ; 60 tons a day ; bitu- 
minous coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture; hydrated, mason's, chemi- 
cal, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry and tunnel. 
Indian Rock — E. Dillon's Sons (Inc.) ; high-calcium; 3 flame kilns; 45 tons 
a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; hydrated, construction, 
agriculture. 
Frederick County: 

Cedar Creek and Vaucluse Station — Lloyd N. Connor ; construction. 
Stephens City — M. J. Grove Lime Co. (address, Lime Kiln, Md.) ; high- 
calcium ; 20 gas kilns ; 200 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime (lump, 
ground), construction, agriculture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, 
agriculture ; Schaffer hydrator ; open quarry. 
Giles County: 

Kerns — Kimbalton Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 flame kilns ; 40 tons a day ; 
quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, agricul- 
ture ; batch hydrator ; open quarry. 
Ripplemead — New River Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 pot kilns ; 15 tons a 
day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemical; open 
quarry. 
Loudoun County : Leesburg — Leesburg Lime Co. ; low-magnesium ; 5 flame 
kilns; 50 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), 
agriculture ; open quarry. 
Montgomery County : Vicker — Eureka Coal Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 pot kiln ; 

3 tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 
Rockingham County: 

Harrisonburg — Harrisonburg Lime & Stone Corporation ; high-calcium ; 
2 flame kilns; 20 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, agriculture; open quarry. 
Linville — Rockdale Lime Co. (address, Toms Brook) ; high-calcium; 2 flame 
kilns; 18 tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), 
ground to 50 mesh), construction, agriculture, chemical; open quarry. 
Other small plants for local supply. 



LIME 215 

Shenandoah County: 

Oranda — Palmer Lime & Cement Co. (address, New York, N. T.) ; high- 
calcium ; 8 flame kilns ; 65 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 

Strasburg — Strasburg Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 patent kilns ; 40 tons a 
day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), mason's, chemical, agricul- 
ture; tunnel quarry. 

■ Washington Building Lime Co. (address, Baltimore, Md.) ; high- 
calcium, low-magnesium ; 4 pots kilns, 6 patent kilns ; 120 tons a day ; 
bituminous coal, coke; quicklime (lump, ground), construction, agri- 
culture, chemical; open quarry. 

Strasburg Junction — Powhatan Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 pot kilns, 6 
patent kilns ; 100 tons a day ; bituminous coal and wood ; quicklime 
(lump, ground), construction, agriculture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, 
agriculture, chemical ; Clyde and Atlas hydrators ; open quarry. 

Shenandoah Lime Co. (Inc.) ; high-calcium; 4 flame kilns; 40 tons 

a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical; open quarry. 

Toms Brook — Rockdale Lime Co. (Inc.); high-calcium; 6 flame kilns; 
60 tons a day; quicklime (lump, ground), construction, agriculture, 
chemical ; open quarry. 

Other small plants for local supply. 
Tazewell County: 

Maxwell — Blue Grass Lime Co. ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 3 pot kilns ; 
24 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture. 

North Tazewell — Peery Lime Co. ; high-calcium'; 4 pot kilns ; 12 tons a 
day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime, construction ; hydrated, mason's, agri- 
culture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 

Tazewell White Lime Works; high-calcium; 1 flame kiln; 6 tons a 

day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; 
open quarry. 

Tazewell — Five Oaks Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 patent kiln ; 
10 tons a day : bituminous coal ; quicklime, construction, agriculture, 
chemical ; open quarry. 
Warren County: 

Front Royal — Limeton Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 flame kilns ; 30 tons a 
day; wood and coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemical; hydrated, 
mason's, agriculture; Schulthess hydrator; open quarry. 

Riverton — Riverton Lime Co. ( Inc. ) ; high-calcium, low-magnesium ; 5 flame 
kilns, 3 gas kilns ; 120 tons a day ; bituminous coal, producer gas ; quick- 
lime (lump, granular, ground to 30 mesh), construction, agriculture; 
hydrated, mason's, agriculture ; Carson hydrator ; open quarry. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Berkeley County: 

Jones Springs — J. H. Wheeler (address, Hedgesville ) ; high-calcium; 2 pot 
kilns ; quicklime, agriculture. 

Martinsburg — Blair Limestone Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.) ; high-cal- 
cium; 19 pot kilns; 285 tons a day; coke; quicklime (lump), chemical; 
hydrated, mason's, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 

■ North American Cement Corporation (address, Hagerstown, Md.) 

(Security Cement & Lime Co. plant) ; high-calcium; 3 gas kilns; pro- 
ducer gas; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), agriculture, chemical; 
hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture. 
Jefferson County: 

Bakerton — Washington Building Lime Co. (address, Baltimore, Md.) ; high- 
calcium, low-magnesium; 6 pot kilns, 22 flame kilns; 304 tons a day; 
bituminous coal, coke: quicklime (lump, ground), construction, agricul- 
ture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture; batch and con- 
tinuous hydrators ; open quarry and mine. 

Millville — Blair Limestone Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.) ; high-magne- 
sium ; 10 pot kilns : 150 tons a day ; coke ; quicklime (granular), chemical, 
agriculture ; open quarry. 

■ Standard Lime & Stone Co. (address, Baltimore, Md.) ; high-mag- 
nesium; 2 rotary kilns; dead-burned dolomite. 
Preston County: Small plants for local supply. 

44839°— 27 15 



216 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1934 — PART II 

NORTHEAST CENTRAL STATES 
ILLINOIS, INDIANA, MICHIGAN, OHIO, WISCONSIN 

More lime is produced in the Northeast Central States than in 
any other group. Ohio is the largest producer followed by Wis- 
consin, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan in the order named. Ohio 
is also the largest producer in the United States, producing in 1924 
one and one-third times as much as Pennsylvania, the second State. 

The important lime plants in Illinois are in the vicinity of Chicago 
(high-magnesium lime) and in the southwestern part of the State 
(high-calcium lime) near the Mississippi River. The product is 
about evenly divided between chemical and building lime. In 1924 
nearly two-thirds of the product was consumed within the State, 
and besides shipments to Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and 
Wisconsin, there were small shipments to 12 other States, both 
in the East and the West. The total lime supply in Illinois was 
four times the total production. Wisconsin shipped 69 per cent 
of its total output of lime to Illinois, and shipments of importance 
were also made to Illinois from Indiana, Missouri, and Ohio, with 
small amounts from several other States. 

The lime-producing districts in Indiana are confined to the north- 
eastern and south-central parts of the State. The product is mainly 
chemical lime, but considerable is sold for building, and a small 
amount for agriculture. In 1924 somewhat less than half the prod- 
uct was consumed within the State. The largest shipments were to 
Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio, with smaller amounts to 
14 other States. 

The production of lime in Michigan is confined to the northern 
part of the lower peninsula and the southern part of the upper 
peninsula, all plants being on or near lake shores. About 83 per 
cent of the product in 1924 was chemical lime and practically all 
the remainder was building lime. Over half of the total quantity 
sold was consumed in the State in 1924. The shipments were chiefly 
to Wisconsin. The principal States furnishing lime to Michigan 
were Indiana and Ohio, but shipments were also received from Il- 
linois, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West 
Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

Ohio showed larger sales of building lime than any other State, 
and in 1924 furnished 31 per cent of the total lime sold for this 
purpose. In chemical lime Ohio ranked second, being exceeded 
by Pennsylvania, but supplying 15 per cent of the total chemical 
lime sold. Among the large producers of agricultural lime, Ohio 
ranks afte^r Pennsylvania and Maryland. Ohio also produces most 
of the hydrated lime sold in the United States. The sales of hydrated 
lime in 1924 amounted to 50 per cent of the total quantity sold. 
The greater part of the hydrated lime sold for construction in Ohio 
is a high-grade finishing lime. 

The total sales in Ohio of all grades of quick and hydrated limes 
fo* construction in 1923 and 1924 were as follows: 



LIME 
Lime sold by Ohio producers for construction, 1923-24 



217 





1923 


1924 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




33, 374 

580, 999 


$281,029 
5, 832, 040 


33, 675 
637, 835 


$282, 171 




6, 609, 598 








614,373 


6, 113, 069 


671, 510 


6,891,769 



Of the agricultural lime sold in Ohio in 1924, 76 per cent was 
hydrated lime, but the quantity of hydrated lime sold for chemical 
use was very small. The lime produced in Ohio is widely distrib- 
uted; 71 per cent of the lime manufactured and sold was shipped 
from the State in 1924. The largest shipments were to New York, 
Michigan, Pennsylvania, Illinois, New Jersey, Indiana, and West 
Virginia, in the order named. Lime was also reported shipped from 
Ohio to 33 other States and several foreign countries. Ohio received 
shipments of lime from several States, the largest shipments being 
from Indiana and Pennsylvania. 

The lime manufactured in Wisconsin is high-magnesium lime, and 
the manufacturing plants are all in the southeastern part of the 
State. Of the total quantity sold in 1924, 97 per cent was lime for 
construction. Most of the lime sold is shipped to Illinois — 69 per 
cent of the total sales in 1924. Twenty-four per cent was consumed 
in the State, and the remainder was shipped in comparatively small 
quantities to 12 other States and to Canada. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the Northeast Central States are 
as follows: 

ILLINOIS 

Adams County : 

Marblehead — Marblehead Lime Co. (address, Chicago); high-calcium; 3 
flame kilns, 5 gas kilns ; 75 tons a day ; producer gas, coaL and wood : 
quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, 
chemical ; Kritzer hydrator ; tunnel and open quarry. 
Quincy — Black White Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 patent kilns ; 50 tons 
a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; tunnel 
quarry. 

Marblehead Lime Co. (address, Chicago); high-calcium; 4 flame 

kilns ; 40 tons a day ; coal and wood ; quicklime ( lump ) , construction, 
agriculture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical ; Kritzer hydrator ; 
tunnel and open quarry. 

F. W. Menke Stone & Lime Co. ; high -calcium ; 3 flame kilns ; 37% 

tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; 
tunnel and open quarry. 
Cook County: 

Chicago — Chicago Union Lime Works Co. ; high-magnesium ; 5 field kilns ; 
52% tons a day; shavings and manure; quicklime (lump), construction; 
open quarry. 

Stearns Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 6 pot kilns ; 60 tons a 

day; shavings and manure; quicklime (lump), construction. 
Riverside — Riverside Lime & Stone Co. (address, Chicago) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 4 patent kilns; 40 tons a day; quicklime (lump), construction; 
open quarry. 
Kankakee Couuty : Kankakee — C. V. Ruhle ; 1 pot kiln ; wood ; quicklime, con- 
struction. 
Madison County : Alton — Mississippi Lime & Material Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 
patent kilns, 1 gas kiln ; bituminous coal, producer gas ; 60 tons a day ; 
quicklime (lump), construction, chemical. 



218 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924— -PART U 

Rock Island County : Port Byron — Port Byron Lime Association ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 3 field kilns; 35 tons a day; bituminous coal; hydrated, mason's; 
Clyde hydrator; open quarry. 

Will County : Joliet— Estate of Thos. H. Patterson ; small plant. Idle 1924. 

INDIANA 

Cass County: Logansport — The Logansport Stone & Lime Co. (address, Hunt- 
ington) ; high-calcium, high-magnesium; 6 patent kilns; 45 tons a day; 
bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground to 10 mesh), construction, chemi- 
cal; hydrated, mason's, agriculture, chemical; Clyde hydrator. 
Harrison County: Milltown — Louisville Cement Co. (address, Louisville, Ky.) ; 
low-magnesium, high-calcium ; 3 flame kilns, 2 gas kilns, 1 rotary kiln ; 125 
tons a day; bituminous coal, producer gas; quicklime (lump, pebble), con- 
struction, chemical, agriculture; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture; 
Clyde hydrator; tunnel and open quarry. 
Huntington County: HuntiDgton — Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (ad- 
dress, Cleveland, Ohio) ; high-magnesium; 18 patent kilns; 144 tons a day; 
bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground), construction, agriculture, chemi- 
cal ; hydrated, mason's, finishing, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 
Lawrence County: 

Bedford — Indiana Quarries Co. (address, Chicago, 111.); high-calcium; 7 
pot kilns; 60 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, 

chemical. 
Mitchell — Lehigh Lime Co. ( address, Allentown, Pa. ) ; high-calcium ; 24 
patent kilns; 300 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), agri- 
culture, construction, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; 
Kelleher hydrator; open quarry. 
Putnam County : Putnamville — Indiana State Farm ; lime burned for use on 
State farm; brick kiln with brick and hollow ware; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction. 
Washington County : Salem — Hoosier Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 flame kilns ; 
60 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; open 
quarry. 

MICHIGAN 

Charlevoix County: Bayshore — Northern Lime & Stone Co. (address, Petos- 
key) ; high-calcium, high-magnesium, low-magnesium ; 4 flame kilns ; 40 tons 
a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; hydrated, mason's, 
chemical, agriculture; open quarry. 
Cheboygan County: Afton — Campbell Stone Co. (address, Indian River) ; high- 
calcium; 1 rotary kiln; 50 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), 
chemical; open quarry. 
Chippewa County: Sault Ste. Marie — Union Carbide Co. (address, New York, 
N. Y.) ; high-calcium ; 12 gas kilns, 3 rotary kilns ; 282 Ions a day ; pulverized 
bituminous coal ; quicklime, chemical ; open quarry. This company purchases 
the stone burned from Michigan Limestone & Chemical Co., Rogers, and most 
of the material made is used in the manufacture of calcium carbide. 
Emmet County: 

Petoskey — Antrim Lime Co. (address, Grand Rapids) ; low-magnesium; 3 

field kilns ; 23 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, chemical ; open quarry. 
Northern Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium, low-magnesium, high- 
magnesium ; 5 flame kilns; 40 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), 
construction, chemical ; open quarry. 
Menominee County : Menominee — Limestone Products Co. ; high-calcium ; 11 
patent kilns; 132 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion, chemical; installing a Kritzer hydrator. This company buys the stone 
used in making lime from Michigan Limestone & Chemical Co., Rogers. 
Schoolcraft County: 

Blaney and Manistique — Manistique Lime & Stone Co. ; high-calcium, high- 
magnesium ; 6 flame kilns ; 10 tons a day ; producer gas, wood ; quick- 
lime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical; Clyde 
hydrator ; open quarry. 
Marblehead — Manistique Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 
17 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; open 
quarry. 



UME 219 

OHIO 

Adams County: Peebles — Basic Products Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.) ; high- 
magnesium ; 6 rotary kilns ; 480 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(granular, ground to 30 mesh), dead-burned dolomite, chemical; hydrated, 
mason's, finishing, agriculture ; open quarry. The kilns are at Kenova, West 
Virginia, and the quarry is at Peebles. 
Clark County: 

Springfield — J. W. Jenkins ; high-magnesium ; 3 gas kilns ; 25 tons a day ; 

natural gas; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 
Moores Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 8 gas kilns ; natural gas, pro- 
ducer gas; quicklime (ground to 10 mesh, granular, lump, pebble), con- 
struction, agriculture, dead-burned dolomite, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, 
chemical, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 

National Mortar & Supply Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.) ; high- 



magnesium ; 10 flame kilns ; 100 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quick- 
lime (lump, ground to 16 mesh), construction, agriculture, chemical; 
hydrated, mason's, agriculture ; Lauman hydrator. 
Delaware County: 

Delaware — The Scioto Lime & Stone Co. ; low-magnesium ; 12 flame kilns ; 
108 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, pebble), construc- 
tion, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; hydrator, 
owner's patent ; open quarry. 
White Sulphur — American Hydrated Lime Co. (address, Cleveland) ; high- 
magnesium, low magnesium ; 6 pot kilns ; 50 tons a day ; bituminous 
coal ; hydrated, construction, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator. 
Erie County: Sandusky — Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleve- 
land) ; high-calcium; 10 flame kilns; 80 tons a day; bituminous coal; quick- 
lime (lump), construction, chemical. The quarry for this plant is on 
Kelley Island. Kilns closed indefinitely in 1924. 
Franklin County : Columbus — Marble Cliff Quarries Co. ; low-magnesium ; 1 
rotary kiln; 80 tons a day; producer gas; quicklime (pebble), construction, 
chemical : hydrated. mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Schaffer hydrator ; new 
plant, started March, 1924. 
Greene County : Cedar ville — Abel Magnesia Co. ; high-magnesium ; 3 flame 
kilns; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), chemical; hydrated, mason's; 
Clyde hydrator; open quarry. 
Hard>in County : Forest — John Herzog & Son ; high-magnesium ; 6 shaft kilns ; 
36 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (ground to 20 mesh), chemical; 
hydrated, mason's, finishing; batch hydrator; open quarry. 
Marion County : 

Marion — John Evans Lime & Stone Co. ; low-magnesium ; 10 flame kilns ; 
80 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, chemi- 
cal ; hydrated, mason's ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 
Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. ( address, Cleveland ) ; low-mag- 
nesium ; 18 flame kilns ; 144 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, agriculture, chemi- 
cal ; Clyde and Lauman hydrators. 
Owens — John D. Owens & Co. ; high-calcium ; 10 flame kilns ; 50 tons a 
day; producer gas; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, 
mason's, chemical, agriculture. 
Ottawa County : 

Clay Center — Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleveland) ; 
high-magnesium ; 53 flame kilns, 1 rotary kiln ; 524 tons a day ; bitu- 
minous coal, producer gas; quicklime (lump, ground), agriculture, 
chemical ; hydrated, finishing, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator. 
Genoa — United States Gypsum Co. (address, Chicago, 111.) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 40 flame kilns ; 450 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; hydrated, 
mason's, finishing; Schaffer hydrator; open quarry. 
Limestone — Benton Lime & Stone Co. (address, Oak Harbor) ; high- 
magnesium; 2 pot kilns; 20 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime 
(ground to % inch), chemical; open quarry; new plant in 1924. 
Marblehead — Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleveland) ; 
low-magnesium, high-calcium ; 25 flame kilns ; 200 tons a day ; bituminous 
coal; quicklime (lump, ground), construction, chemical, agriculture; 
hydrated, mason's, agriculture, chemical ; Clyde and Carson hydrators ; 
open quarry. 



220 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 

Sandusky County: 

Gibsonburg — Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleveland) ; 
high-magnesium ; 22 flame kilns ; 176 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; 
quicklime (lump, ground), chemical; hydrated, finishing; Lauman hy- 
drator. 

— National Mortar & Supply Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.) ; high- 
magnesium ; 35 flame kilns ; 420 tons a day ; producer gas ; quicklime 
(lump, ground to 16 mesh), agriculture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, 
finishing, agriculture ; Lauman hydra tor ; open quarry. 

Wm. L. Urschel Lime & Stone Co. New plant; operated part of 

1924. 

Woodville — Bruns Hydrated Lime Co. ; new plant ; under construction 
in 1924. 

The Ohio Hydrate & Supply Co. ; high-magnesium ; 24 flame kilns ; 

400 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground to 10 mesh), 
agriculture, construction, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, finishing, agri- 
culture ; Schaffer hydrator ; open quarry. 

Washington Building Lime Co. (address, Baltimore, Md.) ; high- 



magnesium ; 32 flame kilns ; 400 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; hydrated, 
finishing ; batch hydrator ; open quarry. 

Woodville Lime Products Co. (address, Toledo) ; high-magnesium 



41 flame kilns ; 500 tons a day : bituminous coal ; hydrated, finishing, 
agriculture; open quarry. 
Seneca County: 

Bettsville — Kennedy Refractories Co. (address, Tiffin) ; high-magnesium; 
2 rotary kilns ; 150 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime, dead- 
burned dolomite ("Kendymag") ; open quarry. 
Maple Grove — The Dolomite Products Co. ; high-magnesium ; 2 rotary kilns ; 

200 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime, dead-burned dolomite. 
Tiffin — Consumers Lime Co. (address, Fairmont, W. Va.) ; 2 flame kirns; 
15 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground), agriculture, 
chemical ; open quarry, 
Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleveland) ; high- 
magnesium; 5 flame kilns; 30 tons a day; quicklime (ground), chemi- 
cal ; open quarry. 
Stark County: 

Bolivar — W. C. Allman ; 1 draw kiln ; coal ; agriculture. 

Canton — Stark Grey Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 4 pot kilns ; 18 tons 

a day ; coal ; agriculture ; open quarry. 
Louisville — Louisville Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 pot kiln ; 3 tons a day ; 
quicklime, agriculture. 
Tuscarawas County: Zoar — Zoar Agricultural Lime Co.; agriculture. 
Wood County : Luckey — Luckey Lime & Supply Co. ; high-magnesium ; 6 flame 
kilns : 100 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; hydrated, mason's, finishing, agri- 
culture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 
Wyandotte County : Carey — National Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 
14 flame kilns; 168 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump, granu- 
lar, ground), agriculture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical, 
agriculture ; Clyde continuous hydrator. 

WISCONSIN 

Calumet County: 

Brillion — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) ; high-mag- 
nesium; 9 flame kilns; 104 tons a day; wood; quicklime, construction; 
hydrated, construction. 

Hayton — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 4 patent kilns ; 47 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction. 

High Cliff — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) ; high- 
magnesium ; 3 flame kilns ; 36 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, construc- 
tion ; hydrated, construction. 
Dodge County: 

Knowles — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) ; high- 
magnesium ; 2 flame kilns ; 20 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, construc- 
tion. 

Knowles (Nasbro) — Standard Lime & Stone Co. (address, Fond du Lac) ; 
high -magnesium ; 4 flame kilns ; 50 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, con- 
struction ; hydrated, mason's ; Kritzer continuous hydrator ; open quarry. 



LTME 221 

Dodge County — Continued. 

Knowles (Nasbro) — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) ; 
high-magnesium ; 5 flame kilns ; 65 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, con- 
struction ; hydrated, construction. 

Mayville — Mayville White Lime Works; high-magnesium; 3 flame kilns; 
45 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 
Door County: Small plants for local supply, chiefly construction. 
Fond du Lac County : 

Eden — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) (Marblehead 
plant) ; high-magnesium; 10 flame kilns; 120 tons a day; wood; quick- 
lime, construction ; hydrated, construction. 

Fond du Lac — Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) (Hamil- 
ton plant) ; high-magnesium; 5 flame kilns; 60 tons a day; wood; quick- 
lime, construction. 
Manitowoc County : 

Grimms— Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 8 flame kilns; 96 tons a day; wood; quicklime, construction. 

Manitowoc — Allwood Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 4 flame kilns ; 50 tons 
a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; hydrated, construction. 

Rockwell Lime Co. (address, Chicago, 111.) ; high-magnesium; 4 pot 

kilns; 45 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump, ground), construction. 

Valders — Standard Lime & Stone Co. (address, Fond du Lac) ; high-mag- 
nesium ; 5 flame kilns ; 65 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction. 

Valders Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 5 flame kilns ; 50 tons 

a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; open quarry. 

Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee) (Quarry plant) ; 



high-magnesium ; 3 flame kilns ; 36 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, con- 
struction. 
Ozaukee County: 

Cedarburg — John F. Groth & Son ; high-magnesium ; 3 flame kilns ; 40 tons 
a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. 
Grafton — Milwaukee Falls Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 5 flame kilns ; 60 
tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 
Shawano County : Bonduel — Wussow Lime Kiln Co. ; 1 pot kiln ; wood ; quick- 
lime, construction. 
Sheboygan County: 

Elkhart Lake — Garden City Land & Lime Co. ; high-magnesium ; 4 pot 
kilns; 50 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; plant 
taken over by Valders Lime & Stone Co. in September, 1924. 
Sheboygan — Sheboygan Lime Works ; high-magnesium ; 4 flame kilns ; 45 
tons a day ; wood ; quicklime (lump) , construction, chemical ; open quarry. 
Sheboygan Falls — Falls Lime & Stone Co. ; high-magnesium ; 1 flame kiln ; 
10 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction. 
Washington County: 

Fredonia — Emil Peterson ; small plant ; construction. 

Rockfield — Rockfield Products Co. ; high-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 24 tons 
a day ; wood ; quicklime, construction. 

SOUTHEAST CENTRAL STATES 

ALABAMA, KENTUCKY, TENNESSEE 

Alabama is the largest producer of the Southeast Central States. 
In 1924, 27 per cent of its product was constructional lime and 73 per 
cent chemical lime. The State produces both high-calcium and 
magnesian lime, and the chief plants are in the vicinity of Birming- 
ham. The greater part of the lime manufactured was consumed in 
the State, but lime was shipped in considerable quantities to Florida, 
Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi, with smaller amounts to North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In 1924 the total con- 
sumption in the State was less than the production. 

The output of Kentucky is chiefly consumed within the State, 
although some lime was shipped to Ohio and Tennessee ic 1924. 



222 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 

Kentucky consumed nearly four times as much lime as it manufac- 
tured. The shipments into the State were chiefly from Indiana, 
Ohio, and Tennessee. 

The lime manufactured in Tennessee is used about equally for 
construction and chemicals, with a small amount for agriculture. 
The plants, which are in the eastern, central, and northern parts of 
the State, shipped 73 per cent of their output from the State in 1924. 
The largest shipments were to Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Ken- 
tucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, 
and Virginia. The lime manufactured near Knoxville is largely 
from the waste of the marble quarries. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the Southeast Central States are 
as follows: 

ALABAMA 

Blount County : Allgood — Cheney Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 8 pater t kilns ; 120 
tons a day; coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; 
hydrated, mason's ; open quarry. 
De Kalb County: 

Fort Payne — Alabama Lime Works ; high-calcium ; 2 pot kilns ; 12 tons a 
day ; bituminous coal ; construction. Idle 1924. 

Buckels Lime Works ; construction, chemical ; small plant for local 

supply. 
Jackson County: Bridgeport — Alabama-Tennessee Lime Co. (address, Chatta- 
nooga, Term.) ; high-calcium; 3 pot kilns; 25 tons a day; wood, bituminous 
coal ; construction. Idle 1924. 
Jefferson County: Ensley — Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. (address, Bir- 
mingham) ; high-magnesium; manufacture of steel; dead-burned dolomite. 
Shelby County: 

Calera and Eureka — Alabama Lime & Stone Corporation (address, Bir- 
mingham) ; high-calcium; 3 upright brick kilns; 35 tons a day; bitumi- 
nous coal and wood ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; hydrated, con- 
struction ; own type of hydrator ; open quarry. Modern plant to be 
erected at Calera in 1925. 
Keystone — Keystone Lime Works ; high-calcium ; 8 flame kilns ; 30 tons a 
day; bituminous coal, coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction; 
hydrated, mason's, chemical ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 
Longview — Long view Lime Works ; high-calcium ; 6 patent kilns ; 75 tons 
a day; bituminous coal, coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical ; Clyde hydrator ; 
open quarry. 
Newala — Newala Lime Works ; high-calcium ; 2 patent kilns ; 20 tons a 
day; wood and bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agri- 
culture ; hydrated, mason's, finishing ; batch hydrator ; open quarry. 
Pelham — Superior Lime & Hydrate Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 shaft kilns ; 50 
tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical ; open quarry. 
Roberta — Calera Lime Works (address, Calera) ; high-calcium; 2 vertical 
kilns; 25 tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), 
construction ; open quarry. 
Saginaw — Saginaw Lime & Stone Co. (address, Longview) ; high-calcium; 
4 flame kilns ; 45 tons a day ; bituminous coal and wood ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical, 
agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 

KENTUCKY 

Meade County: Battletown — Small plants for local supply. 
Rockcastle County: 

Mount Vernon — Mount Vernon Lime Co. ; construction ; wood. 
Pine Hill — Rockca'stle Cement & Lime Co. (address, Mount Vernon) ; high- 
calcium ; 5 patent kilns ; 50 tons a day ; bituminous coal and wood ; 
quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture, chemical; hydrated. 
mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; stone mined. 



LIME 223 

TENNESSEE 

Coffee County: Summitville — Tennessee Cement & Lime Co. (address, Nash- 
ville) ; high-calcium ; 6 flame kilns; 60 tons a day; wood or wood and coal; 
quicklime (lump, pebble), construction, chemical, agriculture; hydrated, 
mason's, agriculture; rotary hydrator; open quarry. 
Cumberland County: Crab Orchard — Southern States Lime Corporation (ad- 
dress, Charleston, S. C.) ; high-calcium; 6 pot kilns; 60 tons a day; bituminous 
coal; quicklime (lump), construction; hydrated, mason's; open quarry. 
Dickson County : Burns — Jesse Allen Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 pot kilns ; 45 
tons a day; anthracite and wood; quicklime (lump, ground to % to 1% in.), 
construction, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical ; open quarry. 
Franklin County : 

Sherwood — Gager Lime & Manufacturing Co. (address, Chattanooga) ; 
high-calcium ; 16 flame or patent kilns ; 225 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; 
quicklime, construction, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, agriculture, chemi- 
cal ; Schaffer hydrator. 

Robinson Lime Co. New company, organized in 1924. 

Hamilton County : Ooltewah — Southern Junior College ; construction ; small 

plant for local supply. 
Houston County : 

Erin : Eureka Lime Works ; 1 flame kiln ; iy 2 tons a day ; quicklime 
(lump), construction. 

Rauscber Lime Co. (Inc.) ; high-calcium ; 9 flame kilns; 85 tons a day; 

bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), construction; tunnel and 
open quarry. 
Knox County: 

Concord — Concord Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 flame or patent kiln ; 6 tons 
a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump), agriculture, construction, chemi- 
cal; open quarry. 
Knoxville — Champion Fibre Co. (address, Canton, N. C.) ; high-calcium; 
4 pot kilns; 80 tons a day; bituminous coal and coke; quicklime (lump), 
chemical ; open quarry. 

Oliver King Sand & Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 8 flame kilns ; 70 tons 

a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; 
hydrated, mason's, chemical; Schaffer hydrator; open quarry. 

Knoxville Sand & Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 5 flame kilns ; 45 tons a 



day; btiuminous coal; quicklime (lump, ground), construction, agricul- 
ture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical; Clyde hydrator; open 
quarry. 

Marble City Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 2 pot kilns ; 15 tons a day ; 



bituminous coal ; quicklime ( lump ) , agriculture, chemical ; open quarry. 
Tennessee Marble Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 6 vertical kilns ; 60 tons 



a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), agriculture, chemical; open 
quarry. 

Williams Lime Manufacturing Co. ; high-calcium ; 6 shaft kilns ; 75 



tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, agricul- 
ture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical ; Schaffer continuous hydra- 
tor; open quarry. 
Montgomery County : Palmyra — Palmyra Lime Co. ; high-calcium, low-mag- 
nesium ; 2 flame kilns ; 20 tons a day ; bituminous coal and wood ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 
Rhea County: Washington — Washington White Lime Co. (address, R. D., 

Dayton) : construction; small plant for local supply. 
Robertson County : Adams — Warren Lime Manufacturing Co. ; high-calcium ; 
2 flame kilns ; 15 tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), 
construction ; hydrated, mason's ; batch hydrator. 

NORTHWEST CENTRAL STATES 

IOWA, MINNESOTA, MISSOURI, SOUTH DAKOTA 

Missouri, in the Northwest Central States, ranked as the third 
largest lime producer in the United States in 1924, being exceeded 



224 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1934 PART II 

by Ohio and Pennsylvania. Missouri also ranks third in the sales 
of hydrated lime, and shows a wider range of shipments of this 
product than any other State except Ohio. About two-thirds of 
the lime manufactured in Missouri in 1924 was chemical lime, the 
remainder, except for a small amount sold for agriculture, was sold 
for construction. The lime plants are in the eastern part of the 
State, near the Mississippi River, and in the southwestern part of 
the State. The largest shipments of lime from Missouri in 1924 
were to Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas, but shipments were made to 
California and Washington in the West, to all the South and North 
Central States, and to New York and several other Atlantic States. 
In return Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, New York, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin shipped lime to Missouri. In 
1924 the total consumption in the State was less than half of the 
total sales. 

Only a small amount of lime is manufactured in Iowa, the market 
being supplied chiefly from Ohio, but also from Arkansas, Illinois, 
Indiana, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. 

The lime manufactured in Minnesota is chiefly sold for construc- 
tion and is consumed within the State, although in 1924 small quan- 
tities were shipped to Iowa, Michigan, Nebraska, North Dakota, 
South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Canada. Minnesota received lime 
from Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. In 1924 the 
consumption of lime in the State was more than the sales. 

The lime manufactured in South Dakota is all used locally, and 
the general markets were supplied in 1924 from Colorado, Illinois, 
Indiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 

The plants that manufacture lime in the Northwest Central States 
are as follows : 

IOWA 

Dubuque County : Dubuque — Eagle Point Lime Works ; high-magnesium ; 2 

pot kilns; 18 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open 

quarry. 
Jackson County : Maquoketa — A. A. Hurst ; high-magnesium ; 4 patent kilns ; 

60 tons a day; bituminous coal, wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open 

quarry. 

MINNESOTA 

Blue Earth County : 

Mankato — T. R. Coughlan Co. ; high-magnesium ; 1 flame kiln ; 10 tons a 
day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 

Fowler & Pay: low-magnesium; 7 patent kilns; 56 tons a day; 

bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 
Goodhue County : 

Red Wing — Gust. Lillyblad ; 1 pot kiln ; 15 tons a day. Idle 1924. 

Mankato Lime Co. Plant under construction in 1924. 

Mower County : Leroy — Fowler & Pay ( address, Mankato ) ; high-calcium ; 2 
patent kilns; 16 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion, chemical; open quarry. 
St. Louis County : Duluth — Cutler-Magner Co. ; 13 pot kilns ; 60 tons a day ; 
wood; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finish- 
ing, chemical ; Clyde hydrator. Stone from which lime is made is from 
quarries of the Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

MISSOURI 

Franklin County : Washington — Washington Lime Kiln Co. ; construction ; 
small plant for local supply. 



LIME 225 

Greene Comity: 

Ash Grove — Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Co. (address, Kansas 
City) ; high-calcium; 10 flame kilns; 120 tons a day; wood; quicklime 
(lump, granular), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finish- 
ing, chemical ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 
Galloway — Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Co. (address, Kansas 
City) ; high-calcium; 4 flame kilns; 110 tons a day; bituminous coal; 
quicklime (lump, granular, ground to 30 mesh), construction, chemical; 
hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical; Schaffer hydrator; open quarry. 
Springfield — Marblehead Lime Co. (address, Chicago, 111.) ; high-calcium; 
9 flame kilns; 90 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical ; Kritzer hydrator ; tunnel and 
open quarry. 
Jefferson County : 

Byers (P. O., Kimmswick) — Glencoe Lime & Cement Co. (address, St. 
Louis) ; high-calcium; 5 gas kilns; 40 tons a day; producer gas; quick- 
lime (lump), construction, chemical. Idle 1924. 
Glen Park (P. O., Sulphur Springs) — Glencoe Lime & Cement Co. (ad- 
dress, St. Louis) ; high-calcium; 2 gas kilns; 45 tons a day; producer 
gas ; quicklime, construction, chemical. 
Lawrence County : Pierce City — Pierce City Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 flame 
kilns; 30 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 
Marion County: Hannibal (near) — Marblehead Lime Co. (address, Chicago, 
111.) ; high-calcium; 5 flame kilns; 50 tons a day; oil, coal and wood; quick- 
lime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical; Kritzer 
hydrator ; tunnel and open quarry. 
Pike County: Louisiana — Marblehead Lime Co. (address, Chicago, 111.) ; high- 
calcium; 4 flame kilns; 40 tons a day; coal and wood; quicklime (lump), 
construction, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, chemical ; Kritzer hydrator ; tun- 
nel and open quarry. 
Ralls County: Hannibal— Bluff City Lime & Stone Co. (address, Alton, 111.); 
high-calcium ; 3 flame kilns ; 40 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump, pebble, granular), construction, chemical, agriculture; hydrated, 
mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator ; tunnel quarry. 
St. Clair County: Osceola — Osceola Lime Co.; high-calcium; 2 flame kilns; 
17 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), chemical; installing continuous 
hydrator ; open quarry. 
Ste. Genevieve County : 

Brickeys — Arrowhead Manufacturing Co. (address, St. Louis) ; high- 
calcium ; 4 flame kilns ; 36 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; tunnel quarry. 
Ste. Genevieve — Bluff City Lime & Stone Co. (address, Alton, 111.) ; plant 
under construction. 

— Peerless White Lime Co. (address, St. Louis); high-calcium; 1 

flame kiln, 7 gas kilns ; 160 tons a day ; bituminous coal, producer gas ; 
quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical; 
Kritzer continuous hydrator ; tunnel quarry. 
— Ste. Genevieve Lime & Quarry Co. (address, St. Louis) ; high-cal- 
cium ; 2 flame kilns, 4 gas kilns; 120 tons a day ;♦ bituminous coal, pro- 
ducer gas; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, 
chemical ; Clyde hydrator ; tunnel and open quarry. 

Western Lime Works ; high-calcium ; 4 flame kilns, 2 gas kilns ; 

100 tons a day; bituminous coal, producer gas; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, chemical ; open quarry. 
St. Louis County : 

Centaur Station — Centaur Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 2 flame kilns ; 25 tons 
a day ; coal and wood ; quicklime, construction, chemical ; open quarry. 
Glencoe — Glencoe Lime & Cement Co. ( address, St. Louis ) ; high-calcium ; 
9 flame kilns; 85 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, agriculture, chemical; tunnel and open quarry. 
Mincke (P. O., Eureka) — Glencoe Lime & Cement Co. (address, St. 
Louis) ; high-calcium; 5 flame kilns; 50 tons a day; bituminous coal; 
quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, agricul- 
ture, chemical; Kritzer hydrator; tunnel quarry. 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Lawrence County : Spearfish — H. H. Lewis ; construction ; small plant for local 
supply. 



226 MINERAL RESOirRCES, 1924™ PART II 

Meade County: Calcite — Homestead Mining Co. (address, Lead); high-cal- 
cium; 2 flame kilns; 25 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), chemical; open 
quarry ; product all used in works of company. 

SOUTHWEST CENTRAL STATES 

ARKANSAS, OKLAHOMA, TEXAS 

The lime produced in the Southwest Central States is from widely 
separated areas. In Arkansas production is confined to the northern 
part of the State, and the lime is sold chiefly for construction. In 
1924 over one-half of the output was shipped from the State, chiefly 
to Louisiana, although some was sent to Iowa, Kansas, Mississippi, 
Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. The plant in op- 
eration in Oklahoma is in the southeastern part of the State. Texas 
is the largest lime producer of "these States. Except for a plant in 
the extreme west-central part of the State (El Paso County), lime is 
made along a northeast and southwest belt east of the central part of 
the State. About 73 per cent of the output was reported as used for 
construction in 1924; the remainder was chemical lime except a 
small amount for agriculture. About One-half of the lime sold for 
construction was hydrated lime. Over 77 per cent of the production 
was shipped to points within the State. The outside shipments were 
chiefly to Louisiana, with small amounts to Arizona, Arkansas, 
Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Porto Eico, and Mexico. The 
shipments of lime into the State were small and were from Missouri, 
New Mexico, and Ohio. The consumption was much less than the 
production. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the Southwest Central States 
are as follows : 

ARKANSAS 

Baxter County: Gassville — Jas. T. Langham ; small plant. 
Izard County : 

Limedale — Batesville White Lime Co. (address, Batesville) ; high-calcium; 
3 patent kilns ; wood ; Kritzer continuous 6-cylinder hydrator ; open 
quarry. New plant in 1924. 
Ruddells — Batesville White Lime Co. (address, Batesville) ; high-calcium; 
3 patent kilns; 40 tons a day; quicklime (lump), construction, chemi- 
cal; open quarry. 
Searcy County: St. Joe — Mo&>DeVoy Lime & Stone Co. (address, Memphis, 
Term. ) ; high-calcium ; 1 pot kiln ; 10 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, con- 
struction, chemical ; open quarry. 
Washington County: Johnson — Ozark White Lime Co. (address, Fayetteville) ; 
high-calcium; 6 flame kilns; 60 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, agriculture, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical, agri- 
culture; tunnel quarry. 

OKLAHOMA 

Adair County: Watts — Southern White Lime Co. (address, Pierce City, Mo.) ; 
high-calcium; 1 flame kiln; 12 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction; open quarry. 

TEXAS 

Comal County: New Braunfels — Dittlinger Lime Co.; high-calcium; 5 patent 
kilns; 80 tons- a day; oil; quicklime (lump, ground to 1% inch), construc- 
tion, agriculture; hydrated, mason's, chemical, agriculture ; Kritzer hydrator; 
open quarry. 



LIME 227 

Coryell County: Oglesby — D. R. Boone; construction; small plant. 

Dallas County : Dallas — Michel Lime Co. ; low-magnesium ; 2 flame kilns ; 20 
tons a day ; oil ; construction. Idle 1924. 

El Paso County : El Paso — El Paso Building Material Co. ; low-magnesium ; 6 
pot kilns; 60 tons a day; anthracite; quicklime (lump), construction, chemi- 
cal ; open quarry. 

Tarrant County : Fort Worth — Southwestern Lime Co. ; low-magnesium ; 1 pot 
kiln; 5 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), agriculture. 

Travis County: McNeill — Austin White Lime Co. (address, Austin); high- 
calcium; 8 patent kilns; 100 tons a day; lignite; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical; Kritzer continuous 
hydra tor ; open quarry. 

Williamson County : Round Rock — Round Rock White Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 
6 patent kilns; 60 tons a day; lignite; quicklime (lump), construction, chemi- 
cal; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical; open quarry. 

NORTH MOUNTAIN STATES 

IDAHO, MONTANA, WYOMING 

The amount of lime produced in the North Mountain States is 
not large, and, except for shipments to Oregon and Washington, it 
is all consumed locally. In 1924 shipments into Idaho were re- 
ported from Nevada, Oregon ; Utah, Missouri, and Washington; 
into Montana from Idaho, Missouri, Washington, and Wisconsin; 
and into Wyoming from Colorado and Missouri. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the North Mountain States are 
as follows: 



Kootenai County: Bay view — Washington Brick, Lime & Sewer Pipe Co. (ad- 
dress, Spokane, Wash. ) ; high-calcium, high-magnesium ; 5 shaft kilns ; 30 
tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump, ground to % inch), construction, chemi- 
cal; open quarry. 

Lemhi County : Salmon — Idaho Lime Co. ; 1 pot kiln ; 2 tons a day. Idle 1924. 

MONTANA 

Deer Lodge County: 

Anaconda — Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (address, New York, N. Y.) ; 
high-calcium; 1 rotary kiln; bituminous coal; quicklime (pebble), chem- 
ical; open quarry; plant started September, 1924. 

Wm. Lorenz; small plant for local supply. 

Lewis and Clark County : Elliston — Elliston Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 3 steel 
draw kilns; 30 tons a day; bituminous coal and wood; quicklime (lump), 
construction; open quarry. 

WYOMING 

Carbon County: Rawlins — H. Larsen; construction; small plant. 
Fremont County: Lander — J. P. McKenna; small plant; idle 1924. 

SOUTH MOTTNTTATKr STATES 

ARIZONA, COLORADO, NEVADA, NEW MEXICO, UTAH 

The lime manufactured in the South Mountain States is used 
chiefly for constructional and chemical purposes. Very little is sold 
for agriculture. Aside from a small quantity of lime shipped to 
Hawaii and New Mexico, the lime manufactured in Arizona in 1924 
was consumed within the State or shipped to California, where part 
of it was hydrated. Most of the Colorado production was consumed 
within the State, the greater part being chemical lime. Lime was 
shipped into Colorado from Illinois, Missouri, New Mexico, Ohio, 



228 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924— PART n 

Texas, and Utah, the lime consumed in the State being more than the 
production. Practically all the lime manufactured in Nevada was 
shipped to California and used chiefly for construction. About half 
of the lime manufactured in New Mexico was for local or State con- 
sumption. Shipments of small quantities to Colorado, Kansas, and 
Texas were, however, reported in 1924. In Utah 78 per cent of the 
lime manufactured was used for building. Most of the lime sold was 
consumed within the State or shipped to California, except small 
shipments to Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon. There 
is comparatively little lime shipped into this group of States and 
only in Colorado and New Mexico does the consumption exceed the 
sales. 

The lime manufacturers in the South Mountain States are as 
follows : 

ARIZONA 

Cochise County: Douglas (near Forrest) — The Paul Quarry; high-calcium, 

low-magnesium ; chemical. New plant put in operation in 1924. 
Yavapai County: 

Nelson — Grand Canyon Lime & Cement Co. (address, Los Angeles, Calif.) ; 
high-calcium ; 6 patent kilns ; 20-30 tons a day ; oil ; hydrating plant at 
Los Angeles, Calif.; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, 
mason's, finishing, chemical, agriculture; open quarry. 
Puntenney — Puntenney Lime Co. (Inc.) (address, Los Angeles, Calif.); 
high-calcium; 4 patent kilns; 50-60 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump, 
crushed), construction, chemical. 

COLORADO 

El Paso County: Manitou — The Western Lime Co. (address, Denver); high- 
calcium; 4 gas kilns; 30 tons a day; producer gas; quicklime (lump), con- 
struction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical; Clyde hydrator; open 
quarry. 

Fremont County: Calcite — Colorado Lime Corporation (address, Denver); 
high-calcium ; 2 flame kilns ; 12 tons a day ; bituminous coal ; quicklime 
(lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 

La Plata County : Durango — Farmers Supply Co. ; 1 pot kiln ; 3 tons a day ; 
bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical. 

Pueblo County : Pueblo — The Pueblo Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 patent kiln ; 
bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction. Plant erected 1924. Stone 
purchased from the E. E. Davis Quarry, Monarch, Colo. 

NEVADA 

Clark County : Sloan — Nevada Lime & Rock Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 rotary 
kiln; 60 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), construction; hydrated, mason's, 
finishing, chemical, agriculture ; Raymond hydrator ; open quarry. 

NEW MEXICO 

San Juan County : Kirtland — Edmund Thurland ; construction ; small plant 
for local supply. 

San Miguel County: Las Vegas Hot Springs — The Canyon Lime Co. (address, 
East Las Vegas) ; high-calcium ; 1 flame kiln; 12 tons a day; bituminous coal 
and wood; quicklime ( lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 

Santa Fe County: Santa Fe — New Mexico Penitentiary; 1 pot kiln; bitumi- 
nous coal ; construction ; small plant for local supply. 

UTAH 

Beaver County: Beaver — Willard S. Thompson & Son; 2 kilns; wood; quick- 
lime (lump), construction. 
Cache County: 

Logan — Cache Valley Lime Co., Charles E. Peterson; construction; small 
plant for local supply. 



ijme 229 

Cache County — Continued. 

Logan — Jacob P. Peterson; construction; small plant for local supply. 
Iron County: Cedar City — Parry Lime Co.; construction; small plant for 

local supply. 
Juab County: Eureka — Chief Consolidated Mining Co. (address, Salt Lake 
City); high-calcium; 2 pot kilns; 24 tons a day; coke and carbon (by- 
product of steel plant) ; quicklime (lump), construction; hydrated, mason's, 
finishing, chemical ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 
Salt Lake County; 

Salt Lake City — The Langton Lime & Cement Co. ; high-magnesium ; 4 pot 
kilns; 24 tons a day; coke breeze; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical ; open quarry. 

Western Lime & Silica Co. ; high-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 14 tons a 

day; coke; quicklime (lump), construction; ready-mixed wet plaster; 
open quarry. 
San Juan County : Blanding — E. Palmer ; construction ; small plant for local 

supply. 
Tooele County: Grantsville— The Utah Lime & Stone Co. (address-, Salt Lake 
City) ; high-calcium, high-magnesium; 4 flame kilns; 35 tons a day; bitumi- 
nous coal and coke; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; hydrated, fin- 
ishing, mason's, chemical ; Clyde hydrator ; open quarry. 
Utah County: 

Goshen — L. E. Thomas ; construction ; open quarry ; small plant for 

local supply. 
Provo — Giles & Peterson (Boardman's kilns); low-magnesium; 3 pot 
kilns; 15 tons a day; bituminous coal; quicklime (lump), construction. 

PACIFIC COAST STATES AND HAWAII 

CALIFORNIA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, HAWAII 

California is the largest lime producer of the Pacific Coast States. 
Sixty-nine per cent of its product was sold in 1924 for construction; 
a comparatively small amount was sold for agricultural purposes 
and the remainder for chemicals. A small amount of the lime man- 
ufactured in California was shipped to Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, 
and Hawaii, and lime was reported as shipped into the State from 
Arizona, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Utah, and Washington. The total 
consumption was one and two-thirds times the sales. Lime from 
Oregon was shipped to Idaho and Utah, and Oregon received lime 
from California, Idaho, Utah, and Washington. The lime plants 
in Washington are in the extreme northwestern and northeastern 
parts of the State. The product is sold chiefly for construction, with 
small amounts for chemical and agricultural use. The lime used in 
the State in 1924 was less than the total production, and shipments 
were reported to California, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, Oregon, 
Alaska, Canada, Hawaii, Philippine Islands, Central America, and 
New Zealand. In return Washington received lime from Idaho, 
Missouri, and Ohio. 

The lime-manufacturing plants in the Pacific Coast States and 
Hawaii are as follows: 

CAUFOENIA 

Eldorado County: Newcastle — California Lime Co.; high-calcium; 2 patent 
kilns; oil; quicklime (lump), construction, agriculture; open quarry. New 
plant in 1924. 
K*rn County: 

Tehachapi — Blue Diamond Materials Co. (address, Los Angeles) ; high- 
calcium ; 5 flame kilns; 20 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion; open quarry. Plant owned by J. W. Jameson and leased by Blue 
Diamond Materials Co until March 31, 1924. 



230 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Kern County — Continued. 

Tehachapi — Union Lime Co. (Inc.) (address, Los Angeles) ; high-calcium; 8 
flame kilns; 48 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), construction, agri- 
culture, chemical ; plant leased Nov. 15, 1924, from Summit Lime Co., 
Los Angeles. 
San Bernardino County: 

Baxter — Pacific Marble Quarries Co. (address, Los Angeles) ; high-cal- 
cium; 2 patent kilns: 15 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), construc- 
tion, chemical; new plant in 1924. 
Colton — California Portland Cement Co. (address, Los Angeles) ; high- 
calcium ; 3 rotary kilns ; 60 tons a day ; oil ; quicklime, construction, 
chemical. 
Santa Cruz County: 

Felton — Holmes Lime & Cement Co. (address, San Francisco) ; high-cal- 
cium; 5 pot kilns, 2 patent kilns; 30 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), 
construction, agriculture, chemical ; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemi- 
cal, agriculture; Clyde hydrator; open quarry. 
Rincon — Henry Co well Lime & Cement Co. (address, San Francisco) ; 
high-calcium ; 5 flame kilns; 40 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), 
construction, chemical ; open quarry. 
Watsonville — California Spray Chemical Co. ; high-calcium, low-magne- 
sium; 1 pot kiln; quicklime, chemical; burns lime from stone purchased 
from Pacific Portland Cement Co. 
Siskiyou County : Gazelle — Mount Shasta Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 1 flame 

kiln; 7 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction; open quarry. 
Tuolumne County: Sonora — Pacific Lime & Plaster Co. (address, San Fran- 
cisco) ; high-calcium; 9 patent kilns; 60 tons a day; oil; quicklime (lump), 
construction, chemical, agriculture ; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical, 
agriculture ; Clyde hydrator ; tunnel and open quarry. 
Ventura County : Santa Susana — Ventura County Lime & Fertilizer Co. 
Plant under construction in 1924. 



Baker County: Lime — Sun Portland Cement Co. (address, Portland); high- 
calcium; 3 pot kilns; 30 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical ; open quarry. 

Grant County: Canyon City — E. A. & D. M. Butler. Small plant for local 
supply. 

WASHINGTON 

San Juan County: 

Bellingham — Orcas Lime Co. (address, Seattle); high-calcium; 1 con- 
tinuous kiln; 10 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, 
chemical; hydrated, mason's; special hydrator with revolving drums; 
open quarry. 

Friday Harbor — Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. (address, Portland, 
Oreg. ) ; low-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 10 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime 
(lump), construction; open quarry. 

Roche Harbor Lime & Cement Co. ; high-calcium ; 13 flame kilns ; 

130 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; open 
quarry. 
Stevens County : 

Bossburg — Idaho Lime Co.; high-calcium; 3 flame kilns; 30 tons a day; 
wood; quicklime (lump), construction, chemical; open quarry. 

Colville — Crown Willamette Paper Co. (address, San Francisco, Calif.) ; 
high-magnesium ; 2 pot kilns ; 30 tons a day ; wood ; quicklime, chemi- 
cal ; product all used by company. 
Whatcom County : Sumas — International Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 4 patent 
kilns; 50 tons a day; wood; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), con- 
struction, chemical; hydrated, mason's, finishing, chemical, agriculture; 
Kritzer hydrator ; open quarry. 



Oahu : Honolulu — Waianae Lime Co. ; high-calcium ; 2 pot kilns ; 24 tons a 
day; oil; quicklime (lump, ground to 20 mesh), construction, agriculture, 
chemical; hydrated, mason's, chemical. Stone burned is gathered from the 
land. 



GYPSUM 



By K. W. Cottrell 



PRODUCTION 

The total quantity of gypsum mined in the United States in 1924 
was 5,042,629 short tons, an increase of 289,181 tons, or 6 per cent 
over 1923. The total value of crude and calcined gypsum sold was 
$42,724,507, an increase of $7,836,352, or 22 per cent. Of the total 
quantity mined, 982,108 tons, or 19 per cent, was sold crude; almost 
all of this was purchased by Portland cement manufacturers for use 
as retarder in their product. Of the remainder 22,298 tons, or 2 
per cent of the quantity sold crude, was sold for use as agricultural 
gypsum or land plaster. The sales for agricultural purposes de- 
creased 3,128 tons, or 12 per cent, and the proportion of the total 
crude sales in 1924 was 2 per cent as compared with 3 per cent in 
1923. Five States — Iowa, Montana, Nevada, Ohio, and Texas — 
reported larger sales of agricultural gypsum. Nine States reported 
smaller sales, the greatest decreases being in Colorado and Kansas. 

The sales of crude gypsum to. Portland cement factories were 20 
per cent larger than in the preceding year. California and Kansas 
were the only States reporting smaller sales, 7 and 12 per cent, 
respectively. The increases in sales in some of the other States 
were 1 per cent in Oregon, 3 per cent each in Michigan and Utah, 
37 per cent in Montana, 39 per cent in Oklahoma, and 46 per cent 
in New York. 

The total quantity of Keenes cement sold was 30,620 tons, valued 
at $428,684. This was an increase of 7,347 tons, or 32 per cent in 
quantity, and of $105,557, or 33 per cent in value. The average 
value per ton was $14, an increase of 12 cents. 

Plaster board, tile, and blocks were made in 14 States at plants 
operated by the firms mining the gypsum used in these products. 
Plants of firms that make these products but do not mine gypsum are 
not included here because the gypsum they use is already accounted 
for as plaster sold by the original manufacturers. The figures given 
for boards and blocks, therefore, do not include the entire produc- 
tion of these articles in the United States. The reader should remem- 
ber also that the operators' figures for tons of Keenes cement and 
for plaster and wall boards, as well as for the special tile and blocks 
sold, do not represent the actual weight of the gypsum content but 
include the weight of the chemicals used in the manufacture of 
Keenes cement and the weight of the felt, paper, sawdust, and 
fiber used in the manufacture of the other products mentioned. 
Wall board increased 98 per cent in quantity and 80 per cent in 
value. The average value per ton decreased from $36.16 in 1923 to 

44*39°— 27 16 231 



232 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



$32.85 in 1924. Special tile and blocks increased 4 per cent in 
cjuantity and 18 per cent in value. The average value per ton 
increased from $13.07 in 1923 to $14.74 in 1924. 

Gypsum -produced and sold in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Crude 
produced 
(short tons) 


Value of 

crude and 

calcined 

sold 


Year 


Crude 
produced 
(short tons) 


Value of 

crude and 

calcined 

sold 


1915 


2, 447, 611 
2, 757, 730 
2, 696, 226 
2, 057, 015 
2, 420, 163 


$6, 596, 893 
7, 959, 032 
11,116,452 
11,470,854 
15, 727, 907 


1920.. 


3, 129, 142 

2, 890, 784 

3, 779, 949 

4, 753, 448 

5, 042, 629 


$24, 533, 065 


1916 


1921 


23, 700, 290 


1917 . 


1922 


29,361, 151 


1918 . 


1923__ 


34, 888, 155 


1919 


1924 


42, 724, 507 









Gypsum produced and sold in the United States, 1923-1924, by States 



State 


Number 
of active 
plants 
report- 
ing 


Total 

quantity 

produced 

(short 

tons) 


Sold without cal- 
cining a 


Sold calcined 


Total 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


value 


1923 


3 

7 
3 
6 
4 
8 
3 
4 
4 
3 
4 
13 


111, 832 

685, 041 

135, 019 

586, 987 

298, 390 

1,361,116 

526, 861 

290, 121 

344, 104 

44, 531 

33, 644 

335, 802 


85, 252 

134, 895 

54, 072 

135, 616 

24. 777 

230, 080 

18, 756 

47,041 

26.88? 

5,403 


$296, 455 
385, 283 
142, 250 
355, 067 

60, 368 
717, 999 

62, 167 
125,182 

59,041 

17, 809 


24, 936 
431, 829 

71, 349 
341, 746 
226, 753 
823, 241 
432,511 
202. 323 
254, 512 

33, 520 

27, 945 
230, 713 


$374, 040 

4, 983, 249 

700, 490 

2, 897, 926 

1, 891, 639 

9, 626, 746 

4, 919, 375 

2, 123, 713 

2, 177, 983 

269, 148 

176, 791 

2, 169, 619 


$670, 495 
5, 368. 532 




Kansas ._ 


842, 740 


Michigan 


3, 252, 993 




1, 952, 007 




10, 344, 745 


Ohio - 


4, 981, 542 


Oklahoma 


2, 248, 895 


Texas 


2, 237, 024 


Utah 


286, 957 




176, 791 
2, 525, 434 


Other States >. 


84, 463 


355, 815 




62 


4, 753, 448 


847, 242 


2, 577, 436 


3,101,378 


32, 310, 719 


34, 888, 155 


1924 


6 
3 
8 
6 

13 
4 
5 
7 
4 
3 

13 


727, 385 

141, 908 

577, 526 

365, 714 

1, 474, 491 

525, 485 

316, 134 

402, 245 

90, 221 

32, 715 

388, 805 


151, 208 
47, 519 

124, 134 
29, 441 

335, 841 
19, 332 
64,980 
32, 245 
35, 298 
188 

141, 922 


379, 429 
116, 750 
324, 140 

61, 959 
982, 777 

56, 186 
157, 748 

62, 374 

43, 335 

473 

489, 149 


489, 745 

77, 796 

453, 135 

278, 467 

1,019,319 

477, 845 

201, 762 

301,512 

43, 590 

25, 095 

200, 303 


5, 277, 910 

777, 512 

5, 626, 682 

2, 001, 130 

13, 346, 469 

5, 563, 913 

2, 442, 333 

2, 566, 736 

292, 253 

189, 871 

1, 965, 378 


5, 657, 339 




894, 262 


Michigan 


5, 950, 822 


Nevada. - 


2, 063, 089 




14, 329, 246 


Ohio 


5, 620, 099 




2, 600, 081 
2,629,110 


Texas 


Utah 


335, 588 




190, 344 


Other States * 


2, 454, 527 




72 


5, 042, 629 


982, 108 


2, 674, 320 


3, 568, 569 


4a 050, 187 


42, 724, 507 



« Includes agricultural gypsum as follows: 1923, 25,426 tons, valued at $150,026; 1924, 22,298 tons, valued at 
$125,612. 

b 1923: Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, and Virginia; 1924: Arizona, 
California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, and Virginia. 



GYPSUM 

Gypsum, produced in the United States, sold in 1924, by uses 



233 



Calcined: 

Stucco 

Neat plaster 

Sanded plaster 

Mixed plaster 

Plaster of Paris, molding, casting plaster, etc 

Keenes cement 

To plate-glass works 

Plaster board 

Wall board 

Partition tile 

Special tile or blocks 

Other purposes « 1 

Crude 



Short tons 


Value 


600, 955 


$3, 849, 971 


1, 712, 589 


13, 895, 969 


166, 910 


1, 179, 826 


« 193, 635 


• 1, 534, 836 


h 193, 971 


* 1, 903, 493 


30, 620 


428, 684 


18, 847 


138, 444 


86, 018 


1, 924, 394 


391,457 


12,859,411 


121, 604 


1,492,550 


23,457 


345,847 


28, 506 


496, 762 


3, 568, 569 


40. 050, 187 


982, 108 


2,674,320 




42, 724, 507 



• Includes small quantity of wood fiber plaster. 

h Includes dental plaster. 

« Includes roof tile and miscellaneous material. 

Keenes cement, produced in the United States, sold in 1915-1924 



Year 


Manu- 
factur- 
ers 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Manu- 
factur- 
ers 


Short tons 


Value 


1915. 


6 
5 
3 
5 
6 


16, 963 
20, 358 
15, 976 
12, 823 
15, 395 


$160, 711 
190, 585 
167, 191 
151, 802 
200, 360 


1920. 


6 

7 
6 
5 
6 


16, 542 
14, 430 
21, 991 
23, 273 
30, 620 


$246, 433 


1916 


1921 


232, 457 


1917 


1922 


324, 316 


1918 


1923 


323, 127 


1919 


1924 


428, 684 









IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1 

Six companies in the gypsum industry reported to the Bureau of 
Mines that they imported gypsum in 1924. They were the Connect- 
icut Adamant Plaster Co., Higginson Manufacturing Co., Newark 
Plaster Co., Rock Plaster Corporation, Charles W. Priddy & Co., 
and the United States Gypsum Co. The imports reported by these 
six companies were more than the total reported by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Of the gypsum imported (as 
reported by these companies), over 23,000 tons was sold crude, and 
of this quantity 79 per cent was sold for use in agriculture. More 
than 450,000 tons was sold calcined and was used mainly in the 
manufacture of gypsum plasters. It is estimated that the value of 
the imported gypsum sold crude or in manufactured form by these 
six firms in 1924 was more than $5, 600, 000, in comparison with a 
business of over $42,000,000 based on domestic gypsum. 

As a large part of the Canadian output is imported into the United 
States and is a chief source of supply lor the eastern seaboard States, 
the following table is of interest: 



1 Figures for imports and. exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



234 



Gypsum produced and sold in Canada, 1915-1924 ■ 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


474, 815 
342, 915 
336, 332 
152, 287 
299, 063 


$854, 929 

738, 593 

881, 984 

823, 006 

1, 215, 287 


1920 


429, 144 
386,550 
659, 265 
578, 301 
646, 016 


$1, 893, 991 


1916 


1921 


1, 785, 538 


J917 


1922. 


2, 160, 898 


1918 


1923 


2, 243, 100 


1919 


1924 


2, 208, 108 









• Dominion Bur. Statistics. 

Gypsum imported for consumption in the United States, 1915-1924 





Crude 


Ground or calcined 


Manu- 
factured 
plaster of 
Paris 


Keenes cement 


Total 
value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1915 


336, 856 
254, 131 
240, 269 
50, 653 
171, 733 
282, 486 
266, 796 
409, 475 
448, 129 
519, 627 


$356, 791 
275, 043 
265, 504 
55,004 
211, 946 
397, 942 
364, 318 
523, 939 
629, 203 
724, 864 


6,749 

11, 706 

16, 533 

6,117 

10, 415 

14, 921 

4,495 

1,774 

6,133 

5,217 


$22, 873 
72, 345 

109, 732 
70,028 

126, 405 

179, 191 
55, 109 
32, 651 
77, 716 
70, 793 


$10, 095 
9,085 
6,016 
1,765 
7,719 
10,282 
33, 072 
55, 116 
41,317 
48, 059 


427 
600 
484 
111 
187 
202 
184 
403 
418 
639 


$6, 656 
9,890 
8,003 
2,259 
5,984 
5,338 
6,836 
9,636 
11,543 
12,042 


$396, 415 


1916 


366, 363 


1917 


389, 255 


1918. 


129, 056 


1919 


352,054 
592, 753 


1920 


1921 


459, 335 
621, 342 


1922 


1923 


759, 779 
855, 758 


1924 







Gypsum, crude, imported into the United States, 1923-1924, by countries 
[General imports] 



Country 


f923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Australia 






2,576 

516, 991 

20 

28 

2 

10 


$2, 300 




446, 790 

1,193 

103 

35 

8 


$620, 211 
3,929 

4,487 
418 
158 


721, 604 


England .. 


453 


France . 


334 


Germany 


8 


Hongkong 


165 








448,129 


629, 203 


519, 627 


724, 864 



Exports of gypsum are designated as " gypsum or plaster, crude, 
ground, calcined, and manufactures of," and have been as follows: 
1924, 10,623 short tons, valued at $358,425; 1923, 8,815 tons, 
$226,423; 1922, 7,673 tons, $178,166. Exports are not separately 
classified for earlier years. 



GYPSUM 235 

MANUFACTURERS AND MINERS 

MANUFACTURERS OF GYPSUM PLASTER 
HEAD OFFICES 

Alabastine Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

American Cement & Plaster Co., 617 Clift Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

American Gypsum Co., Port Clinton, Ohio. 

Arizona Gypsum Plaster Co., Douglas, Ariz. 

Beaver Products Co. (Inc.), Buffalo, N. Y. 

Best Bros. Keenes Cement Co., Medicine Lodge, Kans. 

Blue Diamond Materials Co., 2200 East Sixteenth Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Cardiff Gypsum Plaster Co., Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

Centerville Gypsum Co., Centerville, Iowa. 

Certain-teed Products Corporation, 100 East Forty-second Street, New York, 

N. Y. 
Colorado Portland Cement Co., Ideal Building, Denver, Colo. 
Connecticut Adamant Plaster Co. (importer), New Haven, Conn. 
Dakota Plaster Co., Rapid City, S. Dak. 
Ebsary Gypsum Co. (Inc.), Scottsville, N. Y. 
Empire Gypsum Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Garbutt & Orcutt, 712 Pantages Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Globe Plaster & Mining Co., 402 Security Building, Kansas City, Mo. 
Grand Rapids Plaster Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Higginson Manufacturing Co. (importer), Newburgh, N. Y. 
Jumbo Plaster & Cement Co., Sigurd, Utah. 
Laramie Cement Plaster Co., Laramie, Wyo. 
Lycoming Calcining Co., Williamsport, Pa. 
Michigan Gypsum Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Nephi Plaster & Manufacturing Co., 907 Continental Bank Building, Salt Lake 

City, Utah. 
Newark Plaster Co. (importer), 30 Church Street, New York, N. Y. 
Niagara Gypsum Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Northwest Gypsum Products Co., Lewistown, Mont. 
Oakfield Gypsum Products Corporation, Oakfield, N. Y. 
Oklahoma Portland Cement Co., Denver, Colo. 
Overland Cement Plaster Co., Laramie, Wyo. 

Pacific Portland Cement Co., Consolidated, Pacific Building, San Francisco, Calif. 
Rock Plaster Corporation (importer), 40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. 
Southern Gypsum Co. (Inc.), North Holston, Va. 
Standard Gypsum Co. (Inc.), San Francisco, Calif. 
Texas Cement Plaster Co., Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Three Forks Portland Cement Co., Denver, Colo. 
United States Gypsum Co., 205 West Monroe Street, Chicago, 111. 
Universal Gypsum Co., Chicago, 111. 
Wasem Plaster Co., Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

White Star Plaster Co., 1324 Washington Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Wyoming Cement Plaster Co., Greybull, Wyo. 

MANUFACTURERS OF GYPSUM PLASTER WHO OPERATE MORE THAN 

ONE PLANT 

Beaver Products Co. (Inc.) Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

Blue Rapids, Kans. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Akron, N. Y. 

Gypsum, Ohio. 

Acme, Tex. 
Certain-teed Products Corporation Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Acme, N. Mex. 

Acme, Okla. 

Cement, Okla. 

Gypsum, Oreg. 

Acme, Tex. 

Laramie, Wyo. 



236 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Colorado Portland Cement Co Coaldale, Colo. 

Hanover, Mont. 

Red Butte, Wyo. 
Grand Rapids Plaster Co Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Grandville, Mich. 
Pacific Portland Cement Co., Consolidated Plaster City, Calif. 

Gerlach, Nev. 
United States Gypsum Co Amboy, Calif. 

Loveland, Colo. 

Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

Blue Rapids, Kans. 

Alabaster, Mich. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Arden, Nev. 

Oakfield, N. Y. 

Gypsum, Ohio. 

Eldorado, Okla. 

Southard, Okla. 

Piedmont, S. Dak. 

Sweetwater, Tex. 

Plasterco, Va. 
Universal Gypsum Co _ _>_. Fort Dodge, Iowa- 
Akron, N. Y. 

MANUFACTURED OF KEENES CEMENT 

American Cement & Plaster Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Best Bros. Keenes Cement Co., Medicine Lodge, Kans. 
Certain-teed Products Corporation, 100 East Forty-second Street, New York, 

N. Y. 
Nephi Plaster & Manufacturing Co., 907 Continental Bank Building, Salt 

Lake City, Utah. 
Pacific Portland Cement Co., Consolidated, Pacific Building, San Francisco, Calif. 
United States Gypsum Co., 205 West Monroe Street, Chicago, 111. 
Wasem Plaster Co., Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

MANUFACTURERS OF GYPSUM PLASTER BOARD AND WALL 

BOARD 

American Gypsum Co., Port Clinton, Ohio. 

Beaver Products Co. (Inc.), Buffalo, N. Y. 

Bell, H. W., & Co., 2592 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Buttonlath Manufacturing Co., Vernon and Boyle Avenues, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Duffy, J. P., & Co., Fifty-first Street and Second Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Empire Gypsum Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Gypsite Fireproofing Co., 2034 Dime Bank Building, Detroit, Mich. 

Hercules Plaster Board Co., Hampton, Va. 

Kelley Plaster & Plaster Board Co., 261 Central Avenue, Passaic, N. J. 

Key Hold Lath Co., 148 Hooper Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

New Jersey Adamant Manufacturing Co., 79 Passaic Avenue, East Newark, N. J. 

Rader, Gustav, 1105 Metropolitan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Reeb, M. A., Corporation, 597 Michigan Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rock Plaster Corporation (importer), 40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. 

Schumacher Wall Board Co., Fifty-eighth Street and San Pedro and Slauson 

Avenues, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Southern Gypsum Co. (Inc.), North Holston, Va. 
United States Gypsum Co., 205 West Monroe Street, Chicago, 111. 
Universal Gypsum Co., Chicago, 111. 

MANUFACTURERS OF GYPSUM BLOCK AND TILE 

Alabastine Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
American Gypsum Co., Port Clinton, Ohio. 
Arizona Gypsum Plaster Co., Douglas, Ariz. 
Beaver Products Co. (Inc.), Buffalo, N. Y. 

Certain-teed Products Corporation, 100 East Forty-second Street, New York, 
N. Y. 



GYPSUM 237 

Ebsary Gypsum Co. (Inc.), Scottsville, N. Y. 

Empire Gypsum Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Nephi Plaster & Manufacturing Co., 907 Continental Bank Building, Salt 

Lake City, Utah. 
Plymouth Gypsum Co., Fort Dodge, Iowa. 
Reeb, M. A., Corporation, 597 Michigan Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 
United States Gypsum Co., 205 West Monroe Street, Chicago, 111. 
Wyoming Cement Plaster Co., Greybull, Wyo. 

MINERS 

[Gypsum sold crude only] 

Briggs, K. S., El Paso, Tex. 

Mammoth Plaster & Cement Co., Cedar City, Utah. 

Phoenix Gypsum Co. (Inc.), 621 Mutual Life Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Regan Bros., Mason, Nev. 

Simmons, Arthur, Norwich, N. Y. 

USES OF GYPSUM' 
GENERAL USES 

More than 95 per cent of the gypsum mined is used in construction. 
Calcined to plaster of Paris, it is used extensively as an inside wall 
plaster and in arid countries some is used as an outside finish. Plaster 
of Paris sets so quickly that a retarder must be added to insure enough 
time for mixing and placing in position. The retarders used are 
mostly organic, such as glue, glycerin, flour, blood, and sugar; other 
materials, including sand, cut wood fiber, hydrated lime, and hair, are 
added as fillers. Gypsum plaster is used extensively in building, 
either precast or poured into place as gypsum wall, or as plaster 
board, gypsum block or tile, making a good fire-resistant construction. 

Another type of gypsum plaster is that commonly known in this 
country as Keenes cement. It includes not only the original Keenes 
cement but other cements similarly manufactured and having like 
properties. They are valued because they are much harder than 
ordinary gypsum plaster, take a high polish, and as commonly made 
are much slower setting. In general the process of manufacture is 
to reburn calcined gypsum which has been mixed with a solution of 
chemicals that will unite with the lime sulphate to form a double 
salt. The materials so used include potassium sulphate, sodium 
sulphate, potassium alum, mixtures of sodium and aluminum sulphate, 
and borax. 

Cements of this type sold in the United States are made by various 
processes. It seems probable that much of the domestic output is 
not a reburned mixture, but is made by calcining lump gypsum in 
stationary kilns, grinding to a very fine powder, and adding mixtures 
of aluminum and sodium sulphate and a small amount of borax. 

Another large use of gypsum is as a retarder in Portland cement. 
Without a retarder Portland cement begins to set in a few minutes, 
hence the addition of a substance to delay setting is usually necessary. 
Either raw or calcined gypsum may be used, and cement manufac- 
turers naturally employ the cheaper raw material. It is probable, 
however, that in grinding the cement and retarder the heat developed 
calcines at least part of the gypsum to plaster of Paris. 

1 Data prepared by Marie Farnsworth, ol the Bureau of Mines. 



238 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART H 

Other smaller uses of gypsum, either crude or calcined, are as land 
plaster or fertilizer, crayons, terra alba for fillers, plate-glass beds, 
pottery and terra-cotta molds, statuary and other art work, foundry 
molds, surgical casts, dental plaster, gvpsum paint, and even in road 
building in climates that are sufficiently arid. 

NEWER USES 

Construction. — Calcined gypsum is being employed more and more 
extensively in construction. Its lightness, its excellence as a non- 
conductor of heat, and its strength with only slight reinforcing are 
properties that are each year receiving more recognition. It can be 
precast or poured into place, and the ease with which its setting time 
can be controlled gives it wide usefulness as a structural material. 
With the increase in use, better methods of manufacture are being 
employed. In many plants machine molding has replaced hand 
molding in the making of gypsum blocks and tile. Two kinds of 
continuous, practically automatic, block and tile-making machines 
have been introduced as well as some excellent wall-board machines. 
An important development in the wall-board industry is the perfect- 
ing of an automatic wall-board drying machine which has doubled 
or tripled the capacity of wall-board plants. 

A form of gypsum concrete known as structolite has been intro- 
duced during the past year. Plaster of Paris is mixed with an aggre- 
gate and poured to form the main walls and partitions of lightweight 
dwellings. Structolite is also used for bearing walls in one-story 
factory buildings and is recommended for curtain fire-stop and other 
walls in heavy-type industrial and commercial buildings where the 
main loads are supported by steel or Portland cement concrete. It 
is fireproof, although it is calcined somewhat by the heat, and the 
water then washes off the plaster of Paris formed, leaving a pitted 
surface. Structolite is said to have good thermal insulation. Its 
compressive strength when mixed neat is said to be about 2,500 
pounds per square inch as against 800 pounds for plaster of Paris 
used in other poured or precast construction. When mixed with 
standard aggregate it develops an ultimate compressive strength of 
at least 800 pounds per square inch, which permits a factor of safety 
of 10 in ordinary residential design. Structolite gives good insula- 
tion of sound; partitions of it are claimed to be 60 per cent more 
effective as nonconductors of sound than clay-tile partitions. 
Structolite is light in weight, weighing only 85 pounds per cubic foot 
(the weight of cement concrete is 150 pounds). Its rapid set makes 
rapid construction possible and it is claimed to be very adaptable. 

One of the new forms of precast gypsum products for construction 
work known as "Rockwood gypsum lumber" has been developed by 
the Rockwood Corporation, St. Louis, Mo. It is made of plaster of 
Paris mixed with fiber as a binder. It is formed into hollow blocks 
and slabs, available in many shapes and lengths, and so constructed 
that they can be planed, nailed, drilled, sawed, and handled like 
wooden lumber. It is claimed that Rockwood lumber can be used 
efficiently in building of nonbearing interior walls, exterior or interior 
bearing walls, and floors and roofs. 

Another interesting construction material introduced during the 
past year is a porous insulating material known as insulex. This is 



GYPSUM 239 

a gypsum product to which are added certain chemicals. When 
mixed with water these chemicals produce a gas, causing the mass 
to increase in bulk several times. It is then poured into place. The 
material sets in about 30 minutes, producing a product filled with 
multitudes of tiny air cells. 

A new hydraulic gypsum cement known as astroplax has been put 
on the market by a manufacturing firm in Scotland. The most 
unusual property claimed for it is that the set is not affected detri- 
mentally by disturbance. It is also claimed that old batches can 
be mixed up with new batches and thickened or thinned as required. 
This claim has not been confirmed. 

Agriculture. — Gypsum is used extensively in agriculture for reclaim- 
ing Mack alkali soils. It unites with the sodium carbonate present 
and forms sodium sulphate and calcium carbonate. This reaction 
is reversible in the presence of carbonic acid, so that provision 
should be made for carrying away the sodium sulphate. 

Its greatest value as a soil conditioner is in the production of 
legumes, especially alfalfa, clover, beans, vetch, peanuts, and peas. 
Besides being a source of sulphur, it increases the growth of legumes 
by increasing the supply of organic nitrogen in root nodules. This 
nitrogen is changed through the action of bacteria into nitrates. 
The fertilizing value of gypsum is also due to the fact that it decom- 
poses the silicates in the earth and makes soluble the potash bound 
up in the silicates. 

Gypsum applied to manure stops the waste of ammonia and also 
prevents the disagreeable odor of ammonia in stables. The preser- 
vation of nitrogen is accomplished through combination of the 
gypsum with the volatile ammonium carbonate to form the much 
more stable salt, ammonium sulphate. 

Possible therapeutic uses. — A few people claim that gypsum prevents 
tuberculosis and even assists in the cure. Although the evidence 
presented in support of the claims for therapeutic value is not con- 
clusive, it is noteworthy that virtual absence of tuberculosis among 
men working in gypsum mines and mills has been frequently reported. 
It has also been claimed that gypsum used in stables is helpful in 
the control of foot-and-mouth disease and tuberculosis of cattle and 
that gypsum is superior to lime dust for use in and around poultry 
houses. 

Other uses. — In some places in Germany gypsum is being used to 
fix synthetic ammonia. Ammonia and carbon dioxide are forced 
into a slurry of gypsum. Ammonium sulphate and precipitated 
limestone are the resulting products. 

Gypsum wastes resulting from the manufacture of phosphoric acid 
and monocalcium phosphate may be turned into valuable products. 
In the manufacture of phosphoric acid about half the materials used 
are converted into gypsum. Heretofore this gypsum has not been 
used because of its finely divided form and its contamination with 
acid. A process has been worked out whereby the acid is neutralized 
and the product centrifuged to make it more compact. The result- 
ing gypsum can be calcined and used as ordinary plaster of Paris. 

utilization of anhydrite. — A method for converting anhydrite to 
gypsum has been devised by the Bureau of Mines. Tests have 
shown that anhydrite can be hydrated by very fine grinding. With 



240 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

an average particle size of 7 microns the time required for complete 
hydration is about three weeks. The gypsum so formed can be 
used as a retarder in Portland cement and makes an excellent plaster 
of Paris. Experiments have shown that, although anhydrite alone 
is a poor substitute for gypsum as a cement retarder, it gives good 
results when mixed with gypsum. 



ABRASIVE MATERIALS 



By Frank J. Katz 



INTRODUCTION 

The production of natural abrasive materials is a varied industry 
in which a considerable number of widely scattered dissimilar enter- 
prises are engaged in placing different commodities on the markets, 
fey present-day standards in mining and manufacturing few, if any, 
of these enterprises would be considered large. Nevertheless, in- 
dividually as well as collectively, they are important elements in the 
industrial life of the country, inasmuch as they supply tools for 
grinding, polishing, and other abrasive operations and the ingredi- 
ents of cleansing compounds, without which the great wood, leather, 
and metal working and other industries and many householders 
would be put to great expense and inconvenience in the use of sub- 
stitutes. 

This chapter considers mineral products which as such or as essen- 
tial constituents of manufactured products are used as abrasive 
materials. Some of these mineral products are used in other ways 
also — -for example, tripoli as a filler and diatom aceous earth for 
thermal insulation. With these minerals segregation of production 
according to uses is difficult, but the total production for all uses is 
shown in this report. Feldspar and quartz, both of which are used 
as abrasives, are excluded from this report because that is not their 
principal use and because precise separation of the statistics accord- 
ing to uses is impossible. Therefore they are considered in other 
chapters of Mineral Resources, entitled " Feldspar " and " Silica." 

Statistics on artificial abrasives are included for comparison and 
because of their strong influence on the marketing of natural ab- 
rasives. 

NATURAL ABRASIVES 

Under the head of natural abrasives in this report are included 
millstones and related quarry products, such as chasers, drags tones, 
and paving stone for chaser mills; grindstones and pulpstones; oil- 
stones, whetstones, hones, scythestones, and rubbing stones; corun- 
dum and emery; abrasive garnet; tripoli; diatomaceous earth; 
pumice; and pebbles and lining for tube mills. These natural abra- 
sives were produced in 1924 in 27 States, as follows: 

1 Statistics of domestic production were compiled by Miss A. T. Coons and Miss B. H. Stoddard, and 
those of. world production by Miss L. M. Jones, all of the Bureau of Mines. Data on imports and exports 
were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. 

24] 



242 MINEBAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART XI 

Arkansas Oilstones. 

California Diatomaceous earth, grinding pebbles, and pumice. 

Connecticut Diatomaceous earth. 

Illinois Tripoli. 

Indiana Rubbing stones, scythestones, and whetstones. 

Kansas Pumice. 

Kentucky Scythestones and whetstones. 

Maryland Diatomaceous earth. 

Michigan Grindstones. 

Minnesota Grinding pebbles and tube-mill lining. 

Missouri Tripoli 

Nebraska Pumice. 

Nevada Diatomaceous earth. 

New Hampshire Diatomaceous earth, garnet, millstones, and scythe- 
stones. 

New York Diatomaceous earth, emery, garnet, and millstones. 

North Carolina Millstones. 

Ohio Grindstones, pulpstones, rubbing stones, scythestones, 

and whetstones. 

Oklahoma Tripoli. 

Oregon Diatomaceous earth. 

Pennsylvania Rottenstone. 

South Dakota Grinding pebbles and tube-mill lining. 

Tennessee Tripoli. 

Utah Diatomaceous earth and pumice. 

Vermont Scythestones. 

Virginia Emery and millstones. 

Washington Diatomaceous earth, pulpstones, and rubbing stones. 

West Virginia. __ Grindstones and pulpstones. 

MILLSTONES 

American millstones have been and are still for the most part made 
of quartz sandstone and conglomerate, chiefly in Ulster County, 
N. Y., and Montgomery County, Va., but also in Pennsylvania. 
Millstones are also made of granite, particularly in Alabama, Maine, 
Minnesota, New Hampshire, and North Carolina. The production 
recorded in Mineral Kesources includes only the stones made for other 
than purely local use. Doubtless a large number of stones have been 
made in many unrecorded localities as local use has required, and 
they have been made of other rocks than those specified, particu- 
larly in the mountain sections of the Southern States. Formerly the 
millstone manufacturing industry was much larger than at present. 
About 1880 the total value of the stones produced and sola in the 
United States was around $200,000 annually. The production has 
declined since the late eighties and during the last four years has 
been from $20,000 to $30,000 worth of stones annually. The decline 
is due in part to the fact that the manufacture of millstones is a 
hand craft in which, as in many others in the United States, the 
old master craftsmen who are gradually disappearing are not being 
replaced. In part also the change is due to new processes in the 

frain, paint, and mineral milling industries in which the old-style 
urrstones and chaser mills are being supplanted by grinding equip- 
ment of an entirely different type. 

The value of the millstones (burrstones) and related quarry prod- 
ucts — chasers, dragstones, and pavers — sold by producers in the 
United States in 1924 was more than in 1921 to 1923, but less than 
in other years since 1910. 



ABRASIVE MATERIALS 



243 



Value of millstones, chasers, and dragstones sold by producers in the United States, 

1915-1924 





New York 


Other States • 


Total 


Year 


Pro- 
ducers 


Value 


Pro- 
ducers 


Value 


Pro- 
ducers 


Value 


1915 


12 
10 
10 
14 
7 
8 
12 
12 
17 
17 


$16, 883 
10, 287 
22,103 
25, 488 
10, 155 
13, 331 
14, 672 
17, 025 
14,344 
18, 215 


7 
10 
8 
13 
11 
11 
7 
4 
4 
5 


$36, 597 

34, 272 

21, 386 

67,026 

56, 817 

49,994 

9,852 

3,828 

7,885 

11,910 


19 
20 
18 
27 
18 
19 
19 
16 
21 
22 


$53, 480 


1916 


44,559 


1917 


43,489 


1918 


92,514 


1919 


66,972 


1920 


63,325 


1921 . 


24,524 


1922 


20,853 


1923 


22,229 


1924 


30, 125 







°1915: North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia; 1916, 1917, and 1919: Alabama, North Carolina, 
Pennsylvania, and Virginia; 1918: Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia; 1920: Alabama, 
Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia; 1921: Alabama, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Virginia; 
1922: Alabama, North Carolina, and Virginia; 1923: Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, and Virginia; 
1924: New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Virginia. 

GRINDSTONES AND PULPSTONES 

Grindstones and pulpstones are made from sandstone quarried in 
northeastern and eastern Ohio, western West Virginia, eastern 
Michigan and, during the last few years, in Pierce County, Wash. 
In 1924 there was a decrease of 18 per cent in the total quantity of 
grindstones and pulpstones sold, as compared with 1923. The total 
value of such stones sold by producers in 1924 was $1,666,669. 



Grindstones and pulpstones sold by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Grindstones 


Pulpstones 


Short tons 


Value 


Pieces 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


42,623 
50, 839 
54, 432 
56, 554 
40, 755 
44, 832 
16,310 
21, 367 
37,384 
28, 991 


$564,340 
631,497 
806, 896 

1,262,602 
993, 959 

1, 239, 990 
477, 259 
574, 900 

1, 008, 899 
852, 260 


696 
1,066 
2,325 
2,921 
2,450 
2,321 
2,941 
» 1,619 
2,533 
2,660 


C) 

(») 

(°) 
8,785 
6,110 
8,652 

10, 030 

*5,157 
9,186 
9,193 


$84,139 


1916 


134,643 


1917.. 


340,888 


1918 


513, 680 


1919 


342, 056 


1920 


467, 014 


1921. 


750, 063 


1922 


6 445, 286 


1923 


680, 416 


1924. 


814,409 







• Figures not available. 

» Exclusive of sales in Washington prior to 1923. 

The companies producing grindstones and pulpstones in the 
United States in 1924, with the location of the deposits from which 
the stone was obtained, were as follows: 

Michigan : 

Huron County — Grindstone City — The Cleveland Stone Co. (address, 
Cleveland, Ohio) — Grindstones/ 
Ohio: 

Columbiana County — 

East Liverpool — The International Pulpstocie Co. (address, Elyria) — 

Pulpstones. 
Lisbon — The Smallwood-Low Co. — Pulpstones. 



244 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART H 



(address, Amherst) — Pulp- 



Cleveland) — Grindstones. 
Stone Co. (address, Cleve- 



Ohio — Continued. 

Cuyahoga County — Berea — The Cleveland Stone Co. (address, Cleveland)— 

Grindstones, lathe stones, square stones, etc. 
Holmes County — 

Glenmont — The Briar Hill Stone Co. — Grindstones. 
Killbuck — Mount Pisbia Stone Co. — Grindstones. 
Jefferson County — 

Empire — The Smallwood Stone Co. (address, Steuben ville) — Pulp- 
stones. 
Steubenville — The General Stone Co. 
stones. 
Lorain County — 

Amherst — The Ohio Quarries Co. (address 
Amherst and Westview — The Cleveland 
land) — Grindstones. 
Washington County — 

Brokaw, Gravel Bank, Hayward, and Marietta (Finch Quarry) 

The Cleveland Stone Co. (address, Cleveland) — Grindstones. 
Constitution — The Constitution Stone Co. — Grindstones. 
Marietta — 

The Eureka Stone Co. — Grindstones. 
The Hall Grindstone Co. — Grindstones. 
The Marietta Stone Co. — Grindstones and pulpstones. 
Ohio Valley Stone Co. — Grindstones. 
Washington: Pierce County — Wilkeson — Walker Cut Stone Co. 

Tacoma) — Pulpstones. 
West Virginia: 

Jackson County — Sherman — The Eureka Stone Co. (address, 

Ohio) — Grindstones . 
Monongalia County — Opekiska — The Smallwood Stone ■ Co. 

Steubenville, Ohio) — Pulpstones. 
Pleasants County — St. Marys — The Cleveland Stone Co. (address, Cleve 

land, Ohio) — Grindstones and pulpstones. 
Wetzel County — Littleton — 

American Stone Co. — Pulpstones. 
C. & M. Quarries Co. — Pulpstones. 
Southern Stone Co. — Pulpstones. 



(address, 



Marietta, 
(address, 



OILSTONES AND SCYTHESTONES 

Oilstones were produced from novaculite quarried in Arkansas; 
whetstones and scythes tones from sandstone quarried in Indiana, 
Kentucky, and Ohio; scythestones from schist quarried in New 
Hampshire and Vermont ; and rubbing stones from sandstone quarried 
in Indiana, Ohio, and Washington. 

Oilstones, whetstones, hones, scythestones, and rubbing stones sold by producers in 
the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


C) 
(•) 

1,816 
1,010 
1,463 


$115, 175 
154, 573 
168, 704 
189, 033 
235, 943 


1920 


1,144 
831 
1,016 
1,223 
1,056 


$231, 747 


1916 


1921 


173, 025 


1917 


1922... 


197, 450 


1918 


1923... 


231,812 


1919 


1924 


258,943 









• Figures not available. 

The manufacturers of oilstones, whetstones, scythestones, and rub- 
bing stones from natural stone in 1924 and the source of their raw 
material were as follows: 

The American Rubbing Stone Co., Cincinnati, Ohio: Whetstones and rubbing 
stones; manufactured from sandstone quarried at Floyds Knobs, Floyd County, 
Ind. 



ABRASIVE MATERIALS 



245 



The Bracher Co., Belleville, N. J.: 

Oilstones; manufactured from novaculite obtained from quarries neaT Hot 

Springs, Garland County, Ark. 
Scythestones and whetstones; manufactured from sandstone obtained from 
the Kentucky Bluestone Co., Bluestone, Rowan County, Ky. 
The Cleveland Stone Co., Cleveland, Ohio: Scythestones and holy-stones; manu- 
factured from stone obtained at Berea, Cuyahoga County, and Amherst, 
Lorain County, Ohio. 
Pike Manufacturing Co., Pike, N. H.: 

Oilstones; manufactured from novaculite obtained from quarries near Hot 

Springs, Garland County, Ark. 
Whetstones; manufactured from sandstone obtained from quarries near 
West Baden, Orange County, Ind. Also manufactured from sandstone 
obtained from the quarries of the Waller Bros. Stone Co., McDermott, 
Scioto County, Ohio. 
Scythestones; manufactured from schist quarried at Pike, Grafton County, 
N. H. Also manufactured from schist quarried at Brownington, Orleans 
County, Vt. 
James H. Rhodes & Co. (Inc.), Chicago, 111.: Rubbing stones; manufactured 

from sandstone quarried at New Albany, Floyd County, Ind. 
Scranton Whetstone & Abrasive Co., Scranton, Pa.: 

Oilstones; manufactured from novaculite obtained from quarries near Hot 

Springs, Garland County, Ark. 
Whetstones; manufactured from sandstone obtained from quarries near 
West Baden, Orange County, Ind. 
Tenino Stone Co. (Inc.), Tenino, Wash.: Holy-stones; manufactured from sand- 
stone quarried at Tenino, Thurston County, W T ash. 
West Baden Whetstone Co., J. A. Chaillaux, West Baden, Ind.: Scythestones; 
manufactured from sandstone quarried at West Baden, Orange Cou«ty, Ind. 
Stone also sold to other companies for the manufacture of whetstones. 

CORUNDUM AND EMERY 



The domestic sources of emery are in the Peekskill region, N. Y., 
and Pittsylvania County, Va. The good emery in the deposits 
formerly worked in the vicinity of Chester, Hampden County, Mass., 
appears to be exhausted. 

Corundum resources were formerly exploited in a large number 
of localities in the Appalachian section of North Carolina and Geor- 
gia. There has been no regular production of corundum in the 
United States since 1906, although small lots were mined and sold 
during the World War. In 1924 the quantity of emery produced 
almost equaled that for 1923 when the production recovered from the 
severe slump of 1921 and 1922 and nearly reached the quantity re- 
corded in 1919 and 1920. 

Although domestic emery does not enjoy the reputation for high 
quality accorded to Grecian and Turkish emery, it nevertheless ap- 
pears to be very satisfactory for certain grinding and polishing 
operations. 

Emery sold or used by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


"3,063 

15,282 

> 17, 135 

« 10, 422 

2,601 


•$31,131 

123, 901 

'241,050 

« 112, 878 

23,203 


1920 


2,327 
305 
1,468 
2,286 
2,195 


$21, 685 


1916 


1921. 


2,250 


1917 


1922.. 


17,511 


1918 . 


1923 - 


29, 478 


1919. 


1924 


19,756 









• Estimated. 

» Includes 820 short tons of corundum, valued at $67,461. 

• Includes corundum. 



246 



MINERAL, RESOURCES, 1924 -PART H 



GARNET 

Abrasive garnet is produced in Essex, Hamilton, and Wairen 
Counties, N. Y.; Merrimack County, N. H.; and Clay and Jackson 
Counties, N. C. In former years a little was produced in Pennsyl- 
vania and Connecticut. The chief producing region is Warren 
County, N. Y. In 1923 the output of abrasive garnet rose to an 
unprecedented figure, and the average value at the mines was ap- 
proximately $76 a ton. The quantity produced in 1924 was less, 
but the average value increased to $81 a ton. The figures indicate 
an unusual growth in the use of garnet as an abrasive material and 
the recognition of the peculiar worth of garnet in certain processes, 
especially the finishing of wood and leather and the manufacture of 
shoes. In these processes garnet is used chiefly in the form of a 
coating on paper or cloth and also on belts and specially shaped forms. 

The Bureau of Mines has recently published Bulletin 256 entitled 
" Garnet; its Mining, Milling, and Utilization," by W. M. Myers and 
CO. Anderson. 

Abrasive garnet sold or used by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 


4,301 
6,171 
4,995 
4,696 
4,944 


$139,584 
208, 850 
198, 327 
248, 161 
310, 131 


1920- 


5,476 
3,048 
7,054 
9,006 
8,290 


$434,425 


1916 


1921. 


260, 687 


1917 


1922. 


566, 879 


1918.. 


1923--. 


688, 437 


1919. 


1924. 


674, 176 









TRIPOLI 

The material called tripoli in the trade in the United States is 
a white, yellowish, or pinkish, light, porous, absorbent, and generally 
pure siliceous rock that has resulted from the leaching of calcareous 
material from highly siliceous limestone or highly calcareous chert, 
or from the leaching of fine-grained siliceous shale by a process 
that leaves only silica, or from the chemical weathering and dis- 
integration of novaculite. In its origin and properties and in some 
of its uses tripoli is like "rottenstone," a small output of which is 
here reported with tripoli. The " rottenstone " produced in Penn- 
sylvania and also " rottenstones " from England and Scotland 
appear on examination to be essentially very fine-grained argillaceous 
material and therefore quite different from tripoli in composition. 

The principal commercial sources of tripoli are southwestern 
Missouri, southeastern Oklahoma, and southern Illinois. The occur- 
rence of tripoli is also known at several localities in the Appalachian 
region of the Southern States, especially in Tennessee and in Georgia, 
where there has been some production. Tripoli is also abundant in 
the Ozark Mountain region of Arkansas. 

Some of the Missouri-Oklahoma tripoli is produced primarily 
for use as an abrasive, and some of it is mined to be worked up 
into filter blocks, the cuttings and waste from the making of which 
are ground and prepared for abrasive and other uses. The larger part 
of the Missouri output is used as filler, for foundry facings, and in 
many other ways. The Illinois product is generally known simply 



ABRASIVE MATERIALS 



247 



as "silica," and though used to some extent as an abrasive for metal 
polishes, in soaps, and in cleansers, it is very largely used in paint 
and fillers, in making glass, in the body and enamel of ceramic wares, 
and for facing foundry molds. 

It is not possible to determine the amounts of tripoli used as 
abrasive material and otherwise, nor to obtain from the producers 
uniform reports on the quantity and value of the crude or rough 
quarried material, as they sell much of the product originally in 
some manufactured or prepared form. Statistics herein reported 
and in earlier chapters of Mineral Resources therefore do not permit 
satisfactory comparison between years or between producing States. 
In the following table the value for the total output of crude tripoli 
is in part an arbitrarily assigned value, inasmuch as much of the 
output is not sold crude but in ground or other prepared form by the 
original producers. The values given "as sold" are the total realiza- 
tions as reported by producers, and include receipts from sales of 
both crude and ground or otherwise finished material. 

Tripoli (including Pennsylvania rottenstone) sold or used by producers in the United 

States, 1915 to 1924 





Illinois 


Other States a 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Crude 
(esti- 
mated) 


As sold 

(crude 

and 

finished) 


Crude 
(esti- 
mated) 


As sold 

(crude 

and 

finished) 


Crude 
(esti- 
mated) 


As sold 

(crude 

and 

finished) 


1915 


23, 756 
33, 1S7 
16, 133 
12,0(4 
13,014 

24, 458 
7,765 

18, 747 
11, 522 
13, 466 


$59, 390 
82, 968 

31, 338 
18, 902 

32, 961 
66, 509 
27, 333 
54, 741 
31,230 
23, 566 


(») 

( 6 ) 
$207, 738 
100, 126 
116,492 
360, 651 
125, 352 
194, 371 
117,201 
116,188 


6,955 
10, 070 
9,936 

7, 978 
11, 278 
15, 775 

4,575 
11, 458 
15, 560 
15, 010 


$69, 567 
132, 248 
61, 078 
34, 913 
65, 049 
97, 567 
26, 559 
50, 568 
30, 960 
31,971 


C) 

$130, 450 

99, 728 

65, 049 

209, 026 

87, 661 

122, 357 

265, 556 

273, 221 


30,711 

43, 257 

26, 069 
19, 982 
24, 292 
40, 233 
12, 340 
30, 205 

27, 082 

28, 476 


$128, 957 
215,216 
92,416 
53, 815 
98, 010 
164, 076 
53, 892 
105. 309 
62, 190 
55, 537 


( k ) 


1916 

1917 


C) 
$338, 188 


1918... _ 


199, 854 


1919-. 

1920-. 


181,541 

56'.), 677 


1921 

1922 


213, 013 
316, 728 


1923-. 


382, 757 


1924.. 


389, 409 







• 1915: Georgia, Missouri, and Pennsylvania; 1916-1923: Missouri, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania; 1924: 
Vlissouri, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. 
6 Figures not available. 

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH 



Diatomaceous earth, also called infusorial earth and sold under 
various trade names, is a light earthy material which as obtained 
from some sources is loose and powdery, and from others is more 
or less firmly coherent-. Much of it resembles chalk or clay, but it 
can be distinguished at once from chalk by the fact that it does 
not effervesce when treated with acids. It is generally white oi 
gray but may be yellowish, pinkish, or brown, owing to the presence 
of impurities, or even black when mixed with much organic matter. 
Diatomaceous earth is made up of the remains of minute aquatic 
plants and is composed chemically of hydrous silica. 

Deposits of diatomaceous earth are widespread in many parts of 
the Western States, particularly California, Idaho, Oregon, Wash- 
ington, and Nevada, where in some places it occurs in very thick 

44839°— 27 17 



248 



MINERAX. RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



beds which are remarkably uniform and pure. Diatomaceous earth 
is also widespread in beds underlying the coastal region of Maryland 
and Virginia, occupying the triangular area roughly marked by 
Annapolis on the northeast, Richmond on the southwest, and the 
Dismal Swamp region on the southeast. In this region, however, 
the beds vary in quality or degree of purity and in thickness and 
are not known to be continuous, though some excellent diatomaceous 
material has been found within the region. In the northern part 
of the United States, especially that part geologically known as the 
glaciated region, and also in the lake region of Florida, diatomaceous 
deposits on lake bottoms or beneath accumulations of muck in 
swamps are also abundant. 

At present the production of diatomaceous earth in the United 
States is practically limited to the thick beds of pure earth in Cali- 
fornia, Oregon, Washington, and Nevada. A little is produced in 
New York and Mar} r land and at irregular intervals in several other 
States. 



Diatomaceous earth sold or used by producers in the United States, 1915 to 1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915° 


4,593 
2,721 
3,033 
2,965 
42, 642 


$38, 517 
26, 337 
31, 368 
24, 947 

531, 960 


1920 

1921 


61, 922 
» 55, 134 
44, 761 
65, 833 
63, 163 


$1, 079, 693 


1916 » 


» 682, 616 
386, 669 
699, 406 


1917 a 


1922 


1918 ° 


1923 


1919 . 


1924 


693, 917 







° Exclusive of considerable production for special uses upon which the Bureau of Mines is not at liberty 
to report. 

^Partly estimated. 

PUMICE 

The domestic product sold as pumice is almost wholly a finely 
fragmental volcanic glass or so-called volcanic dust or "ash." This 
material is dug from deposits in which it is interbedded with other 
sedimentary materials or from deposits of "ash" that blanket the 
surface. The chief sources of production are in Kansas and Nebraska, 
but small quantities have been produced in California and other 
Western States. The domestic production in recent years has 
included also some lump pumice produced in Arizona and Cali- 
fornia. This lump pumice is fairly comparable with the imported 
Italian pumice, which formerly constituted the bulk of the pumice 
used in this country. Much of the Italian pumice was crushed and 
ground for use in the form of powder, and in that state it was not 
appreciably different from the domestic volcanic dust or "ash," 
which is a satisfactory substitute for it. 

Pumice sold or used by producers in the United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915 . 


27, 708 
33, 320 

35, 293 
30, 637 

36, 051 


$63, 185 
82, 263 
84, 814 
91, 178 

116,835 


1920 


41, 838 
37, 108 
45, 262 
56, 575 
43, 651 


$114,433 


1916 . 


1921 


158, 540 


1917 


1922 


175, 600 


1918 


1923 


214, 169 


1919 


1924 


190, 253 









ABRASIVE MATERIALS 



249 



PEBBLES FOB GRINDING AND FLINT LINING FOR TUBE MILLS 

The production of pebbles used for grinding minerals, ores, and 
cement ingredients and clinker, and for other purposes, together 
with the output of quartzite blocks for use as tube-mill liners, re- 
ported below includes only the output of beach pebbles in southern 
California and of cut cubes or pebbles and liners made of quartzite 
in Minnesota and South Dakota. The figures appear to cover the 
entire commercial output, but there was doubtless an unrecorded 
additional production for local use by the producing concerns. 

The production in 1924 showed a considerable decrease from 1923, 
and was far below the output during the years 1917-1920, when 
efforts of domestic producers were stimulated by a threatened short- 
age of the supply of imported pebbles during the period of the w^ar. 

Pebbles for grinding and flint lining for tube mills sold or used by producers in the 
United States, 1915-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1915... _ 


C) 

" 6, 345 
15, 050 
12,469 
9,448 


(•) 

» $42, 500 
131,441 
129, 485 
85, 302 


1920. 


10, 924 
989 
3,159 
4,551 
2,532 


$77, 823 


1916. 


1921 . 


14, 637 


1917 

1918 _ 


1922 

1923. 


30, 798 
51, 795 


1919 


1924 


37, 429 









° Figures not available prior to 1916. 

6 Grinding pebbles only. Figures for tube-mill lining not available. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Value of abrasive materials imported for consumption in the United States, 1921-1924 



Material 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Millstones and burrstones 


$13, 556 
81, 880 
35, 761 
393, 454 
13, 203 
173, 201 
466, 345 
116, 157 
(•) 


$15, 356 
81, 733 
48, 938 

389, 390 
10, 429 

118, 458 
1, 029, 261 

145, 805 
« 1, 837 


$20,102 
106, 028 

53, 233 
722, 688 

11,779 
128, 693 
228, 409 
130, 974 

93, 803 


$6, 311 


Grindstones and pulpstones 


122, 440 


Hones, oilstones, and whetstones ... 


43, 579 




364, 755 


Diatomaceous earth, tripoli, and rottenstone 


9, 504 


Pumice. 


111,284 


Diamond dust and bort .. 


259, 482 


Flint, flints, and flintstones, unground 


114, 958 


Garnet. .., 


54, 402 







Not separately classified prior to new tariff, Sept. 22, 1922. 



The figures for millstones and burrstones may be divided as fol- 
lows: Rough, 1921, $3,075; 1922, $7,412; 1923, $17,214; 1924, $5,720; 
made into millstones, 1921, $10,481; 1922, $7,944; 1923, $2,888; 
1924, $591. 



Emery and corundum imported for consumption in the United Slates, 1921-1924 



Year 


Grains 


Ore and rock 


Other 
manufac- 
tures 




Pounds 


Value 


Long tons 


Value 


1921. 


1, 504, 971 
381, 222 
427, 567 
416,895 


$82, 771 
16,643 
18, 721 
17, 820 


6,169 
5, 297 
11,362 
9,275 


$281, 931 
329, 902 
610, 518 
292, 817 


$28, 752 


1922. 


42, 845 


1923 


93, 449 


1924 


54, 118 







250 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



" Flint, flints, and flintstones (unground) " imported into the United States, 1921 -1924 

[General imports] 





1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Country 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 
















(») 

1,930 
6 


$20 




1,365 
280 


$23, 404 
1,510 


902 
193 


$15, 460 
920 


2,012 

766 

32 

3,908 

34 

8,955 

226 


$22, 152 

3,409 

484 

43, 886 

365 

57, 401 

2, 572 


26, 089 




84 








3,249 


36, 924 


4,807 

C) 

9,723 
251 


51, 076 

8 

73, 636 

2,932 


'3, 681 

9 

11, 635 

184 

28 


33, 892 




157 




5,188 
2 


54, 248 
53 


53, 080 




1,497 




139 












C) 


5 










58 
50 
56 


681 
421 
671 












19 


700 
















Scotland 


(•) 


18 


























10, 084 


116, 157 


16, 040 


145, 805 


15, 952 


130, 974 


17, 473 


114,958 



« Less than 1 ton. 

Value of domestic abrasive materials exported, 1921-1924 



Material 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Grindstones 


$281,976 
1,318,804 
1,719,810 


$281,413 
644, 151 
292, 051 


$499, 123 
571,733 
342, 737 


$481,397 




521,840 


All other natural abrasives, hones, whetstones, etc. 


173, 731 



ABRASIVE MATERIALS 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION 

World's production of natural abrasives, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



251 





1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Corundum: 

Australia, Western vexports 


178 
213 
521 
63 
236 

1,500 

390 

1,016 

28, 820 

3,800 

4, 943 

• 6, 203 

25 

75 

( a ) 

56, 174 

140 

11,089 

676 

(•) 

2,111 


(0) 

366 
65 
285 
7 
112 

800 

209 








Canada 








India, British 








Madagascar 


186 

2 

1,836 

2,480 

489 


421 
(«) 
2,554 

10,000 

523 


147 


Russia .. _. 


( a ) 


Union of South Africa 


1,695 


Diatomaceous earth: 

Algeria 


« 9, 092 


Australia- 
New South Wales 


573 


Victoria 




Chosen 


24,313 
4,580 

<*3,415 

' 4, 228 
875 
113 
600 

50, 016 

243 

12, 709 

592 

(«) 

277 


38, 904 

4, 620 

5,207 

1, 909 

175 

82 

322 

40, 606 

420 
13, 000 
(") 
(•) 
1,332 






France 


(•) 

4,096 

1,680 

420 

110 

696 

59, 722 

400 
21, 626 
( a ) 
(') 
2,074 

1,134 

982 
8,170 

20, 914 

4,129 

1,827 

960 

42, 247 

(•) 

" 1, 705 
2,220 
(») 
"46 

o 207, 950 

(°) 

42 

452 

1,109 

30, 473 
< 3, 776 
51, 324 

118 
(") 

869 
24, 568 


(°) 




4,326 


Ireland (northern) 


2,480 


Italy. 


420 


Norway (exports). 


(°) 


Sweden... 


608 


United States.. 


57, 300 


Emery: 

Germany (Bavaria) 


(") 


Greece.. 


23, 000 


Russia 


(°) 


Turkey 


(') 


United States 


1,991 


Garnet: 

Canada 


327 


Madagascar 






10 
(») 

6,399 

15, 726 
(0 
2,866 

912 

875 

24,062 

19, 105 

' 5, 324 
1,885 
(*) 
(») 

« 68, 930 
778 
43 
372 
922 

21,036 

3,068 

41, 061 

199 
(") 

524 
27, 401 




Spain.... 


198 
4,968 

11,162 
(') 
9,910 

2,217 
1,410 

48, 520 

19,240 

« 2, 728 
1,857 
( A ) 
334 

" 67, 800 

500 

15 

630 

1,038 

25, 200 

2, 889 

37, 955 

236 

54 

597 

36, 499 


5 
2,765 

13, 000 

(') 
897 

1,162 

860 

23, 895 

19, 300 
« 14, 348 
1,934 
( fc ) 
(<*) 

» 77, 550 

850 

29 

681 

754 

10, 968 
2,992 
33,664 

309 

34 

494 

11, 195 


1,112 


United States .. 


7,521 


Grinding pebbles and tube-mill lining: 

Denmark 


25, 570 


France . 


(') 


United States . 


2,297 


Grindstones and pulpstones: 

Canada (grindstones) 


2,441 


Italy (grindstones) ... . 


860 


United States . . 


34,640 


Millstones: 

France ... 


( a ) 


Greece (sales) 


» 2, 869 


Italy.. 


2,300 


United States... 


(") 


Yugoslavia (exports) 


(°) 


Oilstones, scythestones, etc.: 

Belgium (whetstones) . 


(°) 


France (whetstones) 


(°) 


Germany (Bavaria) (whetstones) 


( a ) 


Italy (honestones) 


517 


United States. . 


958 


Pumice: 

Italy 


31, 094 


New Zealand 


« 1, 655 


United States. 


39, 599 


Tripoli: 

Canada (tripolite) 


30 


France 


(°) 


Spain... 


404 


United States.. 


25, 833 







° Data not available. 

h Only 25 kilograms exported. 

« Exports. 

d Data relate to the eight months, May-December, 1921. 

* Turkey has been for many years a large producer and exporter of emery, but data of neither output 
nor exports are available for the years under discussion. 

/ France is a large producer and exporter of flint pebbles for grinding, but data of neither output nor 
exports are available. 
o Number of stones, weight not reported. 

* Weight not recorded, but value was as follows: 1920, $63,325; 1921, $24,524; 1922, $20,853; 1923, $22,22S{ 
1924, $30,125. 



252 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



ARTIFICIAL ABRASIVES 

The artificial abrasives here considered are of three kinds — (1) 
metallic abrasives, (2) silicon carbide, and (3) aluminum oxide. 
These products are manufactured by the following concerns, some of 
which make more than one kind, as indicated by the numbers in 
parentheses : 

Abrasive Co. (Abrasive Company of Canada), Bridesburg, Philadelphia, Pa., 

plant at Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (3). 
The Carborundum Co. and Canadian Carborundum Co. (Ltd.), Niagara 

Falls, N. Y., and Shawinigan Falls, Quebec, Canada, plants at Niagara 

Falls, N. Y., Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Shawinigan Falls, Quebec (2, 3). 
Exolon Co., Blasdell, N. Y., plants at Blasdell, N. Y., and Thorold, Ontario 

(2,3). 
General Abrasive Co. (Inc.), Niagara Falls, N. Y., plant at Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. (3). 
Globe Steel Abrasive Co., Mansfield, Ohio, plant at Mansfield, Ohio (1). 
Norton Co., Worcester, Mass., plants at Niagara Falls, N. Y., and Chippewa, 

Ontario (2, 3). 
Pittsburgh Crushed Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., plant at Pittsburgh, Pa. (1). 

The figures given in the table that follows represent the crude or 
immediate product of the electric furnaces in which the carbide and 
aluminum oxide abrasives are manufactured. Much of the product 
there reported is subject to further manufacture before being sold. 
Although an undeterminable quantity is not used finally as abrasive 
material, the total output is here included because it is thought that 
the proportion used as abrasive material has not fluctuated so widely 
as to destroy the value of these figures for comparison with the 
statistics of production of natural abrasives. 

Crude artificial abrasives, sold, shipped, or used, from manufacturing plants in 
the United States and Canada, 1916-1924 





Silicon carbide 


Aluminum oxide 


Metallic abrasives 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1916 


7,025 
8,323 
10, 047 
28, 435 
6,887 
2,707 

16, 233 
21, 149 

17, 792 


$707, 120 
1, 074, 152 

1, 518, 600 
3, 380, 151 
1, 309, 605 

475, 336 

2, 022, 613 
2, 786, 929 
2, 161, 498 


30, 708 
48, 463 
35, 716 
19, 723 
32, 891 
7,325 
31,898 
51,391 
33, 708 


$2, 139, 230 
6, 969, 387 
5, 741, 270 
3,811,498 
5, 956, 639 
1,318,771 
3, 246, 714 
5, 378, 926 
3, 482, 577 


1,073 
1,125 
5,150 
2, 360 
2,659 
3,167 
5,804 
8,229 
8,597 


$89, 559 
93, 703 
422, 727 
274, 200 
225, 920 
202, 040 
421, 148 
612, 140 
569, 665 


38, 806 
57,911 
50, 913 
50, 518 
42, 437 
13, 199 
53, 935 
80, 769 
60, 097 


$2, 935, 909 


1917 


8, 137, 242 


1918 


7, 682, 597 


1919 


7, 465, 849 


1920 


7, 492, 164 


1921 


1,996,147 


1922 


5, 690, 475 


1923. 


8, 777, 995 


1924 


6,213,740 







SAND AND GRAVEL 



By Estelle R. Phillips 



PRODUCTION 

The output of sand and gravel in the United States in 1924 was 
larger than that reported for any preceding year and amounted to 
156,230,063 short tons, valued at $97,013,115, an increase of 12 per 
cent in quantity and 7 per cent in value over 1923. There was a 
general increase in the quantity of all grades except some of the 
higher-priced sands, such as molding, fire or furnace, and filter sand, 
and in engine sand. Over three-fifths of the States showed in- 
creased output. 

Although the quantity of sand produced increased 12 per cent, the 
value increased less than 1 per cent as the larger production was more 
than offset hj the lower average values of all grades except filter sand 
and by the smaller proportion of high-priced sand. The average value 
of all sand was also affected by the considerable quantity of low- 
priced sand used for ballast and fills by the railroads. 

Gravel, including that used as railroad ballast, increased 11 per 
cent in quantity and 14 per cent in value; gravel for building and 
paving increased 18 per cent in quantity and 15 per cent in value. 

Sand and gravel sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1919-1924 



Year 


Sand 


Gravel (including 
railroad ballast) 


Total 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1919 


35, 969, 736 
43, 776, 142 
38, 294, 954 
49, 694, 923 
67, 365, 271 
75, 572, 010 
12 


$26, 389, 679 
39, 198, 614 
29, 049, 950 
35, 469, 920 
48, 473, 565 
48, 844, 465 
1 


34, 606, 671 
38, 265, 246 
41, 550, 054 
45, 172, 123 
72, 566, 882 
80, 658, 053 
11 


$19, 561, 877 
26,462,991 
27, 434, 295 
29, 147, 744 
42, 430, 089 
48, 168, 650 
14 


70, 576, 407 
82, 041, 388 
79, 845, 008 
94, 867, 046 
139, 932, 153 
156, 230, 063 
12 


$45, 951, 556 


1920 


65, 661, 605 


1921... 


56, 484, 245 


1922.. 


64, 617, 664 


1923.. 


90, 903, 654 


1924. 


97, 013, 115 


Per cent of increase over 1923.. 


7 



Building sand constituted 26 per cent of the country's production 
of sand and gravel, building gravel 20 per cent, paving gravel 18 
per cent, gravel used for railroad ballast 14 per cent, and paving 
sand 13 per cent. Molding, glass, engine, grinding, fire or furnace, 
and filter sands, named in order of quantity, together equaled 7 
per cent of the total, and the balance (2 per cent) consisted of miscel- 
laneous sands, including sand used by railroads for ballast, fills, etc. 

253 



254 

Sand and gravel sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1923-1924, 

by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Sand: 

Glass 


2, 034, 958 

5, 559, 644 

39, 234, 762 

15, 632, 419 

1,456,039 

307, 794 

2, 033, 494 

116, 520 

989, 641 


$3, 751, 778 

6, 730, 417 

23, 751, 244 

9, 187, 468 

2, 361, 695 

445, 479 

1, 535, 638 

139, 671 

570, 175 


2, 169, 899 

4,403,893 

41,376,425 

20, 707, 875 

1, 756, 058 

237, 143 

2, 024, 930 

74, 828 

2,820,959 


$3, 718, 973 


Molding 


4, 995, 268 


Building 


23,455, 393 




11, 595, 499 




2, 707, 583 
291, 175 


Fire or furnace.. 


Engine 


1, 344, 935 


Filter 


159, 239 


Other 


585, 400 






67, 365, 271 


48, 473, 565 


75, 572, 010 


48, 844, 465 


Gravel: 

Building 


24, 145, 463 
26, 174, 112 
22, 247, 307 


18,367,713 
17,716,779 
6, 345, 597 


30, 486, 874 
28, 830, 336 
21, 340, 843 


22, 718, 803 
18,773,832 
6, 676, 015 












72, 566, 882 


42, 430, 089 


80, 658, 053 


48,168,650 


Grand total 


139, 932, 153 


90, 903, 654 


156, 230, 063 


97,013, 115 










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256 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 







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262 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART U 



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&AND AND GRAVEL 



263 



PRICES 

The only figures relating to prices of sand and gravel compiled by 
the Bureau of Mines are those shown in the following table. They 
represent the total average values of the different grades of sand 
and gravel. These values must not be considered as prices, such as 
may be found quoted in the trade journals, but they indicate the trend 
of price changes during these years. 

The average value for sand and gravel in 1924 was 62 cents as 
compared with 65 cents in 1923. The value increased each year 
from 30 cents in 1915 to 80 cents in 1920, fell to 71 cents in 1921, and 
has decreased 3 cents each year since. 

Although some States showed increases in average values of the 
different grades of sand and gravel, the United States totals showed a 
decrease for all grades except for filter sand and for gravel used as 
railroad ballast. 

Average value per short ion of sand and gravel sold or used by the producers in the 

United States, 1917-1924 

[Based on amounts received for sales f. o. b. pits or nearest shipping points] 



Kind 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 




$1.38 
.92 
.39 
.41 
1.04 
1.15 
.59 
.76 
.17 
.46 
.46 


$1.94 
1.04 
.50 
.54 
1.60 
1.48 
.76 
1.47 
.22 
.57 
.61 


$1.97 
1.10 
.56 
.66 
1.34 
1.23 
.77 
1.48 
.30 
.66 
.65 


$2.19 
1.46 
.68 
.68 
1.80 
1.81 
.82 
1.27 
.32 
.81 
.80 


$1.81 
1.29 
.65 
.63 
1.61 
1.56 
.86 
1.11 
.33 
.75 
.71 


$1.62 
1.17 
.60 
.61 
1.46 
1.42 
.76 
1.99 
.36 
.72 
.68 


$1.84 
1.21 
.61 
.59 
1.62 
1.45 
.76 
1.20 
.29 
.72 
.65 


$1.71 


Molding sand 


1.13 


Building sand 


.57 


Paving sand. . 


.56 


Grinding and polishing sand 


1.54 


Fire or furnace sand 


1.23 


Engine sand.. 


.66 


Filter sand 


2.01 


Railroad ballast gravel.. 


.31 


Gravel (exclusive of railroad ballast) . 
All sand and gravel 


.70 
.62 







GLASS SAND 



The quantity of glass sand increased about 7 per cent but the total 
value decreased slightly. Of States that reported production, Illi- 
nois, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Missouri, named 
in order of quantity, produced 85 per cent of the total. 



Glass sand sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1917-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1917 


1, 942, 675 

2, 172, 887 
1, 827, 409 
2, 165, 926 


$2, 685, 014 
4, 209, 728 

3, 593, 371 

4, 748, 690 


$1.38 
1.94 
1.97 
2.19 


1921 


1, 280, 359 

1, 768, 549 

2, 034, 958 
2, 169, 899 


$2,314,314 

2, 866, 366 

3, 751, 778 
3, 718, 973 


$1.81 


1918 


1922.. 


1.62 


1919 


1923... 


1.84 


1920 


1924 . 


1.71 









Deposits of glass sand reported as being worked in 1924 are as 
follows : 

Arkansas: Izard County — Guion, Silica Products Co. (Inc.). 
California: Monterey County — Pacific Grove, Del Monte Properties Co. 
44839°— 27 18 



264 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Georgia: 

Talbot County — Junction City, Moore Sand Co. 
Telfair County — Lumber City, Vaughn Sand Co. 
Wheeler County — Lumber City, Hinson Sand Mines. 
Illinois: 

Kendall County — MiUington, Ballou White Sand Co. 
La Salle County — 

Ottawa, Crescent Silica Co. (address, Chicago); Ottawa Silica Co.; 
Standard Silica Co. (address, Chicago); United States Silica Co. 
(address, Chicago). 
Utica, E. J. Reynolds Sand Co. 
Wedron, Wedron Silica Co. (address, Chicago). 
Indiana: La Porte County — Michigan City, Hoosier Slide Sand Co. 
Kentucky: Carter County — Lawton, Interstate Window Glass Co. 
Louisiana: Allen County — Le Blanc, Opelousas Stone Brick Co. 
Maryland: Washington County — Hancock, Maryland Glass Sand Co. (Inc.) 

(address, Hagerstown). 
Massachusetts: Berkshire County — Cheshire, Berkshire Glass Sand Co. (address, 

Farnams). 
Missouri: 

Franklin County — Gray Summit, Tavern Rock Sand Co. (address, St. Louis). 
Jefferson County — Crystal City, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (address, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.). 
St. Charles County — Klondike, Tavern Rock Sand Co. (address, St. Louis). 
St. Louis County — Pacific, Walter W. Goran; Tavern Rock Sand Co. 
(address, St. Louis). 
New Jersey: 

Camden County — 

Penbryn, Reading Sand Co. (address, Bridgeton). 
Williamstown Junction, Bridgeton Sand Co. (address, Bridgeton). 
Cumberland County — 

Cedarville, Crystal Sand Co. (address, Bridgeton). 
Millville, Tavern Rock Sand Co. (address, St. Louis, Mo.). 
South Vineland, Crystal Sand Co. (address, Bridgeton) ; Whitall Tatum 
Co. (address, Millville). 
Middlesex County — South River, Marcus S. Wright. 
New York: Oswego County — Cleveland, Oneida Lake Sand Co. 
North Carolina: Scotland County — Gibson, Gale Sand Co. 
Ohio: 

Fairfield County — Rushville, Ohio Flint & Glass Sand Co. (address, Zanes- 

ville). 
Knox County — Howard, Knox White Sand Co. 

Licking County — Toboso, Edward H. Everett Co. (address, Newark). 
Mahoning County — Austintown, National Sand & Stone Co. (address, 

Niles). 
Perry County — Chalfants, Central Silica Co. (address, Zanesville). 
Oklahoma: Pontotoc County — Roff, Mid-Continent Glass Sand Co. 
Pennsvlvania: 

Elk County— 

Daguscahonda, Silicon Products Co. (address, Ridgway). 
Garovi, Ridgway Croyland Silica Sand Co. (address, Ridgway). 
Fayette County — 

Dunbar, American Manganese Manufacturing Co.; Yough Sand & 

Stone Co. 
Masontown, Sterling Sand Co. 
Franklin County — Pond Bank, Mont Alto Sand Co. (address, Waynesboro). 
Huntingdon County — Mapleton Depot, Juniata White Sand Co. (address, 
Baltimore, Md.); Pennsylvania Glass Sand Co. (address, Lewistown); 
Pittsburgh White Sand Co. (address, Pittsburgh). 
Mifflin County — 

McVeytown, Mifflin Sand Co. (address, Lewistown). 
Newton Hamilton, Crystal Sand Co. (address, Latrobe). 
Vineyard, Pennsylvania Glass Sand Co. (address, Lewistown). 
Venango County — Kennerdell, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (address, Pitts- 
burgh) . 
Texas: 

Atascosa County — Tarbutton, Osburn Sand Co. (address, Poteet). 
Coleman County — Santa Anna, Parker Silica Sand Co. 



SAND AND GRAVEL 



265 



Virginia: 

Rockbridge County — Goshen, N. Q. Speer Sand Corporation. 
Scott County — 

Cassard, Pennsylvania Glass Sand Co. (address, Lewistown, Pa.). 
Mendota, Clinch Mountain Silica Sand Corporation. 
West Virginia: 

Fayette County — Thayer, Sun Sand Co. (address, Charleston). 
Monongalia County — Sturgisson, Decker's Creek Stone & Sand Co. (address, 

Morgantown); Silica Glass Sand Co. (address, Morgantown). 
Morgan County — 

Berkeley Springs, Berkeley Glass Sand Co.; E. F. Millard Sand Works; 

Speer White Sand Co.; West Virginia & Pittsburgh Sand Co. 
Brosius, Pennsylvania Glass Sand Co. (address, Lewistown, Pa.). 
Great Cacapon, Hazel Atlas Glass Co. (address, Wheeling). 
Upshur County — Imperial, Superior Glass Sand Co. (address, Clarksburg). 

MOLDING SAND 

In 1924 there was a decrease of 21 per cent in the quantity of 
molding sand, following an increase of 45 per cent in 1923, when 
quantity reached its highest mark. Of the 32 States reporting pro- 
duction, the leading States, named in the order of quantity, were 
Ohio, Illinois, New York, Indiana, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
Michigan, and these States supplied 91 per cent of the total. 

Molding sand sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1917-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Val 


je 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1917 


4, 660, 968 
4,910,178 
3,774,612 
6, 128, 075 


$4, 303, 809 
5,121,865 
4,153,990 
7, 504, 759 


$0.92 
1.04 
1.10 
1.46 


1921.... 


1, 906, 977 
3,839,116 
5, 559, 644 
4, 403, 893 


$2, 451, 966 
4, 478, 405 
6,730,417 
4, 995, 268 


$1.29 


1918 _. 


1922 


1. 17 


1919 


1923.. 


1.21 


1920 


1924.. 


1.13 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



There was an increase of 47 per cent in the quantity of sand and 
gravel imported in 1924. Canada was the source of 89 per cent of 
the total. 

Sand and gravel imported for consumption in the United States, 1923-24 





1923 


1924 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Glass sand 


2,309 
276,493 
198, 960 


$3,008 
157, 125 
99, 687 


6,479 
246, 345 
448, 586 


$1,961 


Other sand 


123, 099 


Gravel 


155, 146 








477, 762 


259, 820 


701,410 


280, 206 



1 Statistics of imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



266 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Sand and gravel imported into the United States, 1923-24, by countries 

[General imports] 



Country 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


North America: 

Canada 


399, 252 
206 

326 

256 

73, 757 

123 

1, 256 

717 
1,746 


$174, 187 
80 

8,450 

1,109 

CO, 238 

44 

4,897 

4,108 

5,903 


622, 970 
541 


$221,627 


Mexico 


338 


South America: 




Europe: 








76, 251 


42,890 


Czechoslovakia 




England . 


465 

660 

36 

17 

17 

224 

1 

4 


3,650 




4,457 


Germany 


726 




71 


Italy 






775 


Netherlands 


112 


600 


1,199 




3 








15 


Asia: 

China 


1 


10 




Hongkong 


(«) 
224 


3 


India (British) 






4,452 




10 
C) 


191 
3 


















477, 762 


259, 820 


701,410 


280, 206 



• Quantity not shown. 

Sand and gravel exported J rom the United States, 1917-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1917 


C) 
C) 
(•) 
(•) 


$494, 251 
619,414 
382, 070 
669, 945 


1921 


(«) 

356, 520 
551, 233 
314, 140 


$379, 982 


1918. 


1922 


400, 199 


1919. 


1923 


598, 633 


1920.. 


1924 


401, 662 









Quantity not recorded prior to 1922. 



STONE 



By G. F. Loughlin and A. T. Coons 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION 

The aggregate sales of stone by quarrymen in the United States 
in 1924 were practically the same as in 1923. There was a decrease 
of one-tenth of 1 per cent in quantity and an increase of 1.5 per cent 
in value. Basalt and miscellaneous varieties of stone used chiefly 
as crushed stone for construction, road metal, and railroad ballast 
increased, but granite, sandstone, marble, and limestone, which 
have more various uses, decreased. The total value of all varieties 
except granite increased. 

The tables of this report give the quantities sold or used, and the 
values f. o. b. at quarries and mills as far as these are obtainable. 
Stone quarried and used by the producer is considered as sold and is 
included in the figures given. This report does not, however, include 
the stone manufactured into abrasives (grindstones, etc.), glass sand, 
lime, or cement and reported in terms of finished product. These 
products are treated in the chapters on abrasives, sand and gravel, 
lime, and cement. 



Stone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1922-1924, by kinds 
[Quantities approximate] 



Year 


Granite 


Basalt and related 
rocks (trap rock) 


Sandstone 


Marble 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1922 

1923.. 

1924.. 


5, 913, 120 
"7, 300, 130 

6, 883, 860 

-6 


$21, 125, 869 
°29, 704, 796 
28, 772, 161 

-3 


10, 032, 900 
10, 674, 470 
11,671,500 

+9 


$12,600,611 

13, 539, 648 

14, 679, 523 

+8 


3, 388, 130 

4, 349, 270 
3, 894, 690 

-10 


$7, 521, 044 
9, 174, 706 
10, 142, 099 

+10 


427, 870 
562, 560 
516, 000 

-8 


$10, 534, 671 

12, 863, 974 

13, 302, 235 


Percentage 
of increase 
or decrease 
in 1924 


+3 





Limestone 


Miscellaneous 6 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1922.... 


58, 928, 660 
76, 701, 360 
75, 894, 430 

-1 


$68, 397, 927 
89, 620, 007 
89, 868, 956 

+0.3 


1, 520, 880 
3, 730, 870 
4, 323, 640 

+16 


$1, 886, 806 
4,567,110 
5, 105, 139 

+12 


80, 211, 560 
"103,318,660 

103, 184, 120 

-0.1 


$122,066,928 


1923 


<*159, ITU. 241 


1924 


101.870, 113 


Percentage of increase or 
decrease in 1924 


+1.5 



Revised figures. 

b Includes mica schist, conglomerate, argillite, various, light-colored volcanic rocks, serpentine not used 
as marble, and such other stone as can not be properly classed in any of the main groups. 

267 



268 

The demand for stone in 1924 varied with the use of the stone. 
Demand for building stone, crushed stone, curbstone, and flagstone 
was fairly active, but the demand for monumental stone, paving 
blocks, fluxing stone, and stone used by some of the manufacturing 
industries was less than in 1923. Conditions at the quarries were 
about the same in the two years. There was no serious labor trouble. 
Operating costs in 1924 were about the same or a trifle higher than 
in 1923. Prices showed a tendency to increase for some stone 
products, and to decrease for others, and the average value per short 
ton for the total output in 1924 ($1.57) was 3 cents more than for 
1923. Competition was keen, and continued improvement in 
quarry methods and methods of marketing were sought and applied 
to keep down costs and prices. 

Stone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1923-24, by uses 



Use 



Building stone - - .cubic feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Monumental stone cubic feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Paving blocks number.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Curbing cubic feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Flagging cubic feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Rubble short tons.. 

Riprap do 

Crushed stone do 

Furnace flux (limestone and marble) do 

Refractory stone (ganister, mica schist, and dolomite) 

short tons.. 

Manufacturing industries (limestone and marble) 

short tons.. 

Other uses 6 do 



Total (quantities approximate, in short tons).. °103, 318, 660 



1923 



Quantity Value 



»26,417,020 

« 2, 058, 930 

• 5, 100, 350 

« 423, 610 

45, 866, 480 

462, 210 

3, 227, 810 

252, 300 

607, 600 

43, 860 

882, 010 

3, 185, 900 
62,322,710 
25, 602, 450 

1, 151, 900 

4, 668, 470 
2, 264, 310 



'$32, 022, 717 
°IM36~236~ 



4, 003, 490 
'2~936,"3i3" 



422, 059 



1, 298, 050 

2, 989, 068 
67, 928, 651 
20, 377, 138 

1,572,794 

4, 224, 230 

5, 565, 501 



1924 



Quantity Value 



28, 352, 380 

2,211,750 

4, 750, 980 

393, 550 

41, 037, 570 

375, 860 

3,815,850 

296, 070 

810, 440 

59, 840 

864, 790 

3, 265, 130 

68, 198, 440 

19, 690, 490 

1, 093, 940 

4, 733, 770 

2, 000, 490 



'159, 470, 241 



103, 184, 120 



$33, 175, 656 


15, 305, 386 


3, 578, 676 


3, 468, 821 


560, 156 



1,160,258 

3, 634, 439 
73, 861, 576 
15, 839, 868 

1, 389, 413 

4, 410, 559 

5, 485, 305 



161,870,113 



° Revised figures. 

» Chiefly agricultural limestone. 



(See pp. 284, 



Building stone. — Sales of building stone increased 7 per cent in 
quantity and 4 per cent in value in 1924. The largest increase 
(31 per cent) was in the quantity of granite sold. Total sales of all 
other varieties except limestone and " Miscellaneous " also increased. 
Sales of stone for rough construction, and for rough and cut archi- 
tectural stone increased and sales of sawed stone decreased. The 
average value per cubic foot of all building stone was lower and the 
average value of the stone sold rough for architectural construction 
was higher than in 1923. The sales of building stone by kinds as 
reported in 1923 and 1924 were as follows: 



STONE 



269 






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5c.a 



270 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Monumental stone. — Stone sold for monumental and memorial 
work in 1924 decreased 7 per cent in quantity and 5 per cent in value. 
Granite sold for this purpose showed a decrease of 11 per cent in 
quantity. Of the chief States producing monumental granite 
Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Vermont, and Wisconsin re- 
ported decreased sales. For New Hampshire the sales were prac- 
tically the same as in 1923; for Maine and Rhode Island they were 
larger. North Carolina and South Carolina also showed smaller 
sales of granite for monumental work. Importation of low-priced 
foreign granite for small-sized monuments is one reason given for 
the decline in sales of domestic granite for monumental work. Marble 
sold as monumental and memorial stone increased 7 per cent in 
quantity. 

Paving blocks, curbstone, flagstone, and crushed stone. — Street and 
road material in general showed increased sales in 1924, although 
sales of paving blocks decreased 11 per cent in quantity. Stone 
sold lor curbing increased 18 per cent in quantity and stone sold for 
flagging increased 33 per cent. The increased use of flagstones 
was lor yard and garden walks, in competition with concrete and 
gravel. The total quantity of crushed stone sold increased 9 per 
cent over 1923. Crushed stone sold for concrete and road work 
increased 13 per cent in quantity and crushed stone reported as rail- 
road ballast decreased 7 per cent. 

Fluxing stone. — Stone sold to blast furnaces, open-hearth steel 
works, smelters, and other metallurgic plants for fluxing decreased 
23 per cent in quantity. 

Refractory stone. — Stone reported as sold for refractory use, which 
includes dolomite, quartzite, and mica schist, decreased 5 per cent, 
and reflects, as does the decrease in fluxing stone, the lessened ac- 
tivities of metallurgic furnaces in 1924. The sales of raw dolomite 
reported as sold for the manufacture of refractories in 1924 increased. 
Exact figures for raw dolomite for this purpose are hard to get 
because sale to furnaces and smelters tends to cause it to be reported 
as fluxing stone. Operators who both quarry and dead-burn or 
sinter dolomite reported 328,659 short tons of the sintered material — 
a decrease of 8 per cent. Quartzite (ganister) used in the manufacture 
of refractory brick, for furnace lining, and for the manufacture of 
ferrosilicon decreased 17 per cent in quantity in 1924, and mica schist 
used as furnace and kiln lining decreased 26 per cent. 

Manufacturing industries and "other uses." — The total quantity of 
stone sold for manufacturing industries and " other uses" decreased 
3 per cent in 1924, although sales of some of the individual products 
increased. Pulverized limestone for agricultural purposes and asphalt 
filler and stone sold to sugar refineries and for the manufacture of 
calcium carbide increased in output, but stone sold for the manu- 
facture of alkalies and magnesia products, as whiting substitute, to 
paper mills, glassworks, and to other chemical industries decreased. 



STONE 271 

Stone sold or used by the producers in the United Slates, 1923-24, by States 



State 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California. 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware.. 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 

Michigan 

Minnesota. 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada. 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey... 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio.... 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah.... 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Undistributed 



Number 

of active 

plants 



28 

1 
16 
18 
111 
52 
43 

3 

5 
25 
29 

8 
19 
71 
95 
33 
53 
96 

2 
60 
39 
109 
31 
63 

2 

120 

24 

II 

4 
31 
55 

6 
146 
37 
141 
34 
73 
170 
12 
20 
12 
19 
47 
36 
15 
55 
64 
43 
32 
131 
16 



2,699 



Short tons 
(approxi- 
mate) 



• 1, 299, 160 

(») 

285, 540 

517, 050 

'7,614,670 

• 543, 480 
1,482,710 

84, 440 

7,470 

1, 494, 080 

563, 910 

354, 480 

175,050 

9,111,830 

3,650,110 

« 603, 550 

919, 640 

1, 884, 380 

( 6 ) 

306, 620 

1, 244, 010 
1,788,860 

• 10,715,910 
701,210 
( b ) 
2, 134, 910 

• 275, 900 
243, 920 

84, 240 
122, 460 

2, 039, 740 
« 396, 980 
7, 043, 880 

» 1, 397, 460 
11,493,340 

• 1, 265, 900 

1, 103, 330 
» 15, 679, 170 

86, 600 

« 161, 080 

847, 870 

250, 730 

1, 454, 180 

2, 200, 690 
784, 750 
342, 520 

2,216, 140 

678, 880 

2, 550, 710 

2, 488, 180 

• 186, 150 
440, 790 



« 103, 318, 660 



Value 



'$1,401,693 
( 6 ) 

211,787 
673, 197 

« 8, 428, 584 

• 749, 798 
1,830,413 

132,157 

20, 576 

1, 425, 434 

3, 942, 294 
738, 137 
205, 486 

8, 358, 556 
17,692,112 

<■ 698, 207 
1,180,397 

2, 250, 025 
(") 

3, 168, 396 

2,054,125 

5, 794, 941 

• 6, 303, 136 

4, 281, 687 
(») 

4, 345, 526 

« 270, 781 

328, 918 

89, 585 

1, 763, 221 

3, 032, 918 

• 241, 780 

9, 610, 324 
» 3, 579, 351 

11,464,569 

» 1, 427, 920 

1, 342, 070 

' 18, 997, 295 

192, 661 

« 649, 359 

1, 657, 926 
479, 288 

4, 341, 393 
2, 102, 281 

608, 991 
8, 661, 906 

2, 482, 937 
953, 831 

2, 660, 415 
4, 590, 528 
« 281, 595 
1, 771, 728 



159, 470, 241 



1924 



Number 

of active 

plants 



28 
1 

10 
17 

146 
46 
41 
3 
5 
29 
29 
14 
27 
64 
«H 
33 
40 
74 
2 
44 
39 
98 
30 
55 
2 

120 
19 
9 
7 
26 
52 
8 

136 
36 

135 
36 
93 

444 
11 
22 
11 
15 
55 
32 
17 
5.", 
61 
63 
57 

124 
17 



2,630 



Short tons 
(approxi- 
mate) 



1, 253, 990 

( b ) 

160,350 
» 542, 190 
7,192,730 

825, 940 

• 1, 849, 670 

93, 130 

8,370 

2, 973, 360 

565,630 

• 442, 240 
211,030 

8, 640, 9G0 

"3,824,440 

607, 530 

• 766, 120 
2,173,700 

C) 
» 263, 720 
•1,100,410 

• 1, 936, 520 
10, 023, 440 

804, 280 
(0) 

• 2, 320, 010 

251, 730 

222, 030 

202, 270 

» 93, 340 

2, 149, 270 

654, 610 

7, 557, 320 

1, 340, 840 

10, 455, 060 

• 1, 303, 030 

1, 592, 530 
« 14, 559, 490 

90, 830 

« 171, 350 

824, 030 

« 166, 970 

• 1, 437, 280 

2, 207, 050 
640, 100 

• 295, 880 
2, 223, 620 

• 778, 460 
2, 618, 290 

•2,221,910 
234, 620 
312,450 



103, 184, 120 



Value 



$2, 003, 521 
(") 
176, 768 

• 620, 626 
8, 635, 602 
1,221,574 

• 2, 251, 566 

243, 279 

15, 760 

2, 942, 778 

4, 472, 628 

• 773, 906 
318, 588 

7, 959, 934 

■ 17, 269, 407 

712, 540 

« 960, 626 

2, 786, 249 
( 6 ) 

•2,411,938 

• 1, 913, 395 

• 6, 063, 048 

5, 943, 680 
4, 220, 658 

( 6 ) 

• 4, 961, 333 

235, 580 
285, 977 
167, 324 

• 1, 556, 598 

3, 326, 298 
432, 023 

10,981,814 
3, 133, 510 
11, 280, 865 

• 1, 499, 297 
I, 624, 602 

» 17, 966, 836 
206,011 

• 742, 701 
1,527,114 

• 362, 508 

• 3, 807, 072 

1, 886, 798 
446, 490 

• 9, 066, 073 

2, 566, 575 

• 1, 596, 088 

3, 040, 154 
•4,087,133 

354, 057 
751,211 



161, 870, 113 



• To avoid disclosing confidential information, certain State totals are slightly incomplete, the figures 
not included being combined under "Undistributed." 
6 Included under " Undistributed." 
■ Revised figures. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 1 

Value of stone exported from the United States, 1920-1924 



Year 



1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 



Marble 
and stone, 
unmanu- 
factured 



$774, 442 
576, 905 
681,658 
625, 442 
499, 602 



All other, 
manufac- 
tured 



$2, 158, 764 

1, 697, 570 

903, 102 

783, 195 

448,731 



Total 



$2, 933, 206 

2, 274, 475 

1, 584, 760 

1, 408, 637 

948, 333 



1 The tables of exports and imports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from 
records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



272 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PAST II 



Stone exported from 


the United States 


in 192/f. 








Marble 


Other building 

or monumental 

stone 


Other manufac- 
tures of stone 
(including 
paving blocks 
and curbing) 




Country 


Blocks (rough 
or dressed) 


Manufac- 
tures 


Total 
value 




Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




North America: 


41.488 


$181, 647 


141 


$13, 099 


261, 693 


$272, 692 


4,388 

5 

1 
7 
2 
4 
18 
2 


$206, 724 

863 
399 

1,450 
679 
913 

3,004 
4fiK 


$674, 162 
969 


Central America: 


106 















399 














1 450 




6 


37 


13 


1, 232 10 


5 


1,953 
913 






700 


4,200 


18 


. 

2,625 






9, 829 
465 










10 

1, 668 


85 
10, 566 


9 

1 

2 
1 


3, 850 383 
1 
309 IS 


168 
59 


160 14. 223 


18, 326 

15, 928 

585 


Newfoundland and 


19 

1 

5 
43 

(°) 
8 
122 
18 

1 
1 

23 
(») 


4,994 

300 

844 

7,025 

75 

1,129 

19, 177 

2,538 

117 

338 

. 826 
10 


West Indies: 
British— 


285 
752 
170 














1 596 












7,195 
75 


Trinidad and 










Other 


3 
3,593 


24 

17, 239 


3 

34 
2 

2 
1 


1, 325 6 
5, 027i 1. 401 


85 
9,647 


2,563 


Cuba 


51, 090 




460 

155 
448 

450 




2, 998 
368 


Dutch 


38 
12 


96 
64 






Haiti.. 






850 


Virgin Islands of the 






1,276 


Other 











10 










|— 








47,518 


213, 953 


228 


30, 293 
688 


263, 508 


282, 656 


4,828 


266, 093 


793, 000 


South America: 




3 






2 
9 

8 
18 

4 
79 

4 

5 


966 
2,208 
1,543 
7,244 

635 

11,453 

1,095 

741 


1,654 

2,208 












Chile 












1,543 








(<■) 


266! 729 


479 


7,923 
635 














3 
(°) 


992 

25 






12,445 
1, 120 












Other 










741 










1 












6 


1,905 ! 729 


479 


129 


25, 8S5 


28,269 








Europe: 

France 






(») 


80 






6 
8 
(•) 

71 

41 

1 

17 


1,922 

1,688 

20 

10, 973 

7, 566 

121 

2,888 


2,002 


Germany 






.:.:::. 




1,688 


Italy 






1 


250 






270 


Netherlands ._ 










10, 973 


United Kingdom — 

England 


14 


89 


5 


783 






8, 438 


Scotland 






121 


Other 






(-) 


75 70 


1,000 


3,963 












14 


89 


6 


1, 188 70 


1,000 


144 


25, 178 


27, 455 


Asia: 

China 






3 

(°) 
27 


937 






41 
116 
43 
21 

22 


9,821 
12, 145 
4,881 
2,207 
3, 126 


10, 758 


India (British). 






206 
3,808 


16 


1,120 


13, 471 


Japan _ 






8,689 


Philippine Islands 










2,207 


Other 






(«) 


275 






3,401 




















30 


5,226 


,16 


1,120 


243 


32,180 


38, 526 










Africa: 

British South Africa 






(°) 


44 






86 
9 


14, 485 
1,621 


14, 529 


Other 










1,621 
























(°) 


44 






95 


16, 106 


16, 150 














Oceania: 

Australia 






3 


400 


10 


300 


146 
81 
2 


32, 659 
11, 120 

454 


33, 359 


New Zealand 






11,120 


Other 














154 
























3 


400 


10 


300 


229 


44, 233 


44,933 










Grand total 


47, 532 


214, 047 


273 


39, 056 


264, 333 


285, 555 


5,66b 


409, 67 1 


948, 333 













• Less than 1 ton. 



STONE 273 

Stone imported for consumption in the United States, 1923-24 



Kind 




1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Marble, breccia, and onyx: 

In blocks, rough, etc 

Sawed 


cubic feet.. 

__._do.__. 


699,412 

134 

133, 244 


$1,513,192 

390 

54, 618 

283, 109 

21, 647 


654, 510 

196 

309, 999 


$1,278,696 
655 


Slabs or paving tiles 

AD other manufactures 


superficial feet.. 


97, 935 
205, 353 


Mosaic cubes of marble or onyx: 

Loose. 






13,016 








142 


















1, 872, 956 




1, 595, 797 








Granite: 




270, 432 
221, 796 




302, 927 


Rough 


cubic feet.. 


176, 096 


190, 176 


255, 225 






492, 228 




558, 152 




— ■- — " 




Stone (other): 

Dressed 


17, 305 

74, 377 
184, 471 




22, 044 
122, 309 
139, 352 


Rough (monumental or building stone). .cubic fect.. 
Rough (other) 


80, 770 


152, 431 














276, 153 




283, 705 












2, 641, 337 




2, 437, 654 









Marble, breccia, and onyx (rough and manufactured) imported into the United States, 

1923-24, by countries 
[General imports] 





1923 


1924 


Country 


Rough 
breccia, 


marble, 
and onyx 


Manu- 
factured 


Total 
value 


Rougr 
breccia, 


marble, 
and onyx 


Manu- 
factured 


Total 




Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


valuo 


Canada 


8 


$35 


$717 


$752 


4 


$27 


$18, 281 
261 


$18, 30S 
261 


Cuba .. 


Guatemala 










556 
5,506 


2,301 
19, 917 


2,301 
20, 519 


Mexico 


5, 349 


24, 933 




24, 933 


602 








Total North 
America 


5,357 


24, 968 


717 


25, 685 


6,066 


22, 245 


19, 144 


41, 389 


Belgium 


42, 486 
279 
21,150 
2,243 
8,619 
616,111 


85,718 

749 

49, 323 

5,540 

35, 220 

1, 299, 710 


16, 951 
6,296 
27, 423 
56, 500 


102, 669 

7,045 

76, 746 

62, 040 

35, 220 

1, 530, 924 

2, 769 

34 

14, 143 


39, 912 


64, 850 


23, 941 

6,924 

46, 124 

32, 483 

80 

177, 308 

544 

536 

6,408 


88, 791 
6,924 


England _ 


France 


25, 291 

145 

5,807 

575, 758 


47, 277 

507 

21, 659 

1, 116, 997 


93, 401 


Germany 


32, 990 




21, 739 


Italy 


231,214 

2, 769 

34 

11,821 


1, 294, 305 


Netherlands 


544 


Spain 










536 


Other Europe •_ 


893 


2,322 


1,707 


5,955 


12, 363 


Total Europe... 


691, 781 


1, 478, 582 


353, 008 


1,831,590 


648, 620 


1, 257, 245 


294, 348 


1,551,593 


China 






2,925 

524 

3,144 


2,925 

524 

6,346 






1,542 

621 

1,821 


1,542 


Japan. 










621 


Other countries k ._ 


861 


3,202 


1,208 


3,309 


5,130 




861 


3,202 


6, 593 


9,795 


1,208 


3,309 


3,984 


7,293 


Grand total 


697, 999 


1, 506, 752 


360, 318 


1, 867, 070 


655, 894 


1, 282, 799 


317, 476 


1, 600, 275 



• 1923: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Gibraltar, Norway, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and 
Turkey in Europe. 1924: Austria, Azores, etc., Czechoslovakia, Esthom'a, Gibraltar, Hungary, Ireland, 
Rumania. Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey in Europe. 

6 1923: Ceylon, Hongkong, India (British), Palestine and Syria, and Uruguay. 1924: Algeria and Tunis, 
Dutch West Indies, Honduras. Hongkong, India (British), Java and Madura, Palestine, Peru, and 
Uruguay. 



274 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Value of building or monumental stone (exclusive of marble, breccia, and onyx) and 
other classes of stone imported into the United States, 1923-24, by countries 

[General imports] 





1923 


1924 


Country 


Building 
or monu- 
mental 
stone 


Other 
stone 


Total 


Building 
or monu- 
mental 
stone 


Other 
stone 


Total 


North America: 


$53, 129 

1 
10 


$167, 724 
225 


$220, 853 

226 

10 


$65, 431 
15 

24 


$110,932 


$176,363 
15 


Cuba 






24 












53, 140 


167, 949 


221, 089 


65, 470 


110,932 


176,402 


Europe: 


28 

1,569 

10, 280 

2,301 

12,967 

50, 570 

162, 986 

97, 283 

190 

2,706 




28 

2,164 

10, 280 

3,389 

12, 967 
50, 584 

174, 383 
99, 300 

13, 654 
2,706 


2 

24 
26, 069 




2 




595 




24 






26, 069 




1,088 


201 


201 




29, 749 

13,212 

138, 246 

149, 042 


29, 749 
13, 212 




14 
11,397 
2,017 
13, 464 






693 

25 

8,368 

30 


138, 939 


Italy 


149, 067 




8,368 




10, 453 

2,367 

95 

7 

179, 950 

18, 410 

98, 049 


10, 483 






2,367 
95 






















7 




118,695 

11,683 
74, 232 




118,695 

31,901 
74, 232 


1,164 
26,542 


181,114 


United Kingdom- 


20, 218 


44, 952 




98, 049 












545, 490 


48, 793 


594, 283 


665, 675 


37,023 


702, 698 




2,239 


18 


2,257 


3,368 


1,258 


4,626 






Total imports 


600, 869 


216, 760 


817,629 


734, 513 


149, 213 


883, 726 







• 1923: Algeria and Tunis, China, Chosen, Hongkong, India (British), and Japan. 1924: Africa (Brit- 
ish South), Brazil, Ceylon, China, Hongkong, and Japan. 

PRODUCTION BY KINDS AND STATES 

GRANITE 

Granite showed a decrease of 6 per cent in quantity and 3 per 
cent in value in 1924. The building stone sold increased 31 per cent 
in quantity and 13 per cent in value. The output of stone sold 
rough for both ordinary and architectural construction increased. 
The total quantity of granite sold as finished stone increased although 
the quantity of cut stone included decreased (p. 269) . 

Granite sold for curbing, rubble, and for " other uses" also in- 
creased, but there was a decrease in sales of monumental stone, 
paving blocks, riprap, and crushed stone. 



STONE 275 

Granite sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1923—24, by uses 



Use 



Building stone (rough and dressed) cubic feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Monumental stone cubic feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Paving number of blocks.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Curbing linear feet.. 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Rubble short tons.. 

Riprap do 

Crushed stone _ do 

Other uses do 



Total (quantities approximate, in short tons). «7, 300, 130 



1923 



Quantity Value 



« 5, 244, 250 

« 434, 640 

«• 3, 947, 600 

« 325, 850 

41,016,640 

414,930 

2,104,150 

108, 860 

167,980 

808, 390 

5, 009, 280 

30, 200 



"$5,011,362 


«12, 398, 457 


3, 578, 182 


1, 436, 212 



183, 589 

711,490 

3, 230, 109 

155, 395 



«29, 704, 796 



1924 



Quantity Value 



6, 844, 550 
556, 530 

3, 520, 530 
289, 140 

37, 599, 100 
343, 210 
2, 251, 760 
113, 550 
235, 150 
4S0, 560 

4, 806, 570 

59, 150 



, 883, SCO 



$5, 663, 776 



11,447,196 
"3," 284," 395 



1,513,137 



243, 156 

504, 076 

5, 935, 591 

180, 834 



28,772,161 



Revised figures. 

Granite sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1923-24, by States 
[Quantities approximate) 



State 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Arizona 


139, 620 

22, 270 
2, 357, 700 

47, 090 

23, 650 
84, 440 

7,470 
332, 300 
( b ) 

258, 580 
200, 930 
552, 450 
68. 540 
9,260 
40, 600 


$56, 813 

20, 869 

« 2, 485. 406 

190,356 

285, 004 

132, 157 

20, 576 

1, 462, 297 

( l ) 

3, 059. 608 

426, 998 

3, 687, 169 

2, 979, 014 

83, 804 

59, 571 


66, 310 

15,010 

1, 905, 240 

2,220 

72, 030 

93, 130 

8,370 

308, 730 

26, 560 

225, 570 

253, 580 

581, 470 

66, 560 

15, 230 

25, 820 

( 6 ) 

93, 340 
( 6 ) 

68, 360 
1, 141, 270 

28, 350 
18,970 

281, 500 

138. 720 

824, 030 

6,110 

20, 420 

(») 
112,480 

203, 850 

29, 790 

204, 030 
46, 810 


$30, 890 




17,239 




2, 675, 522 




152, 209 




340, 785 


Delaware 


243, 279 




15, 760 


Georgia 


1, 438, 281 


Idaho 


26, 560 


Maine 


2,311,686 


Maryland 


557, 685 


M assachusetts 


3, 930, 877 


Minnesota 


2, 606, 536 


Missouri 


108,084 


Montana 


58, 355 


Nevada.. 


( b ) 


New Hampshire 


114,050 
(») 

61, 220 

1, 265, 540 

6,340 


1, 731, 295 

( 6 ) 

204, 578 
3, 376, 778 

96, 983 


1, 556, 598 


New Jersey 


( 6 ) 


New York 


211,766 


North Carolina 


2, 766, 740 


Oklahoma 


159, 070 


Oregon 


32, 800 


Pennsylvania 


189, 420 
83, 750 

847, 870 

11,310 

22, 610 

430 

132, 860 

121, 390 
56,410 

221, 580 
20, 450 


599, 578 
507, 139 

1, 657, 926 

121, 400 

158, 563 

8,300 

4, 000, 440 
157, 987 
162, 271 

1, 935, 592 
36, 324 


768, 307 


Rhode Island 


668, 606 


South Carolina ;. 


1,527, 114 


South Dakota 


120, 395 


Texas 


170, 237 
( 6 ) 


Utah 


Vermont 


4, 081, 009 


Virginia 


294, 199 


Washington 


87, 751 


Wisconsin 


1, 746, 546 


Undistributed 


67, 275 








• 7, 300, 130 


°29, 704, 796 


6, 883, 860 


28, 772, 161 



• Revised figures. 

* Included under 



Undistributed.* 



27G 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924- 



-PART II 



en 
M 
o 
o 

> 

03 


1 

> 


271,594 

1,213,009 
(«) 

723,456 
60, 866 
40, 640 

356, 779 
. — ....... 

293, 286 
........... 

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278 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



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280 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Monumental granite sold by the quarry men at Quincy, Mass., 1920-192-h 





Number 


Short tons 




Year 


of active 


(approxi- 


Value 




plants 


mate) 




1920 


8 


27,000 


$674, 233 


1921 


6 


14, 000 


311, 178 


1922 


6 


16, 000 


341, 601 


1923 


6 


27, 150 


596, 709 


1924 


6 


26, 630 


527, 915 



Monumental granite sold by the quarrymen in the Barre district, Vt., 1920-1924 



Year 


Cubic feet 


Value 


Year 


Cubic feet 


Value 


1920 


1, 147, 800 
686, 947 
453, 000 


$3, 957, 881 
2,417,024 
1,395,911 


1923 


1, 208, 010 
1, 025, 930 


$3, 300, 805 


1921 


1924 


3, 366, 497 


1922 _ 











Through the kindness of R. E. Mitchell, secretary of the Barre 
Granite Manufacturers Association, the following figures covering 
the entire granite industry at Barre are given to supplement the 
figures of sales reported to the Bureau of Mines by the quarrymen: 

Estimated output of monumental granite in Barre district, Vt., 1921-1924 





1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Total quarry output, rough stock. ..cubic feet.. 

Shipped out of Barre district in rough do 

Manufactured in Barre district do 

Light stock consumed in district.. do 

Dark stock consumed in district. do 


474, 000 

71, 100 

402, 900 

251, 813 

151,087 

1,100 

$8.00 

160 


620, 628 

172, 884 

447, 742 

279, 841 

167,901 

1,000 

$8.00 

70 


1, 254, 714 

251, 996 

1, 002, 718 

626, 701 

376,017 

1,250 

$8.00 

270 


1,127,850 
225, 570 
902, 280 
563, 925 
338, 355 
1,000 




$8.00 


Average number of days worked 


250 






Total pay roll for year ... 


$1, 408, 000 
704, 000 
906, 527 
619, 457 
300, 000 
100, 000 


$560, 000 
280, 000 
940, 265 
805, 924 
311,500 
160, 000 


$2, 700, 000 

1, 350, 000 

2, 256, 123 
1, 940, 246 

600, 000 
250, 000 


$2, 000, 000 




1, 000, 000 




2, 352, 585 




2, 023, 223 




585, 500 


Output from saws 


248,000 








4, 037, 984 


3, 057, 689 


9, 096, 369 


8, 209, 308 







The figures of quantity submitted by Mr. Mitchell represent the 
stone carried from the quarries. The figures of the Bureau of Mines 
represent the sales of stone as reported by the quarrymen. 

BASALT AND RELATED ROCKS (TRAP ROCK) 

The output of basalt and related rocks in 1924 increased 9 per 
cent in quantity and 8 per cent in value. Crushed stone, which is 
the chief product, increased 9 per cent in both quantity and value. 






STONE 



281 



Under "other" is reported 76,220 short tons of roofing granules, val- 
ued at $516,390, made from altered diabase (greenstone). Included 
under granite and miscellaneous varieties of stone is a small amount 
of " roofing granules" which increased the tonnage of roofing granules 
made from stone to 77,370 tons, valued at $527,656. Besides these 
"roofing granules" others of slate (including slate " flour") amount- 
ing to 512,810 tons, valued at $3,178,454, were sold in 1924. 

Basalt and related rocks (trap rock) sold or used by the producers in the United 

States, 1928-24, by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Building stoue... cubic feet.. 


463, 380 

39, 530 

241, 120 

2,580 

44, 460 

255, 020 

10, 247, 680 

85, 200 


$57, 664 


595, 320 
51, 370 


$77, 145 


Paving blocks.. ..number.. 


8,342 




Approximate equivalent in short tons 






Bubble short tons.. 

Biprap do 

Crushed stone do 

Other (principally roofing granules) ..do 


188, 759 

182, 958 

12, 473, 628 

628, 297 


6,560 

319, 140 

11, 194, 130 

100, 300 


6,610 

473, 210 

13, 584, 764 

537, 794 


Total (quantities approximate, in short tons) 


10, 674, 470 


13, 539, 648 


11, 671, 500 


14, 679, 523 



Basalt and related rocks (trap rock) sold or used by the producers in the United Slates, 

1923-24, by States 

[Quantities approximate] 



State 


1923 


1924 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


California... 


1, 820, 150 


$1, 798, 640 


1, 672, 020 

(•) 
1, 762, 620 
442, 240 
118,430 
496, 670 
1, 001, 380 
103, 860 
225, 910 
C) 
( a ) 

21, 220 

1, 808, 260 

(•) 

(«) 

1, 438, 810 

1, 269, 190 

(«) 

C) 

668, 410 
(°) 
642, 480 


$1, 545, 633 




(") 


Connecticut.. 


1,441,840 
354, 480 
114,410 
407, 040 
934, 160 
109,810 
176, 710 


1, 517, 286 
738, 137 
109, 366 
708, 258 

1, 134, 044 
420, 524 
257, 334 


1, 883, 625 


Hawaii 


773, 906 


Idaho 


97, 316 


Maryland.. 


860, 471 


Massachusetts _. 


1, 222, 666 


Michigan 


331, 302 
381, 164 


Minnesota 


Missouri 


( a ) 


Montana 


w 


(•) 


(°) 


Nevada _. 


29, 706 
2, 806, 365 

(•) 

(•) 
1, 424, 619 
1, 798, 564 

(°) 


New Jersey 


1, 596, 170 
180, 800 
(°) 

915,350 
1, 384, 500 
(•) 

18, 680 
553, 280 
148, 000 
519, 090 


2, 422, 338 

119, 123 

(«) 

1, 101, 177 

1, 940, 670 

(•) 

28,745 
521,027 
228, 000 
494, 979 


New Mexico 


New York 


Oregon 


Pennsylvania 


Texas 


Virginia 


(°) 


Washington 


829, 632 


Wisconsin. 


(°) 


Undistributed... 


694, 554 








10, 674, 470 


13,539,648 


11,671,500 


14, 679, 523 



• Included under "Undistributed.' 



282 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



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283 



MARBLE 

Sales of marble decreased 8 per cent in quantity, but increased 
3 per cent in value in 1924. The decrease was in marble sold as 
by-products or as waste material from the quarries. The quantity 
of marble sold for building and that for monumental work each 
increased 7 per cent. The quantity of marble reported as sold for 
exterior building decreased 6 per cent and that sold for interior 
work increased 15 per cent. 

Marble sold by the producers in the United States, 1923-24, by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Building stone: 

Rough- 
Exterior cubic feet.. 

Interior ..do 

Finished- 
Exterior do 

Interior . do 


230, 460 
616, 920 

679, 440 
901,860 


$456, 022 
1,438,011 

1, 992, 346 
4, 574, 914 


202, 150 
744, 350 

650, 790 
1, 008, 890 


$416,216 
1, 664, 343 

2, 204, 872 
4, 513, 788 


Total exterior do 

Total interior... _ do 


909, 900 
1, 518, 780 


2, 448, 368 
6, 012, 925 


852, 940 
1, 753, 240 


2, 621, 088 
6, 178, 131 


Total building stone do 


• 2, 428, 680 


• 8, 461, 293 


• 2, 606, 180 


» 8, 799, 219 


Monumental stone: 

Kough do 

Finished do 


147, 690 
1, 005, 060 


170, 402 
3,561,371 


239, 760 
990, 690 


257, 795 
3, 600, 395 


Total monumental stone do 


• 1, 152, 750 


• 3, 731, 773 


• 1, 230, 450 


• 3, 858, 190 


Total building and monumental 
1 .cubic feet.. 


3,581,430 
303, 760 
258, 800 


12, 193, 066 


3, 836, 630 
324, 210 
191, 790 


12, 657, 409 


\approximate short tons.. 


Marble for other uses (by-products) .short tons.. 


670, 908 


644, 826 


Total marble, approximate short tons... 


562, 560 


12, 863, 974 


516, 000 


13, 302, 235 


• Building-stone figures may be somewhat les 
some of the Tennessee producers were unable to 

Marble sold by the producers ir 
[Quanti 


s than given s 
iivide their pr 

i the Unitec 
ties approxima 


md monumen 
oduct accordin 

1 Slates, 19i 
te] 


tal stone some 
g to use. 

18-24, by S 


what more, as 
tales 


State 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Alabama 


« 24, 970 
•11,110 


• $958, 189 
• 377, 622 


33, 140 

6 10, 360 

( k ) 

3,360 

12, 650 

( l ) 

71, 040 

» 14, 200 

7,300 


$626, 370 
6 466, 920 


Alaska.. 


Arizona 


C) 

26, 481 


Arkansas 


(.) 

40, 500 
(«) 

56,230 
•14,040 

17, 950 
(") 

57, 260 

00 

63, 570 
<•) 
(•) 

101, 600 
C) 

175,330 
(«) 
(•) 


(») 

209, 469 

(») 
2, 090, 486 
-171,250 

277, 625 

(°) 
1,085,122 

(•) 

412, 875 

C) 

(•) 
2, 706, 688 

( a ) 
4, 574, 648 

(•) 

(») 


California 


141,048 


Colorado 


( b ) 


Georgia _ 


2, 651, 217 


Maryland 


" 188, 813 


Massachusetts 


232, 718 


Michigan.. 




Missouri. 


64, 580 
( l ) 

64, 220 
(>) 
( 6 ) 

97, 950 
( k ) 

137, 200 
( k ) 
( 6 ) 


1, 237, 149 


New Jersey 


( fc ) 


New York 


532, 358 


North Carolina 


(*) 


Pennsylvania 


(*) 


Tennessee 


2, 332, 337 


Utah... 


(fc) 


Vermont 


4, 866, 824 


Virginia... 


(*) 


Washington 


( b ) 








562, 560 


12, 863, 974 


516, 000 


13, 302, 235 



• Alabama includes Arkansas; Alaska includes Colorado, Michigan, Utah, and Washington; Maryland 
includes New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. 

6 Alaska includes Arizona, Colorado, Utah, and Washington; Maryland includes New Jersey, North 
Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. 



284 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



SERPENTINE 

The figures showing sales of serpentine (verde antique) in the 
United States for interior and exterior building, dimension stone, and 
by-products are included in this report in the figures for marble, but 
those showing sales of serpentine as crushed stone for road metal, 
ballast, riprap, and other low-grade material are included in the 
figures for "miscellaneous" stone. The States represented in the 
production of serpentine are Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wyoming. The opening of new quar- 
ries in Windsor County, Vt., caused the considerable increase in 
serpentine sold for building. 



Serpentine (verde antique) sold or used by the producers in the United States, 

by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Building and ornamental stone 


cubic feet-- 


56, 712 
11, 203 


$365, 668 
88, 904 


88, 460 
8,640 




$501, 835 


Rough construction, crushed, etc 


.short tons.- 


89, 347 






454, 572 






591, 182 











LIMESTONE 

The quantity of limestone sold in 1924, as given in this report, was 
1 per cent less than in 1923. This decline was mainly due to the 
decrease of 23 per cent in fluxing stone sold to blast furnaces, open- 
hearth steel works, smelters, and other metallurgical plants. De- 
creases were also noted in sales of limestone for building, curbing, 
flagging, and paving, glass factories, paper mills, and in the total 
quantity sold for miscellaneous " other" uses. Sales of rubble, riprap, 
crushed stone, agricultural limestone, and stone sold to sugar factories 
increased. 



Limestone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 



?4, by uses 



Use 



1923 



Quantity Value 



1924 



Quantity Value 



Building stone ° cubic feet 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Curbing, flagging, and paving cubic feet 

Approximate equivalent in short tons 

Rubble short tons 

Riprap do.. 

Crushed stone do_. 

Fluxing stone.. do.. 

Sugar factories- do.. 

Glass factories do... 

Paper mills _ do.. 

Agriculture. do... 

Other uses b .. do.. 

Total (quantities approximate, in short tons).... 



14, 639, 950 

1, 099, 390 

75, 070 

6,600 

327, 180 

1, 536, 570 

41, 386, 550 

25, 562, 140 

474, 530 

197, 380 

206, 740 

1, 278, 770 

4, 625, 510 



$16, 221, 095 
46~830 



484, 771 

1, 451, 670 

42, 540, 754 

20, 333, 939 

875, 774 

301, 403 

326, 054 

2, 160, 249 

4, 877, 468 



14, 456, 320 

1, 097, 530 

69,010 

5,560 

392, 180 

1, 695, 280 

46, 446, 680 

19, 683. 150 

618, 230 

177, 260 

138, 280 

1,352,600 

4, 287, 680 



$15, 805, 680 



76, 701, 360 89, 620, 007 



75, 894, 430 



• Figures for building stone include small amounts of monumental stone. 
» See table on p. 290 for further distribution of limestone products. 



78,264 



623, 844 

1, 513, 443 

47, 594, 437 

15, 827, 464 

1, 055, 505 
286, 104 
236, 834 

2, 046, 860 
4, 800, 461 



89 t 868, 956 



STONE 



285 



Limestone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1928-24, by States 

[Quantities approximate] 



State 



1923 



Short tons 



Value 



1924 



Short tons 



Value 



Alabama 

Arizona.. 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida— 

Georgia 

Idaho.. 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine. 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada. 

New Jersey 

New Mexico ... 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island.. 
South Dakota. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia ._. 

Washington 

West Virginia.. 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Undistributed. 



253, 
87, 
119, 
355, 

:-;sfi, 
(*) 

412. 
175. 

31', 
020. 
050, 
603, 
907, 
S3',, 
(«) 

48, 
625, 

58, 
587, 
320, 

<■) 

008, 
228. 
243, 
io. 
394, 
(•) 
413, 
131, 
135, 
251, 
4, 

558, 

86, 
(°) 

43, 

352, 
834, 

558, 
27, 
905. 
53, 
531, 
878, 
180. 
215. 



500 
900 
800 

150 
120 

410 
380 
010 
880 
1 10 
.550 
820 
050 

010 
590 
410 
070 
950 

230 
940 

020 
140 
090 

380 

02(1 
010 
740 
020 
550 
600 

280 
580 

850 
110 
330 
000 
540 
350 
210 
150 
070 



$1,362,084 
89, 576 
121, 169 
629, 108 
431,374 
(«) 

1, 236, 226 
389, 511 

61,758 

8, 309, 383 

17,692,112 

698, 207 

1, 156, 637 

2, 075, 076 

108, 788 

878, 745 

189, 929 
5, 845, 649 

776, 162 

( a ) 
3, 173, 622 

187. 362 

328, 918 
27, 603 

473, 416 

(°) 
7, 463, 884 

202, 573 
9, 123, 061 

1, 326, 266 

13, 828 
13, 753, 093 
192, 661 
(°) 

70, 190 

1,634,705 

1,616,197 

457. 490 

73, 318 

2, 220, 462 
116, 243 

2, 634, 457 

2,014,942 

281, 595 

182,627 



1, 170, 640 
( a ) 

145, 710 

249, 860 

561,060 

(«) 

2,891,610 

185,860 

11,730 

8, 577, 220 

3, 824, 440 

607, 530 

766, 120 

2,153,610 

(«) 

38, 150 

350, 160 

75, 560 

9,901,910 

457, 980 

C) 

2, 240, 200 

206, 150 

222, 030 

(•) 

282, 700 

480, 720 

6, 969, 060 

114.820 

10, 040, 910 

1, 271, 930 

5, 710 

11,558,110 

90, 830 

C) 

39, 360 

1, 339, 330 

1,872,530 

639, 220 

46, 200 

1,928,510 

46, 420 

2, 334, 250 

1, 823, 970 

222, 970 

149, 350 



76,701,360 



89, 620, 007 



75, 894, 430 



$1, 253, 971 

(°) 

125,215 
540, 777 
656, 193 
(•) 

2, 717, 486 

383, 130 

25, 253 

7, 916, 883 
17, 269, 407 

712, 540 
960, 626 

2, 629, 588 
(°) 

100, 252 

495, 239 

216, 392 

5, 578, 642 

1, 101, 607 

( a ) 

3, 616, 100 
152, 644 
285, 977 

(«) 
390, S37 
288, 446 

8, 469. 975 
188, 470 

8, 534, 401 

1, 334, 647 

17, 473 

12,778,612 

206, 011 

60, 713 
1, 534, 735 

1, 483, 862 
408, 195 
118, 240 

2, 200, 417 
108, 155 

2, 503, 273 

1, 909, 885 

326, 446 

208, 241 

89, 868, 956 



• Included under " Undistributed.' 



286 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924- — PART II 



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288 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



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290 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART TI 



Lima done sold or used by producers in the United States for miscellaneous uses, 

1923-24 



Use 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




3, 338. 910 
276, 760 
205, 890 
81,310 
116,410 
225, 400 
6,940 


$2, 348. 223 
138, 854 
249, 993 

514. 258 

146, 337 

728, 386 

9,333 


2,950,120 

312, 670 

309,010 

66, 910 

98, 160 

284, 850 

7,530 

3,790 

34, 600 

6, 780 

3, 020 

47. 610 

12,210 

150, 420 


$2, 074, 509 


Calcium carbide works 


153, 572 


Refractory stone (dolomite) 


287, 137 


Whiting substitute 


417,326 


Magnesia works 


129, 390 


Asphalt filler 


1,052,427 


Mineral wooL.. 


14, 808 


Carbolic acid works __ 


4,473 




19,830 
13,080 


37,164 
77,004 


57,105 


Poultry grit. 


35, 794 




13, 240 


Stucco 


66, 590 

11,060 

263, 330 


392, 591 

27, 272 

208,053 


292, 453 




47, 068 


Other uses * 


221, 159 








4, 625, 510 


4,877,468 


4, 287, 680 


4, 800, 461 



• Included under " Other uses." 

» Includes stone sold for manufacture of sulphuric acid, phosphates, terrazzo, artificial stone, ammonia, 
nitrates, soap, baking powder, and other chemicals, the purification of copper and the reduction of' 
aluminum ore, for filter stone, road base, lime burners, livestock mixture, and uses not specified. 

A considerable quantity of the limestone reported in the tables 
by uses is burned into lime — particularly the limestone reported by 
iron and steel producers and by alkali, sugar, and paper manufac- 
turers, quarried by them and used in their own plants ; also limest one 
sold to the manufacturers of these and other commodities who may 
burn it into lime before using it. To avoid duplication this lime is 
not included in the figures of production in the chapter on lime. 
Limestone manufactured into lime and into cement and reported in 
terms of finished product is treated in separate chapters. The 
quantities so used are estimated in the following table: 

Limestone used for all purposes in the United States, 1922-1924, in short tons 



Use 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Limestone (as given in this report) 


58, 928, 660 

30, 070, 000 

148, 000 

7, 280, 000 


76,701,360 

34, 722, 000 

212,000 

8, 140. OCO 


75, 894, 430 




37, 727, 000 


Natural cement ("cement rock") 


236, 000 


Lime 


8,144,000 








96, 426, 660 


119,775,360 


122,001,430 



BUILDING STONE 

More than one-half of the total quantity of building stone sold in 
1924 was limestone, the sales of which were slightly less than in 1923. 
The largest quarry center for building limestone, the Bedford- 
Bloomington district in Indiana, showed a decrease of 6 per cent 
from 1923. There was also a slight decrease in the sales of high- 
grade building limestone quarried at Russell ville, Ala., and Bowling 
Green, Ky., but an increase in the total sales at Kasota, Mankato, 
Mantorville, and Winona, Minn., and at Leuders, Tex. Sales of 
limestone for rough construction increased somewhat as did sales of 
the cut stone for architectural work. Sales of rough blocks and of 



STONE 



291 



sawed stone for architectural work decreased (p. 269). The sales of 
limestone from the quarries and mills of the Bedford-Bloornington 
district in Indiana and from quarries at Mankato and Kasota, Minn., 
together with the sales of marble from the Carthage district, Mo., 
are given below. The Carthage stone is used, as is the Indiana stone, 
mainly for exterior building, and the figures of production are given 
here for convenience in comparison. 

Indiana. — The quantity of building stone reported as sold in the 
Bedford-Bloomington oolitic limestone district, in Lawrence and 
Monroe Counties, Ind., in 1924 was 6 per cent less than in 1923, the 
year of record production. Besides the architectural stone sold, the 
waste stone is sold for flux, road metal, riprap, rubble, manufacture 
of paper and glass, and is manufactured into lime. 

Limestone sold by the producers in the Bedford-Bloomington district, Lawrence and 
Monroe Counties, Ind., 1923-24 





Num- 
ber of 
active 
plants 


Building stone 


County 


Rough blocks 


Sawed stone 


Semifinished stone 




Cubic feet 


Value 


Cubic feet 


Value 


Cubic feet 


Value 




12 
24 


3, 197, 310 
1, 397, 660 


$2,181,422 
682, 795 


1, 597, 390 
2, 332, 370 


$1, 683, 800 
2, 299, 047 


97, 520 
147, 220 


$227, 168 


Monroe 


325, 871 






Total, 1923 


36 

36 


4, 594, 970 
4, 792, 580 


2,864,217 
2, 993, 984 


3, 929, 760 
4, 303, 860 


3, 982, 847 
4, 356, 584 


244, 740 
577, 710 


553, 039 
1, 252, 931 





Building stone 










County 


Cut stone 


Total 








Cubic feet 


Value 


Cubic feet 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short tons 
(approxi- 
mate) 


Value 


Lawrence 

Monroe 


1, 643, 140 
592, 960 


$5, 002, 055 
1,762,083 


6, 535, 360 
4, 470, 210 


$9, 094, 445 
5, 069, 796 


205, 770 
50, 160 


$192,415 
8,097 


679, 570 
374, 160 


$9, 286, 860 
5, 077, 893 


Total, 1923 


2, 236, 100 
2, 020, 230 


6, 764, 138 
6, 644, 665 


11, 005, 570 
11, 694, 380 


14, 164, 241 
15, 248, 164 


255, 930 
233, 180 


200,512 
167, 845 


1, 053, 730 
1, 081, 080 


14, 364, 753 

15, 416, 009 



A considerable amount of stone is sold by the quarry operators to 
the finishing mills of the district. The dressed stone sold by these 
mills is shown in the following table : 

Indiana oolitic limestone sold by the mills not operated by quarry companies in the 
Bedford-Bloomington district, Lawrence and Monroe Counties, Ind., 1923-24 





Sawed 


Semifinished 


Cut 


Total 


Year 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Cubic feet 


Value 


Cubic feet 


Value 


1923 

1924 


202, 700 
358, 260 


$183, 248 
354, 945 


2,830 
4,660 


$7, 545 
12,144 


1, 470, 970 
1, 391, 580 


$4, 614, 744 
4, 287, 056 


1, 676, 500 
1, 754, 500 


$4, 805, 537 
4, 654, 145 





292 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Minnesota— -The following table shows the sales of limestone at 
Mankato and Kasota, Minn., for the last three years: 

Limestone sold by producers at Mankato and Kasota, Minn., 1922-1 924 





Building stone (rough 
and dressed) 


Other 


Total 


Year 


Cubic feet 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 
(approxi- 
mate) 


Value 


1922 


151,110 

138, 890 
130, 660 


$261, 275 
312,911 
495, 036 


29, 910 
33, 980 
46, 610 


$32, 329 
34, 867 
43, 152 


42, 600 
44,900 
65, 560 


$293, 604 


1923 - 


347, 778 


1924 


538, 188 







Stone for architectural building purposes is also quarried at 
Mantorville and Winona, Minn. 

Missouri. — The stone from the Carthage district, Mo., used for 
architectural building and for monumental work is classed as marble 
and is included in the figures of production of marble in Missouri 
given on page 283. The crushed stone and low-grade material are 
included under limestone, but all grades are combined to show the 
total production in the table below. 

Limestone and marble sold by producers in the Carthage district, Jasper County, 

Mo., 1922-1924 



Year 


Building stone 

(rough and 

dressed) 


Monumental stone 

(rough and 

dressed) 


Other 


Total 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short tons 
(approxi- 
mate) 


Value 


1922 


368, 400 
442, 680 
435, 810 


$692, 693 
782, 796 
826, 294 


26, 330 
20, 630 
25, 660 


$40, 471 
32, 243 
40, 505 


68, 550 
66, 070 
78, 030 


$176,852 
167, 357 
193, 944 


102, 300 
104, 760 
116, 560 


$910, 016 


1923 - 


982, 396 


1924 


1, 060, 743 







SANDSTONE 



There was a decrease of 10 per cent in the quantity of sandstone 
sold or used by the producers in 1924. Sandstone sold for building 
stone, curbing, flagging, and " other" uses increased in quantity and 
that sold for paving blocks, crushed stone, riprap, rubble, and refrac- 
tory stone decreased. 



STONE 293 

Sandstone sold or used by Die producers in the United Stales, 1923-24, by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Building stone 




.cubic feet.. 


3, 229, 450 

245, 870 

4, 608, 720 

44, 700 

1, 834, 636 

136, 840 

607, 596 

43, 860 

2, 260, 670 

341, 120 

330, 090 

907, 670 

38, 450 


$2, 130, 552 


3, 550, 530 
263, 580 

3, 438, 470 
32, 650 

2, 374, 010 

176, 960 

810, 440 

5.9, 840 

1, 989, 240 
278, 210 
221, 320 
756, 630 
116,260 


$2, 730, 451 


Approximate equivalent in 


short tons, 
short tons, 
short tons, 
short tons . 


Paving blocks 

Approximate equivalent in 


...number.. 


416,966 


294, 281 


Curbing 

Approximate equivalent in 


.cubic feet.. 


1,453,271 


1, 877, 420 


Flagging 

Approximate equivalent in 


.cubic feet.. 


422, 059 


560, 156 


Crushed stone 


.short tons.. 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do____ 


2, 628, 935 
441, 634 
427, 591 

1, 182, 635 
71, 063 


2, 696, 791 


Riprap 

Rubble 

Refractory stone (ganister) 

Other uses 




364, 036 
276,411 
981,906 
360, 647 




mate, in short tons) 




Total (quantities approxi 


4, 349, 270 


9, 174, 706 


3, 894, 690 


10, 142, 099 



Sandstone sold or used by the producers in the United States, 1923-24, by Slates 

[Quantities approximate] 



State 


1923 


1924 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




45, 660 

43, 730 
(") 
647, 980 

69, 140 
(«) 
( a ) 

90, 950 


$39, 609 
46, 344 

(°) 

835, 138 

113,841 

( a ) 

(°) 
49, 173 


50, 210 


$123, 180 




Arkansas.. 


(°) 

622, 180 
89, 050 
15, 020 
37, 760 
(53, 740 

C) 


(°) 




765, 364 
84, 984 
27,156 




Connecticut 


Idaho.. 


150, 484 
43, 051 
C) 


Illinois _. 




Iowa. 


(») 

11,820 

48, 430 

(•) 

(") 

2,510 

19, 030 

126,010 

160 

6,360 

20, 120 

216, 180 

«- 282, 690 

357, 730 

4,820 

148, 200 

» 1, 405, 330 

192, 740 


(*) 

23, 760 

174, 949 

(°) 

(«) 

98, 147 

36, 9S3 

269, 177 

2,978 

23, 848 

2(5, 600 

122, 663 

» 1, 259, 257 

2, 341, 508 

4,671 

207, 680 

k 2, 359, 306 

284, 127 


Kansas 


(°) 

20, 090 


(•) 


Kentucky . 


156, 661 


Louisiana . . 


Maryland ... . 






Massachusetts 


(«) 
17, 670 
53, 830 


(°) 
33, 736 
131,351 


Michigan 


Minnesota 


M issou ri 






(•) 
11, 190 


(») 
18, 441 




New Mexico 


New York 


> 303, 000 

414, 150 

2, 750 

81,900 
* 1,322, 260 
121,500 
(°) 
(°) 
(") 
(°) 
( a ) 

21, 070 
284, 040 
193, 910 
(•) 
169, 370 


° 1, 529, 590 

2, 746, 464 

5,580 

106, 752 

•2,305,743 

181,400 


Ohio 


Oklahoma.. 


Oregon 




South Dakota 


Tennessee 


( a ) 


Texas... 


(°) 

225, 700 
7,000 

48, 380 
(») 

19, 360 
240, 380 
(°) 

68, 860 


(*) 

116, 601 
13, 500 
27,724 

( a ) 
25, 958 

411,994 

(«) 

259, 190 


(•) 


Utah. . 


(°) 


Vermont 


(°) 




(•) 


Washington 


563, 075 
536, 881 


West Virginia.. 


Wisconsin 


370, 702 


Wyoming 


(°) 


Undistributed 


261, 504 








4,349,270 


9, 174, 706 


3, 894, 690 


10, 142, 099 



• Included under "Undistributed." 

* Includes bluestone. 



294 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



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STONE 



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296 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1024 — PART II 



BLUESTONE 

The figures of production for bluestone are included in those for 
sandstone, but on account of the local importance of this stone they 
are also given separately. Except for a few of the large quarries the 
figures of sales reported by dealers rather than quarrymen are used 
by the Bureau of Mines, as more nearly representative of this indus- 
try. Stone for building decreased, and stone for curbing and flagging, 
the other important products, increased. 



Bluestone 


sold in New York and Pennsylvania, 1923-24 








Building stone 


Curbing 


Flagging 


Otber 


Total 


State 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Cubic 
feet 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 
(•ap- 
proxi- 
mate) 


Value 


1923 
New York 


145, 660 
13, 730 


$240, 596 
6,913 


268, 150 
93, 800 


$316, 801 
94, 915 


57, 400 


$41. 917 


7,450 
100 


$12, 324 
300 


47, 260 
12, 250 


$611, 638 


Pennsylvania. 


39, 620j 46, 280 


148, 408 




159, 390 


247,509 


361, 950 


411,716 


97, 020 88, 197 


7,550 


12,624 


59, 510 


760, 046 


1924 
New York 


121, 870 
16, 480 


268, 226 
14, 115 


370, 520 
100, 980 


363, 649 
101, 701 


112, 110 81, 778 
47, 280! 46, 265 


17, 100 
2,400 


17, 130 
4.440 


68,160 
16, 310 


730, 783 


Pennsylvania 


166, 521 




138, 350 


282, 341 


471, 500l 465,350 

1 


159,390, 128,043 


19, 500 


21, 570 


84,470 


897, 304 



MISCELLANEOUS STONE 

Practically all the material included under " miscellaneous " stone 
is used for road metal, concrete, and railroad ballast. In 1924 a 
considerable amount of riprap, mainly hornblende-mica schist from 
quarries opened in California, was reported sold for the construction 
of harbor improvements. The total output of miscellaneous stone 
increased 16 per cent in quantity in 1924. The increase in output of 
crushed stone was 10 per cent. Much crushed stone is quarried for 
jobs near quarries, and the quarries are closed when the work is com- 
pleted. The State contributing the largest amount of miscellaneous 
stone is California. The output of this State includes rhyolite tuff 
(used as a building stone), andesite, rhyolite, trachyte, and other 
light-colored volcanic rocks, decomposed granite, hornblende-mica 
schist, and stone crushed from bowlders taken from river beds. 
The crushed bowlders are mostly from Los Angeles County, where 
part of the material taken out is sand, part screened gravel, and the 
rest is chiefly bowlders which are crushed. The sand and screened 
gravel obtained are included in the report on sand and gravel. 
Among the varieties of stone reported are andesite quarried in Ari- 
zona; argillite quarried in Arkansas, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; 
phonolite from mine dumps in Colorado; cherty limestone or flint 
rock in Florida; rhyolite in Idaho and North Carolina; slate, con- 
glomerate, and light-colored volcanic rocks in Massachusetts; and 
mica schist for building and refractory stone in Pennsylvania. 
There are also included from the other States volcanic cinders, coral 
rock, rhyolite, andesite, decomposed granite, mica crystal grit, 



STONE 



297 



"gyp" rock, "caliche," serpentine, field stone, and some stone, the 
variety of which is not known, reported by local contractors or oper- 
ators of portable crushers as the product of road workings. 

Miscellaneous varieties of stone a sold or used by the producers in the United States, 

4, by uses 



Use 


1923 


1924 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




411,310 

33. 500 

236, 960 

3, 418, 530 

38, 340 

3,540 


$140, 751 


299, 480 
22, 940 
501, 520 
3, 761, 820 
28, 300 
9,060 


$00. 385 








192, 882 

4, 055, 225 

140, 166 

38, 086 


789, 911 


Crushed stone do 

Refractory stone (mica schist) ..do 

Other uses ...do 


4, 049, 098 
120. 370 
45, 480 


Total (quantities approximate, in short tons) 


3, 730, 870 


4, 567, 110 


4, 323, 640 


5, 105, 139 



• Includes mica schist, conglomerate, argillite, various light-colored volcanic rocks, serpentine not used as 
marble, and such other stone as can not be properly classed in any of the main groups. 



Miscellaneous varieties of stone sold or used by the producers in the United Stales, 

1923-24, by States 

[Quantities approximate] 



• State 


1923 


1924 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 




14, 290 

355, 790 

2, 393, 190 

41, 130 

81, 670 


$19, 054 

425, 064 

2, 470, 823 

14, 227 

189, 208 


43, 230 
378, 110 
2, 730, 780 
(°) 

81, 750 
(«) 

16, 550 
(») 

270, 810 
137, 080 
(°) 
(«*) 
( a ) 

22, 600 
(•) 
(") 

47, 140 
128, 430 

32, 630 
(°) 


$80, 761 




451, 691 




2, 967, 258 


Colorado 


(«) 


Florida 


225, 292 
18, 975 




Idaho - 


26, 710 


30, 473 




(») 
460, 395 


Massachusetts 


223,380 
(») 

8,410 
C) 


408, 027 
(<*) 

31,926 
(°) 




62, 275 




(•) 

(°) 


New Jersey 


New Mexico .- 


( a ) 


New York 


(») 
(«) 
(•) 

35, 760 
141, 370 

77, 330 
3,400 
(«) 


(») 
(•) 

(«) 

19, 385 

344, 648 

142, 220 

3,571 

(°) 


49, 625 


North Carolina 


8 

42, 958 






Pp.nnsylvania 


315, 610 


Rhode Island 


74, 095 


South D akota 


Virginia 


Washington 


12, 770 
( a ) 
421, 760 


7,475 


Wyoming 


(°) 
328, 440 


468, 484 


C) 

348, 729 


Undistributed 








3, 730, 870 


4,567,110 


4, 323, 640 


5, 105, 139 



Included under " Undistributed. 



CRUSHED STONE 



Both the quantity and the value of the output of crushed stone in 
the United States increased 9 per cent in 1924 as compared with 1923. 
Stone for concrete and road metal increased 13 per cent in quantity 
and 12 per cent in value. Stone for railroad ballast decreased 7 per 
cent in quantity and 9 per cent in value. There was a decrease of 1 
cent in the average value of stone for concrete and road metal and 
a decrease of 2 cents in that for railroad ballast. In 1924 as in 1923 a 



298 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



canvass was made of railroad companies in order to obtain more 
complete reports of the noncommercial material quarried and used 
by them. A similar canvass was made of the highway departments of 
all the States to ascertain the amount of noncommercial material used 
by them. The canvass, however, was not wholly successful, as only 
a few of the States could give entirely satisfactory information in 
either year. 

Miscellaneous varieties of stone sold or used by the producers in the United Slates in 

1924, by States and uses 



State 


Num- 
ber of 
active 
plants 


Building 


Riprap and 
rubble 


Crushed stone for con- 
crete and road metal 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Arizona 


3 
3 

51 
1 
8 
2 
3 
1 

12 
4 
2 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 

20 
4 
1 
3 
1 


(°) 


(•) 






(•) 
(•) 

2, 144, 720 
(«) 

81, 750 
(°) 
(•) 

C) * 
264, 540 


(•) 




(«) 

394, 900 
(°) 


(•) 

$692, 395 
C) 


(*) 




( a ) 


(°) 


$2, 107, 121 




(■•) 


Florida 






225, 292 












(•) 




(") 


( a ) 






(•) 


Maine _. 






(•) 




(°) 


(°) 


3,680 


6,675 


446, 977 




















(°) 


(°) 






(«) 
(•) 

( 8 ) 


(a) 








(•) 








(") 


(•) 


(•), 




( a ) 


(°) 




C) 


(•) 












C) 

74, 900 
32, 630 
( a ) 
12, 770 


(«) 




15, 710 


$G3, 855 


(<*) 


(•) 


117,389 




74, 095 


South Dakota 










( a ) 












7,475 




' 












7,230 


35. 530 


102, 940 


90, 841 


571, 860 


632, 551 












131 


22,940 I 99,385 


501, 520 


789,911 


3, 183, 170 


3, 610, 900 



State 


Crushed stone for 
railroad ballast 


Other uses 


Total 




Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 












43, 230 

378, 110 

2, 730, 780 

( a ) 

81, 750 

C) 

16, 550 

(«) 

270, 810 
137, 080 

C) 

(«) 

(«) 

22. 600 

(•) 

(•) 

47, 140 
128, 430 

32, 630 

(•) 

12, 770 

C) 
421, 760 


$80, 761 
451,691 




187, 680 


$132, 937 








(•) 


(•) 


2, 967, 258 




( a ) 


Florida 










225, 292 


Hawaii 










(°) 


Idaho 










18, 975 












( a ) 






(■) 






460, 395 




( a ) 
( a ) 


(•) 
C) 


62, 275 




( a ) 


New Jersey 






(°) 












(°) 












49, 625 




(•) 
(•) 
(*) 


(•) 
(•) 
(•) 
C) 


C) 


( a ) 


(•) 




( a ) 








42, 958 


Pennsylvania 


29, 310 


$123, 170 


315,610 




74, 095 












( a ) 












7,475 








8,050 


42, 680 


(«) 


Undistributed 


390, 970 


306, 156 


348, 729 








578, 650 


439, 093 


37, 360 


165, 850 


4, 323, 640 


5, 105, 139 



• Included under "Undistributed." 



STONE 



299 



Crushed stone sold or used by the 


producers 


in the United States, 1923-24 




Concrete and road metal Railroad ballast 


Total 


Kind 


Short tons 




Value 


Short tons 


Value 




Value 


Short tons 


Total 


Aver- 
age 


1923 
Granite 

Basalt and related rocks 


4, 400, 410 

8, 550, 600 

33, 382, 210 

1, 560, 300 

3, 154, 380 


$5, 690, 464 
10, 793, 201 


608, 870 
1.697 aw 


$539, 645 
1, 680, 427 


5, 009, 280 
10. 247. 680 


$6, 230, 109 

12, 473, 628 

42, 540, 754 
2, 628, 935 
4, C55, 225 


$1.24 
1.22 




35,925,709 i 8,004,340 
2,110,230 j 700,370 
3, 836, 490 264, 150 


6,615,045 ! 41,3S6, 550 
518, 705 | 2, 260. 670 
218,735 3,418,530 


1.03 


Sandstone 


1.16 


Miscellaneous 


1.19 


Average value per ton._ 


51, 0*17, 900 


58, 356, 094 
$1.14 


11, 274, 810 


9, 572, 557 
$0.85 


62, 322, 710 


67, 928. 651 
$1. 09 














1924 
Granite 


3, 763, 750 

9, 803, 500 
39,213, 110 

1, 720, 680 
3, 183, 170 


5, 031, 814 

12,116,268 
41,911,051 

2, 428, 659 

3, 610, 900 


1, 042, 820 

1, 390, 630 

7, 233, 570 

268, 560 

578, 650 


903, 777 

1, 4: ; ,8, 496 

5, 683, 386 

268, 132 

439, 093 


4, 806, 570 

11, 194, 130 

46, 446, 680 

1, 989, 240 

3, 761, 820 


5, 935, 591 

13, 584, 764 

47, 594, 437 

2, 698! 791 

4, 049, 993 


1.23 


Basalt and related rocks 
(trap rock) 


1.21 


Limestone 


1.02 




1.36 


Miscellaneous 


1.08 


Average value per ton . - 


57, 684, 210 


65, 128, 692 
$1.13 

+12 


10, 514, 230 


8, 732, 884 
$0.83 

-9 


68, 198, 440 


73, 861, 576 
$1.08 

+9 




Percentage of increase or 
decrease in 1924.. 


+13 


-7 


+9 





HIGH-MAGNESIUM LIMESTONE 

In response to requests for information on producers of high- 
magnesium limestone and dolomite the following list of companies 
is published. Analyses of the stone produced by these companies 
are not available, but the companies themselves have reported on 
their statistical schedules — either in 1923 or 1924 — that their stone 
was high-magnesium limestone containing from 25 to 45 per cent of 
MgC0 3 . (Pure dolomite contains 45.65 per cent). The names are 
those of producers who have indicated that the composition of their 
product is within that range. Some of the companies listed below 
quarry high-calcium and low-magnesium as well as high-magnesium 
limestone. The arrangement of the table is alphabetical by State, 
county, and place. For companies having offices at places other 
than the quarries the office addresses are given. 

Firms producing high-magnesium limestone 

Alabama: Jefferson County — Birmingham (near) — Dolcito Quarry Co.; Republic 
Iron & Steel Co. (address, Youngstown, Ohio); Sloss Sheffield Steel 
& Iron Co.; and Tennessee Coal, Iron & R. R. Co. 
Arkansas: Sharp County — Williford — Greenville Stone & Gravel Co. (address, 

Memphis, Tenn.). 
California: 

Inyo County — Keeler — Inyo Marble Co. and Natural Soda Products Co. 

Monterey County — Salinas — Robert Porter. 

San Benito County — Hollister — Pacific Coast Steel Co. (address, San 

Francisco) . 
Tuolumne County — Sonora — Pacific Lime & Plaster Co. (address, San 
Francisco) . 
Connecticut: 

Fairfield County — New Milford and Redding — New England Lime Co. 

(address, Danbury). 
Litchfield County — 

Canaan — F. W. Barhoff (address, Hartford) and Connecticut Lime Co. 

(address, Lee, Mass.). 
East Canaan and North Canaan — New England Line Co. (address, 
Danbury) . 



300 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Georgia: 

Bartow County — Cartersville — Ladd Lime & Stone Co. 

Gilmer County — Whitestone (near) — Willingham-Little Stone Co. (address, 

Atlanta) . 
Pickens County — Whitestone — North Georgia Marble Products Co. 
Idaho: Kootenai County — Bay view — Washington Brick, Lime & Sewer Pipe Co. 

(address, Seattle, Wash.). 
Illinois: 

Boone County — Belvidere — John Fair & Co. (lessee, Belvidere Stone Co.). 
Cook County — 

Chicago — Chicago Union Lime Works Co.; Consumers Co.; and Stearns 

Lime & Stone Co. 
Hillside — A. C. O'Loughlin (Bellewood Quarry) (address, Chicago). 
LaGrange — Consumers Co. (address, Chicago); Dolese & Shepard Co. 
(address, Chicago); Federal Stone Co. (address, Chicago); and 
Superior Stone Co. (address, Chicago). 
Lemont — Consumers Co. (address, Chicago). 
Lyons — Peoples Crushed Stone Co. (address, Chicago), and Riverside 

Lime & Stone Co. (address, Chicago). 
Thornton — Brownell Improvement Co. (address, Chicago). 
Du Page County — Elmhurst — Elmhurst-Chicago Stone Co. 
Kankakee County — Lehigh — Lehigh Stone Co. (address, Kankakee). 
Rock Island County — Port Byron — Port Byron Lime Association. 
Will County — Joliet — Gross & McCowan Lumber Co.; Illinois State Peni- 
tentiary; Inland Crushed Stone Co.; Lincoln Crushed Stone Co.; 
Markgraf Stone Co.; National Stone Co.; and Swan, Medin & Co. 
Winnebago County — 

Rockford — Northern Illinois Supply Co. 
Rockton — George W. Martin (address, Rockford). 
Indiana: 

Adams County — Linngrove — Meshberger Bros. Stone Co. 

Cass County — Logansport — The Logansport Stone & Lime Co. (address, 

Huntington). 
Delaware County — Muncie — Muncie Stone & Lime Co. 
Harrison County — Milltown — Louisville Cement Co. (address, Louisville, 

Ky.). 
Huntington County — Huntington — The Erie Stone Co. (address, Toledo, 
Ohio) and The Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleve- 
land, Ohio). 
Putnam County — Greencastle — Mid-West Crushed Stone Co. (address, 
Indianapolis); and The Ohio & Indiana Stone Co. (address, Toledo, 
Ohio). 
Randolph County — Ridgeville — Mid-West Crushed Stone Co. (address, 

Indianapolis). 
Wells County— Bluff ton— The Erie Stone Co. (address, Toledo, Ohio). 
White County — Monon — Monon Crushed Stone Co. 
Iowa: 

Allamakee County — Postville — Wilkes Williams. 
Dubuque County — 

Dubuque — Eagle Point Lime Works. 
Farley — B. N. Arquitt. 
Jackson County — Maquoketa — A. A. Hurst. 
Kansas: Neosho County — Chanute — J. F. Byers. 
Maryland: Baltimore County — Cockeysville — Beaver Dam Marble Co. (address, 

Baltimore) . 
Massachusetts: Berkshire County — 

Ashley Falls — Berkshire Marble Co. 
Lee — Lee Lime Co. and Lee Marble Works (Inc.). 
Williamstown — D. S. McGrath (address, Adams). 
Michigan: 

Charlevoix County — Bayshore — Northern Lime & Stone Co. (address, 

Petoskey). 
Chippewa County — Fibre — Scott Quarry Co. (address, Sault Ste. Marie). 
Delta County — Escanaba — Bichler Bros, (address, R. D. No. 1, Gladstone). 
Dickinson County — 

Felch — The Metro-Nite Co. (address, Milwaukee, Wis.). 
Randville— Crystalite Reduction Co. 



STONE 301 

Michigan — Continued. 

Mackinac County — Trout Lake (Ozark Quarry) — Fiborn Limestone Co. 

(address, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario). 
Monroe County — Monroe — The France Stone Co. (address, Toledo, Ohio). 
Schoolcraft County — Blaney, Manistique, Marblehead — Manistique Lime & 

Stone Co. (address, Manistique). 
Wayne County — River Rouge — Dunbar & Sullivan Dredging Co. (Stone 
dredged from Livingston Channel of River Rouge.) 
Minnesota: 

Blue Earth County — Mankato — T. R. Coughlan Co. and Fowler & Pay. 
Dakota County — Mendota — Geo. C. Lauer Stone & Construction Co. (ad- 
dress, St. Paul). 
Fillmore County — Preston — Preston Crushed Rock Co. 
Goodhue County — Red Wing — Gust Lillyblad. 

Le Sueur County — Kasota — Babcock & Willcox and Breen Stone & Mar- 
ble Co. 
Nebraska : 

Cass County — Louisville — Hugh Murphy Construction Co. (address, 

Omaha) . 
Gage County — Wymore — G. H. Davis (address, Blue Spring). 
Nevada: Clark County — Sloan — Nevada Lime & Rock Co. 
New Jersey: 

Hunterdon County — 

Calif on — Bound Brook Crushed Stone Co. (address, Bound Brook) and 

E. J. Neighbour (address, Long Valley). 
Clinton — M. C. Mulligan & Sons. 
Somerset County — Peapack — Todd & Cordes. 
Sussex County — 

Andover — The Singer Manufacturing Co. (address, New York, N. Y.). 
Hamburg — Lime & Stone Products Corporation. 
Ogdensburg — Replogle Steel Co. 
New York: 

Dutchess County — 

Dover Plains — The Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, 

Cleveland, Ohio). 
South Dover — South Dover Marble Co. 

Stoneco — Carbonate Lime Corporation (address, New York), 
and New York Traprock Corporation (address, New York). 
Essex County — Port Henry — Witherbee, Sherman & Co. 
Jefferson County — Natural Bridge — The Basic Refractories Corporation 

(address, York, Pa.). 
Monroe County — Rochester — Dolomite Products Co. 
Niagara County — Gasport — Wickwire Spencer Steel Corporation (address, 

Buffalo). 
Orange County — Newburgh — Newburgh Lime Manufacturing Co. (Inc.). 
Rockland County — Tomkins Cove — The Tomkins Cove Stone Co. (address, 

New York). 
Saratoga County — Saratoga Springs — Gailor Stone Co. (Inc.). 
Schenectady County — Pattersonville — Flint Hill Quarries (address, Troy). 
Ulster County — Marlboro — New York Traprock Corporation (address, New 

York). 
Westchester County — 

Tuckahoe — Benedict Stone Corporation (address, New York); Conlin 
Marble Co. (Inc.); and Kapailo Manufacturing Co. (Inc.) (address, 
New York). 
Verplanck — Carbonate Lime Corporation (address, New York); and 
New York Traprock Corporation (address, New York). 
North Carolina: 

Henderson County — Asheville — Blue Ridge Lime Co. 
McDowell County — Marion — Clinchfield Lime Co. (address, Asheville). 
Madison County — Hot Springs — G. C. Buquo Lime Co. 
Swain County — Hewitts — North Carolina Talc & Mining Co. 
Ohic: 

Adams County — Peebles — Basic Products Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.). 
Allen County — Lima — The National Quarries Co. (address, Carey). 
Clark County— Springfield — J. W. Jenkins; National Mortar & Supply Co 
(address, Pittsburgh, Pa.); and The Moores Lime Co. 



302 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Ohio — Continued. 

Clinton County — Melvin — C. C. Beam. 

Delaware County — White Sulphur — Americ&n Crushed Rock Co. (address, 

Cleveland) . 
Erie County — Sandusky — The Wagner Quarries Co. 
Franklin County — Dublin — J. M. Snouffer (address, Columbus). 
Green County — Cedarville — Abel Magnesia Co. 
Hancock County — Findlay — The Tarbox-McCall Stone Co. 
Hardin County — 

Dunkirk — The France Co. (address, Toledo). 

Forest — John Herzog & Son. 

Kenton — The France Quarries Co. (address, Toledo). 
Highland County — Greenfield — Rucker Quarries Co. 
Lucas County — 

Holland and Water ville — The France Stone Co. (address, Toledo). 

Sylvania — The Toledo Stone & Glass Co. (address, Toledo). 
Ottawa County — 

Clay Center — The Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, 
Cleveland) . 

Genoa — United States Gypsum Co. (address, Chicago, 111.). 

Limestone — Benton Lime & Stone Co. (address, Oak Harbor). 
Preble County — New Paris — The France Quarries Co. (address, Toledo). 
Putnam County — Pandora — The Schumacher Stone Co. 
Sandusky County — 

Bellevue — The Bellevue Quarries Co. (address, Toledo) and The France 
Stone Co. (address, Toledo;. 

Fremont — The Gottron Bros. Co. 

Gibsonburg — National Mortar & Supply Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.); 
The Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleveland) ; and 
The Wm. L. Urschel Lime & Stone Co. (address, Toledo). 

Woodville — The Ohio Hydrate & Supply Co.; The Standard Lime & 
Stone Co. (address, Baltimore, Md.); and The Woodville Lime 
Products Co. (address, Toledo). 
Seneca County — 

Bascom — The Bascom Quarries Co. (address, Toledo). 

Bettsviile — Kennedy Refractories Co. (address, Tiffin). 

Bloom ville — The France Co. (address, Toledo). 

Maple Grove — The Dolomite Products Co. (address, Cleveland) 

Tiffin — Consumers Lime Co. (address, Fairmont, W. Va.) and The 
Kelley Island Lime & Transport Co. (address, Cleveland). 
Stark County — Canton — Stark Gray Lime Co. 
Van Wert County — 

Delphos and Wetzel — The Limestone Quarries Co. (address, Delphos). 

Middlepoint — The France Co. (address, Toledo). 
Wayne County — Fredericksburg — Blue Knob Crushed Stone Co. 
Wood County — 

Bowling Green — The Wood County Stone & Construction Co. 

Luckey — The Luckey Lime & Supply Co. 

North Baltimore — The France Stone Co. (address, Toledo). 

Stony Ridge — Miller Construction Co. (address, Toledo). 
Wyandot County — Carey — The National Lime & Stone Co. 
Pennsylvania: 

Adams County — Hanover — Bethlehem Mines Corporation (address, Beth- 
lehem) . 
Berks County — 

Kutztown — Martin W. Koller. 

Reading — Oley Valley Quarry Co. 

Wernersville — Dietrick Bros, (address, Reading). 

West Reading — American Boron Products Co. (address, Reading). 
Chester County — 

Devault — Charles Warner Co. (address, Wilmington, Del.). 

Malvern — Knickerbocker Lime Co. (address, Philadelphia). 
Dauphin County — 

Hershey — Hershey Chocolate Co. and Miller & Rhoads- Limestone Co. 

Eighspire — Highspire Quarries (Walter C. Hocker). 

Hummelstown — Union Quarries Corporation. 

Steelton — Bethlehem Mines Corporation (address, Bethlehem). 



STONE 303 

Pennsylvania — Continued. 
Lancaster County — 

Bainbridge — J. E. Baker Co. (address, York). 
Lancaster — Dolomite Products Co. 
New Holland — Aaron Good & Bro. 

Refton — J. W. Breneman (address, R. D. No. 1, Willowstreet) . 
Near Conowingo, Md. (in Lancaster County Pa.) — Octoraro Stone Co 
(Geiger Bros., address, Quarry ville) . 
Lebanon County — Lebanon — A. S. Craumer and Lebanon Stone Co. 
Lehigh County — 

Allentown — Kerfuter & Schaffer,* Lehigh Pulverized Limestone Co.; 
Lehigh Valley Stone & Construction Co.; The New Jersey Zinc 
Company of Pennsylvania (address, New York, N. Y.); Trexler 
Lime & Supply Co.; and C. H. Ziegenfuss Co. (Inc.). 
Catasauqua — W. F. Eberhart & Bro. 
Centre Valley — Frank A. Kuntz. 
Montgomery County — 

Ambler — Keasbey & Mattison Co. 

Bridgeport — Pennsylvania Lime Products Co. and Charles Warner Co. 

(address, Wilmington, Del.). 
Flourtown — Blue Bell Lime Products Co. (Inc.). 
Norristown — Johns- Man ville (Inc.) (address, New York, N. Y.); 

Lukens & Yerkes; and Merion Lime & Stone Co. 
Plymouth Meeting — American Magnesia & Covering Co. (address, 
Lockland, Ohio); G. & W. H. Corson; Cox Lime & Stone Co.; and 
E. J. Lavino & Co. (address, Philadelphia). 
Willow Grove — John J. Cannon. 
Northampton County — 

Bethlehem — Bethlehem Mines Corporation. 
Easton — Easton Lime Co. 

Nazareth — Industrial Limestone Co. (address, Allentown) and The 
Trumbower Co. (Inc.). 
York County — 

Dillsburg— D. Ott & Son. 
Emigsville — Emigsville Quarry Co. 
Mount Wolf— J. E. Baker Co. (address, York). 

York — Bethlehem Mines Corporation (address, Bethlehem) and Cun- 
ningham Bros. 
South Dakota: Pennington County — Rapid City — Dark Canyon Stone Co. 
Tennessee: 

Carter County — Milligan College — Cranberry Furnace Co. 
Knox County — 

Knoxville — Holton Quarry Co. (address, Strawberry Plains). 
Mascot — American Zinc Co. of Tennessee. 
Utah: 

Salt Lake Count y — Salt Lake City — Langton Lime & Cement Co. and 

Western Lime & Silica Co. 
Tooele County — Grantsviile — The Utah Lime & Stone Co. (address, Salt 
Lake City). 
Vermont: 

Rutland County — Brandon — Brandon Rock Products Corporation. 
Windham County — Wilmington — Wilmington Limestone Pulverizing Co. 
Virginia: 

Augusta County — Verona — Harry W. Bowling (address, R. D., Staunton). 
Botetourt County — 

Blue Ridge — Blue Ridge Stone Corporation (address, Roanoke). 
Buchanan — E. Dillon's Sons (Inc.) (address, Indian Rock) and Virginia 
Iron, Coal & Coke Co. (address, Roanoke). 
Giles County — 

Pembroke — Pembroke Limestone Corporation (address, Roanoke). 
Ripplemead — Virginian Limestone Corporation. 
Loudoun County — Mountville — Goose Creek Lime Works (address, Middle- 
burg) . 
Montgomery County — R-adford — Radford Limestone Corporation (address, 

Roanoke) . 
Roanoke County — Roanoke — Robert C. Churchill; A. J. Huff & Sons; and 

Rockydale Stone Co. 
Scott County — Clinchport — Simpson & Crawford (address, Glenita). 



304 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Washington: Stevens County — Colville — Crown Willamette Paper Co. (address, 

San Francisco, Calif.). 
West Virginia: 

Jefferson County — Millville — Blair Limestone Co. (address, Pittsburgh, 

Pa.); Keystone Limestone Co. (address, Pittsburgh, Pa.); and The 

Standard Lime & Stone Co. (address, Baltimore, Md.). 

Monongalia County — Greer — Greer Limestone Co. 

Randolph County — Elkins — Gates & Bailey. 

Wisconsin: 

Brown County — 

Green Bay — Green Bay Sand & Gravel Co. 

Green Leaf — The Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee). 
Calumet Count} 7 — Brillion, Hay ton, Bighcliff — The Western Lime & Cement 

Co. (address, Milwaukee). 
Dodge County — 

Knowles — Standard Lime & Stone Co. (address, Milwaukee) and The 
Western Lime & Cement Co. (Knowles and Nasbro quarries) (address, 
Milwaukee) . 
Mayville — Mayville Iron Co. (address, Chicago, 111.) and Mayville 

White Lime Works. 
Neda — Wisconsin Limestone Co. 
Door County — Sturgeon Bay — Leathern D. Smith Stone Co. 
Fond du Lac County — Hamilton, Marblehead — The W T estern Lime & 

Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee). 
Manitowoc County — 

Grimms — The Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee). 
Manitowoc — Allwood Lime Co. and Rockwell Lime Co. (address, Chi- 
cago, 111.). 
Maribel — Emil Schlegelmilch. 

Quarry — The Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee). 
Valders — Standard Lime & Stone Co. (address, Milwaukee) and The 
Western Lime & Cement Co. (address, Milwaukee). 
Outagamie County — Black Creek — Outagamie Limestone Co. 
Ozaukee County — 

Cedarburg — John F. Groth & Son. 
Grafton — Milwaukee Falls Lime Co. 
Pierce County — Elmwood — Wissota Sand & Gravel Co. (address, Eau 

Claire) .* 
Racine County — Racine — Consumers Co. (address, Chicago, 111.) and 

North Shore Material Co. (address, Chicago, 111.). 
Sheboygan County — 

Elkhart Lake — 'Garden City Land & Lime Co. and Elkhart Sand & 

Gravel Co. 
Sheboygan — Sheboygan Lime Works. 
Trempealeau County— Trempealeau — Trempealeau Lime Products Co. 
Washington County — Rockfield — Rockfleld Products Co. 
Waukesha County — 

Lannon — Central Lumber & Supply Co. (address, Beaver Dam) ; Davis 
Bros. Stone Co.; Schneider Stone Co.; and Lake Shore Stone Co. 
(address, Milwaukee). 
Waukesha — Waukesha Lime & Stone Co. 
Winnebago County — Neenah — City of Neenah. 



ASSESTOS 



By Blanche H. Stoddard 



PRODUCTION 

The total sales of domestic asbestos in 1924, as reported by pro- 
ducers, were 300 short tons, valued at $42,526. These figures 
represent increases of 32 per cent in quantity and 342 per cent in 
value over 1923. Of the total quantity 173 tons, valued at $33,941, 
was chrysotile asbestos mined in Arizona, California, and Montana, 
and 127 tons was amphibole asbestos, valued at $8,585, mined in 
Georgia and Maryland. 

Competition between the mines of Quebec, Canada, and Rhodesia, 
British South Africa, continued to be keen, and in consequence 
market quotations were comparatively low, but prices took a slight 
upward trend during the year on account of the pending merger of 
all Canadian asbestos properties. Efforts in this direction were, 
however, suspended, as one producer could not meet the proposed 
agreement, but in October, 1925, it was rumored that renewed 
effort was being made to bring about the merger. If such a merger 
is consummated greater efficiency in many directions may be ex- 
pected, which probably will result in a readjustment of prices, lower 
costs, standardization of the product, and other improvements. 

Asbestos sold by the producers in the United States, 1920-1924 



Year 


Chrysotile 


Amphibole 


Total 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


Short tons 


Value 


1920 - 


1,245 

438 

25 

69 

173 


$661,907 

313, 268 

3,320 

4,433 

33, 941 


403 
393 

42 
158 
127 


$16, 324 

23, 700 

6,800 

5, 193 

8,585 


1,648 

831 

67 

227 

300 


$678, 231 


1921 


336, 968 


1922 


JO, 120 


1923 


9,626 


1924 


42, 526 







305 



306 



REVIEW BY STATES 



Arizona. — The production of asbestos in Arizona in 1924 was 
many times greater than in 1923 or 1922. This increase was not 
directly due to concentrated effort on production but to the larger 
number of operators — five in 1924 as against two in 1923. The 
producers were as follows : 

Producers of asbestos in Arizona, 1924 






Name 



Address 



Location of property- 



William Andrews and others 

Arizona Asbestos Association 

International Asbestos Co., W. Q. 

Shanley, president. 
Riga Asbestos Mining Co 



W. G. Shanley and C. R. Mor- 
rison. 



Globe 

Globe 

Globe 

1019-20 Detweiler Building 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

450 S. Normandie Street. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 



4 miles northeast from Reynolds Creek 
Rangers Station, nearest post office 
Globe, Gila County. 

Chrysotile, Gila County. 

45 miles north of Globe, Gila County. 

On Wilson Creek, about 7 miles from 
"Rock House," or 65 miles north- 
east of Globe, Gila County. 

5% miles northeast of Chrysotile, Gila 
County. 



California. — The only producer of asbestos in California in 1924 
was the San Benito Asbestos Co., 400 Seventh Street, San Francisco 
(otherwise known as the California Asbestos Mining Co.), whose 
property is on Clear Creek near Coalinga, San Benito County. 
This company reported sales for the first time. No other develop- 
ments of importance were reported from this State. 

Georgia. — The Asbestos Mining & Manufacturing Co., Hollywood, 
Ga., a new operator in this field, produced and sold a quantity of 
mass-fiber anthophyllite and is endeavoring to develop ore reserves 
and improve the quality of the fiber. 

The property of L. M. Arnold, Statham, Ga., was operated by a 
manufacturer of chemical filters. 

Maryland. — The Powhatan Mining Corporation, Woodlawn, Balti- 
more, continued to prepare a high-grade filter fiber from slip-fiber 
anthophyllite. 

Montana. — Peter F. Karst, Salesville, Mont., whose property is 
on Gailitan River, 20 miles south of Salesville, reported the produc- 
tion of 1 ton of asbestos. 

More detailed descriptions concerning asbestos properties are 
contained in the report on asbestos in 1923. 

PRICES 



The prices of Canadian chrysotile asbestos (f. o. b. Quebec), 
which control domestic prices, are shown in Figure 3. These 
figures are based on an average of the quotations given in the Engi- 
neering and Mining Journal-Press. 



ASBESTOS 



307 



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308 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS l 



Asbestos {unmanufactured) imported for consumption in the United States, 1918- 

1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1918 


137, 700 
135, 270 
167, 558 
72, 463 


$6, 337, 608 
7, 369, 685 
9, 120, 253 
2, 948, 302 


1922 


149, 427 
212, 420 
183, 250 


$5, 144, 700 
7, 445, 143 


1919 


1923 


1920 


1924 


5, 602, 945 


1921 .. 









Asbestos (unmanufactured) imported into the United States, 1923-24, by countries 



Country 



1923 



Short tons 



Value 



1924 



Short tons 



Value 



Africa: 

British South. 

Portuguese- 
East 

Other 

Australia 

Belgium 

Brazil 

Canada 

China 

Czechoslovakia... 

England 

France. 

Germany 



1,832 
122 

1 



$33, 273 
288, 314 



24,1 



1,040 



1,049 
537 



$100, 194 



181, 549 
82, 439 



392 



( a ) 

208, 258 
7 
(°) 

1,760 
( a ) 
148 



43 

688, 142 

334 

58 

376, 306 

47 

32, 376 



India (British). 

Italy 

Japan 

Netherlands... 
Spain 



(•) 



392 
59 
150 



6 


132 


180, 051 


5, 156, 901 






417 


67, 201 


56 
90 


5,329 
8,720 


2 


367 


2 


92 



(•) 



212, 420 7, 445, 143 



183, 250 



5, 602, 945 



" Less than 1 ton. 

In the foregoing table the countries given are merely the countries 
from which asbestos was last shipped as shown by the invoices or 
manifests from which the records of imports were compiled. It is 
probable that British South Africa (Rhodesia and the Union of 
wSouth Africa) were the actual sources of all imports exceot those 
credited to Canada, Italy, and Brazil. 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1918 . 


697 

1,119 

615 

520 


$51, 053 
157, 416 
141,071 
101, 600 


1922 


376 

680 

1,270 


$49, 939 


1919 


1923 


48, 525 


1920 


1924 


93, 163 


1921 . 











i Figures lor imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey. of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



ASBESTOS 



309 



The exports of manufactured asbestos in 1923 and 1924 were as 
follows : 

Manufactured asbestos products exported from the United States, 1923-1924, by 

grades 



Grade 



1923 



Quantity Value 



1924 



Quantity Value 



Paper, millboard, and roll board... short tons. 

Pipe covering and cemmt.. do... 

Textile yarn and packing do... 

Magnesia pipe and boiler covering do... 

Asbestos roofing squares. 

Other manufactures, except roofing short tons. 



1,780 
2,834 
519 
2,696 
104, 445 
1,625 



$190, 755 
426. 085 
672, 488 
337, 044 
423, 392 
800, 623 



1,086 
2,424 
599 
1, 560 
48, 968 
1, 364 



$124, 228 
288, 266 
788, 361 
243, 579 
297, 900 
787, 461 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION 2 

World's production of asbestos, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Africa: 

Rhodesia, Southern.. ... 


17, 076 
6,452 

675 

159 

162, 038 

5 

911 

252 

445 

28 

1,847 

165 

00 

2 
1,478 


17, 716 
4,646 

960 
2 
239 
61, 083 
169 
911 
750 
500 

( c ) 
321 
420 

CO 

( d ) 

2, 604 

19 

754 


12, 926 

3,981 

• 

570 


18, 474 
7,614 

207 

7 

117 

196, 680 

& 128 

2,186 

(0 

00 

00 

251 

1,538 
826 


23,715 

6,752 


Union of South Africa 


Australia: 

New South W ales 


South Australia . _. . . 


4 


Western Australia 


184 
145,456 
197 
166 
785 
610 

00 

246 
540 
933 


75 


Canada ........ ... 


189, 203 

00 

222 


China °. . 


Cyorus . .. ._ 


Finland. . _. . 


(c) 


France 


h 
oo 

127 


Germany (Bavaria) .. 


India . . . 


Italy 


2, 160 


Japan. _ . 


(•) 


New Zealand . . . . 


Russia j 


3,215 
5 
61 


7,153 


• 7, 948 


Spain.. . .. 


United States .. ._ 


1,495 


206 


272 







° Exports. 

6 A production of 7,068 metric tons is reported for China in 1923. 

o Data not available. 

d Less than half a ton. 

• Data relate to operating year ended Sept. 30, 1924. 



(Imp. Min. Res. Bur., London.) 



Asbestos shipped from mines in British South Africa, 1913-1924, in metric tons 



Year 


Southern 
Rhodesia 


Transvaal 


Cape 
Colony 


Natal 


1913 


263 
442 
1,823 
5,586 
8,674 
7,778 
8,889 
17,076 

17, 716 
12,926 

18, 474 
23,715 




851 

1, 052 
1,890 
3,836 
2,721 
2,485 

2, 906 
3,199 
3, 145 
2,713 

3, 91 6 
2,798 


22 


1914 


27 

50 

369 

2,897 

844 

572 

3,212 

1,445 

1,263 

3,698 

3,954 




1915 




1916 


19 


1917 


25 


1918 


4 


1919 


89 


1920 


41 


1921 




1922 




1923... 




1924 









Figures for world's production compiled by L. M. Jones, of the Bureau of Mi 



BARYTES AND BARIUM PRODUCTS 



By C. E. Seebenthal and A. Stoll 



Sales of domestic crude and of ground barytes decreased 8 and 
3 per cent, respectively, in 1924 as compared with 1923. On the 
other hand, sales of lithopone and the barium chemicals showed 
gains of 11 and 8 per cent, respectively, during the same period. 

CRUDE BARYTES 

SALES 

Shipments of domestic crude barytes in 1924 amounted to' 196,332 
short tons, valued at $1,540,744. Although these figures represent 
a loss of 8 per cent in quantity and 7 per cent in value, as compared 
with the preceding year, the industry as a whole has been character- 
ized by a steady demand, better equipment for production, and more 
satisfactory railroad service. The demand oi buyers for cleaner 
ores has been one factor in raising the standard of quality of the ore 
sold. 

Crude barytes shipped by producers in the United States, 1901-1924- 



Year 


Short tons 


Value f. o. b. at mine 


Year 


Short tons 


Value f. o. b. at mine 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1901-1915 (average). 


56, 061 
204, 330 
66, 369 


$180, 669 

1,419,521 

531, 958 


$3.22 
6.95 
8.02 


1922 


155, 040 
214, 183 
196, 332 


$1, 123, 950 
1, 664, 156 
1, 540, 744 


$7.25 


1916-1920 (average). 


1923 


7.77 


1921.... 


1924 


7.85 









Crude baryt 


es shipped by producers in the United States, 1923- 


-24, by States 




1923 


1924 


State 


Short 
tons 


Percent- 
age of 
total 


Value f. o. b. at mine 


Short 
tons 


Percent- 
age of 
total 


Value f. o. b. at mine 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


Georgia 


83,291 
81, 701 
1, 179 
34, 384 
13, 628 


39 

38 

1 

16 


$670, 343 

629, 097 

7,076 

259. 005 


$8.05 
7.70 
6.00 
7.53 
7.24 


71, 776 

77, 189 
(«) 
39, 643 

7,724 


37 

39 

(°) 

20 

4 


$574, 208 
604, 390 

(°) 
302, 873 

59, 273 


$8.00 


Missouri. 


7.83 


North Carolina 

Tennessee 


(") 
7.64 


Other States * 


6 98, 635 


7.67 




214, 183 


100 


1, 664, 156 


7.77 


196, 332 


100 


1, 540, 744 


7.85 



° Included under "Other States." 

6 1923: Alabama, California, Kentucky, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. 1924: Alabama, 
Nevada, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin. 



1 A chapter on barytes and barium products that was accompanied by a map showing the location of 
barytes deposits and barium-product manufactories was given in Mineral Resources for 1915. 



44839- 



21 



311 



312 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



The average value per ton, based on total sales of crude barytes 
by producers in the United States in 1924, was a few cents higher 
than in 1923. Missouri ranked first in the amount sold and exceeded 
Georgia by a little more than 5,000 tons. Tennessee held third 
place and had a greater output than in any preceding year. A 
small production again was reported in Nevada, and development 
in Jefferson County, Mont., gives expectation of future output from 
another Western State. The property formerly mined by the West- 
ern Rock Products Co. in Mariposa County, Calif., made no sales 
in 1924 and reverted to the owner, the El Portal Mining Co. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 2 

The barytes imported in recent years was purchased for use in 
plants in the eastern part of the United States, and most of it was 
shipped from Germany. During the war the imports of barytes 
nearly ceased, but in the period 1920-1924 they averaged annually 
only 2,690 tons less than the average of 1911-1915. 

Crude barytes imported for consumption in the United States, 1911-1924 



Year 


Short 
tons 


Value ° 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value ° 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1911-1915 (average).. 
1916 


21, 833 
17 
6 


$40, 436 
245 
63 


$1.85 
14.41 
10.50 


1920 .. 


24, 874 
11,054 
23, 239 
15, 045 
21, 502 


$146, 858 
59, 371 
104, 680 
93, 721 
104, 264 


$5.90 


1921 


5.37 


1917... 


1922 


4.50 


1918... 


1923 


6.23 


1919. 


118 


594 


5.03 


1924 


4.85 









° Value at port of shipment, on which duty is levied. Does not include railroad and ship freight charges 
to this country or import duty. 

Exports of barytes are not separately classified by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



CONSUMPTION BY USES 

The two tables that follow show the consumption of domestic 
and imported barytes in the United States by uses. The figures 
were compiled from reports made by the manufacturers of barium 
products. 

Crude barytes (both domestic and imported) used in the manufacture of barium 
products in the United States, 1918-1924, in short tons 



Year 


In 

ground 
barytes 


In litho- 
pone 


In 
barium 
chemi- 
cals 


Total 


Year 


In 
ground 
barytes 


In litho- 
pone 


In 
barium 
chemi- 
cals 


Total 


1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 


62, 440 
64, 922 
79, 052 
28, 296 


85, 282 
103, 688 
113, 181 

61, 359 


38, 041 
32, 976 
37, 210 
10, 952 


185, 763 
201, 586 
229, 443 
100, 607 


1922 

1923 

1924 


48, 280 
47, 713 
42, 855 


94, 259 
128, 547 
137, 127 


25, 303 
34, 327 
33, 181 


167, 842 
210, 587 
213, 163 



2 The statistics of imports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



BARYTES AND BARIUM PRODUCTS 



313 



Domestic and imported crude barytes used in the manufacture of barium products 
in the United States in 1924, by States 



State 


Product manufactured 


Plants 


Barytes 

used 

(short tons) 


Illinois 


Lithopone and chemicals __ 


6 
4 
3 

} 3 
} 3 
} ■ 


37, 704 






42, 091 






38, 471 




Chemicals-. . _ ..-.. .. .. ... 






Lithopone and chemicals. .. 


42, 802 


Delaware and Maryland ..- 


Lithopone .- 




West Virginia ... 


Chemicals 


43, 909 










Chemicals-. 


8,186 










22 


213, 163 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION 

The following table, prepared by L. M. Jones, of the Bureau of 
Mines, shows the output of barytes by various countries, so far as 
statistics are available: 

World's production of barytes, 1920-1924, in metric tons 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 




( a ) 

226 
2,583 
1,065 


( a ) 

203 
1,289 


1,200 


700 

102 
1,789 


500 


Australia: 

New South Wales 


152 


South Australia- 


1,908 


1,928 


Tasmania 




Western Australia b --...-. . 


2 

2,080 

17,050 

245 

11, 297 

23, 439 

85, 322 

1,480 

13, 500 


19 

2.140 

1,480 

262 

12, 634 

16, 139 

164, 365 

2,430 

21, 300 






Austria. . . 


(•) 

15, 240 

681 

18, 782 

7,888 

103, 976 

689 

15, 380 


2,377 
6,770 
371 
(°) 

19, 970 

97, 207 

2,611 

27, 592 

9 

C) 

"11, 764 

44, 195 

194, 303 


1,399 


Belgium 


20, 490 


Canada . ._ . 


137 


France. _. . ... .. ._ . 


( a ) 


Germany: 

Bavaria. . _____ 


( a ) 


Prussia. . _________ 


155, 567 


India (British)-. __ . __•_ .... 


2,340 


Italy 


39, 568 


Rhodesia, Southern.. 


64 


Russia . ._ _ 


328 

13, 773 

65, 180 

206, 940 


C) 

910 
25, 065 
60, 209 


(°) 

« 2, 075 
41, 606 
140, 649 


( a ) 


Spain __ .. . . 


e 6, 768 


United Kingdom 


55, 646 


United States.. .... 


178, 108 







° Data not available. 
b Exports. 

e Exclusive of the following quantities produced from quarries in the Provinceof Leon: 1922, 1,224 cubic 
meters; 1923, 1,450 cubic meters; 1924, 1,670 cubic meters. 



BARIUM PRODUCTS 

A gain of 7 per cent in quantity and of 6 per cent in value of 
barium products (excluding barium chemicals made from barium 
products bought in the open market) sold by producers in the United 
States in 1924 showed the prosperous condition of this industry. 
The greatest gain was in lithopone, the tonnage sold increasing 11 
per cent over the sales in 1923. 



314 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



Barium products made from domestic and imported crude ores in the United States 

and sole' 





1923 


1924 


Product 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 




39, 605 
98, 199 
16, 803 


$895, 095 
11,608,443 
1, 231, 646 


$22. 60 
118. 21 
73.30 


38, 296 

109, 469 

18, 154 


$784, 881 

12, 531, 397 

1, 213, 900 


$20. 50 




114.47 




66. 87 








154, 607 


13, 735, 184 


88.84 


165,919 


14, 530, 178 


87.57 



° Barium chemicals manufactured from barium products bought in open market are not included in 
table in order to avoid duplication; the total output of barium chemicals is therefore not shown above. 



REFINED GROUND BARYTES 

Barytes is ground to very fine powder, leached with acid, and 
washed for use as a pigment, a filler, and an inert base. Most 
barytes is refined by notation on a stream of water, whereby only 
the most impalpable powder is obtained. As a pigment it is used 
chiefly in interior flat white or light-colored paints. As a filler it is 
extensively used in rubber goods, linoleum, oilcloth, highly glazed 
paper, and similar white glazed articles. It forms an inert base on 
which dyes are precipitated to make lakes or colored paints. Ground 
barytes has also been used in making brick for the construction of 
X-ray laboratories, in place of a lining of sheet lead, to prevent the 
rays from escaping and doing possible injury. 

Sales of ground barytes reported by producers in 1924 showed a 
slight decrease as compared with 1923. Sales in Missouri comprised 
nine-tenths of the total output of the country. 

The Western Kock Products Co., of San Francisco, abandoned the 
operation of its plant, and Thompson, Weinman & Co. did not 
operate their plant in Kentucky during the year. The plant in 
St. Louis, formerly a part of the property of the Mineral Refining 
& Chemical Corporation, purchased in 1923 by the C. P. DeLore 
Co., took its place as an important producer. 

Ground barytes sold by producers in the United States, 1918-1924 






Year 


Plants 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Plants 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 


9 
9 

8 

7 


55, 086 

« 57, 985 

65, 748 

27, 661 


$1, 041, 608 

1, 163, 437 

1, 381, 868 

622, 871 


$18. 91 
20.06 
21.02 
22.52 


1922 

1923 

1924 


7 
6 
5 


46, 176 
39, 605 
38, 296 


$933, 722 
895, 095 
784, 881 


$20. 22 
22.60 
20.50 



» Production, not sales. 



The average value, at plant, of domestic ground barytes sold in 
the United States in 1924 was $20.50, compared with $22.60 in 1923. 
The quotation for western domestic floated ground barytes, as given 
in the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, was $25 to $26 a ton at the 
beginning of the year; in the middle of Januar}^ it dropped to $22 
to $23 a ton, and remained at that figure throughout the year. 



BARYTES AND BARIUM PRODUCTS 



315 



LITHOPONE 

Lithopone, a pigment, is an intimate mixture by chemical precipita- 
tion of barium sulphate and zinc sulphide in the proportion of about 
70 to 30, by weight. Though classed here as a barium product in 
order to fully exhibit the barium industry, it must be understood 
that lithopone is essentially a zinc pigment; and that, as shown by 
the investigations of the United States Tariff Commission in 1920, 
the cost of the zinc content of the pigment is one and a half times 
that of the barium content. Lithopone is exceeding^ white, has a 
fine grain, and is used in inside paints and enamels and also as a 
filler in rubber goods, linoleum, oilcloth, window shades, and certain 
kinds of paper. 

The lithopone industry continued its steady growth. Sales in 
1924 were 11 per cent greater than in 1923 and marked the highest 
output yet reached. At the present time the manufacture of litho- 
pone is confined to the Middle Atlantic States and Illinois. Two 
plants in Illinois reported their initial production — the reorganized 
Collins ville plant of the St. Louis Lithopone Co. and the Depue plant 
of the Mineral Point Zinc Co. The plant in Oakland, Calif., which 
was a producer for several years, ceased operations in 1923. 



Lithopone sold by producers 


in the United States 


in 1924 


, by State* 




State 


Plants 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Pennsylvania and Delaware 


3 

4 
4 


54, 808 
34, 341 
20, 320 


$6, 447, 791 
3, 828, 810 
2, 254, 796 


$117.64 


New Jersey and Maryland 


111.49 


Illinois... 


110. 96 










11 


109, 469 


12, 531, 397 


114.47 



Lithopone sold by producers in the United States, 1918-1924 



Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1918 


62, 403 
78, 365 
89, 373 
55, 016 


$7, 923, 276 
10, 218, 850 
12, 484, 925 
6, 681, 563 


$126. 97 
130. 40 
139. 69 
121. 45 


1922 


83, 360 
98, 199 
109, 469 


$9, 214, 040 
11,608,443 
12, 531, 397 


$110.53 


1919 


1923. 


118.21 


1920 


1924 


114.47 


1921 











The average value at the plant of lithopone sold in 1924 was $1 14.47 
a ton, or $3.74 less than the average value in 1923. The quoted price 
of lithopone in New York, as given in the Oil, Paint, and Drug 
Reporter, was 6 % to 7 cents a pound at the opening of the year. There 
were some slight fluctuations in price during the first half of the year, 
but the quotation remained stationary at 6^ cents throughout the 
last half of the year. 

BARIUM CHEMICALS 

The manufacture of barium chemicals from barytes increased 
greatly during the World War and reached its height in 1918, when 
the sales amounted to 23,186 tons. The amount sold in 1919 and in 
1920 was not far below that figure. Since the decided slump of 1921 



316 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



the industry has been recovering, and sales in 1924 amounted to 
18,154 tons, a gain of 8 per cent over sales in 1923. 

Barium chemicals sold by producers in the United States, 1918-1924, in short tons 





1918-1920 
(average) 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Chemical 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 




7,427 
4,041 
7,598 
2,254 


1,956 

C) 

2,471 
1, 060 


2,281 
2,022 
7, 349 
2, 249 


6,362 

3,301 

6,761 

379 


6, 058 
3, 859 

7, 796 
441 


$411,332 

297, 182 

464, 152 

41, 234 


$67 90 




77. 01 




59.54 


Other &_. 


93. 50 








21, 320 


5,487 


13, 901 


16, 803 


18, 154 


1, 213, 900 


66.87 



a Included under "Other." 

6 1918 and 1920: Binoxide, hydroxide, nitrate, and sulphide; 1919: Binoxide, nitrate, and sulphide; 
1921: Chloride, hydroxide, and sulphide; 1922: Binoxide, hydroxide, sulphide, and sulphydrate; 1923-24: 
Hydroxide and sulphide. 

The average value of barium chemicals sold by producers in 1924 
was $66.87 a ton — a decrease of $6.43 from the average of 1923. The 
decrease in barium carbonate was $1.49 a ton and in barium chloride 
$4.88 a ton. 

Average quotations on barium chemicals at New York, 1922-1924 ° 



Chemical 


Unit 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Barium carbonate . 


Short ton 

Pound 

Short ton 

Pound 

...do 

...do 

Short ton 

Pound 


$48.00- $85.00 
.14- .45 

50.00- 115.00 
. 22- . 29 
. 06- . 10M 
.0434- 

40. 00- 50. 00 
. 18- . 23 


$66.00- $90.00 
. 14- . 15 

80.00- 100.00 
. 18- . 29 
• 073-2- • 1034 
.0434- 

40. 00- 60. 00 
. 18- . 20 


$63. 00-$90. 00 


Barium chlorate 


. 14- . 15 




70. 00- 95. 00 




.18- .23 


Barium nitrate 

Barium sulphate (blanc fixe), dry 

Barium sulphate (blanc fixe), pulp 

Barium binoxide 


. 08- . 10 

. 04- . 05 

50. 00- 70. 00 

. 16- . 20 







a Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter. 

The above quotations, taken from issues of the Oil, Paint, and Drug 
Reporter, represent the following grades and forms : 

Barium carbonate, "bags." 

Barium chlorate, "kegs." 

Barium chloride, "crystals, bags." 

Barium dioxide, "drums," listed under "Drugs and fine chemicals." 

Barium nitrate, "casks." 

Barium sulphate (blanc fixe), "dry, in barrels." 

Barium binoxide, "drums," listed under "Industrial chemicals." 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 3 

Germany has been the chief source of barytes and barium products 
imported into the United States. The World War naturally shut 
off this trade, and during 1918a few hundred tons of ground witherite 
made up the total imports of barium in any form. Importation was 
resumed in a small way in 1919 but by 1922 was considerably greater 
than before the war, the imports of lithopone in particular being 
several times larger. 

3 The statistics of imports and exports were compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau Mines, from records 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



BARYTES AND BARIUM PRODUCTS 317 

Barium compounds imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924 
[Value at port of shipment] 





Ground barytes 


Lithopone 


Barium binoxide 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 
per ton 


Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


1920 


274 
1,002 
4,696 
6, 022 
2,830 


$3, 017 
16, 942 
59, 453 
88, 741 
38, 292 


$11.01 
16.91 
12.66 
14.74 
13.53 


1,714 

5,247 
10, 703 
10, 440 

6,830 


$263, 240 
432, 019 
885, 671 
776, 383 
543, 025 


$0. 077 
.041 
.041 
.037 
.040 


251 
669 
1,009 
905 
860 


$64, 447 
127, 631 
189, 334 
152,270 
120, 374 


$0. 128 


1921 


.095 


1922 . 


.094 


1923 


.084 


1924 


.070 









Blanc fixe (precipitated 
barium sulphate) 


Artificial barium carbonate 
(chemically precipitated) 


Natural barium carbonate 
(ground witherite) 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


1920 


165 
769 

2, 187 
587 

1,047 


$8, 485 
22, 470 
76, 445 
32, 063 
50, 465 


$0. 026 
.015 
.017 
.027 
.024 


476 
2,238 
5,212 
1,901 
3,752 


$37, 462 
80, 603 

210, 250 
79, 482 

128, 217 


$0. 039 
.018 
.020 
.021 
.017 


1,510 
668 
1,472 
1,557 
2,500 


$61, 284 
25, 188 
39,114 
41,823 
56,415 


$0. 020 


1921 . 


.019 


1922 


.013 


1923 


.013 


1924. 


.011 









Barium chloride 


Barium nitrate 


Barium hydroxide 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


Total 


Average 

per 
pound 


1920 


1, 595 
2,186 
1,962 
1,278 
2,330 


$151, 778 
72, 621 
112,785 
75, 014 
100, 810 


$0. 048 
.017 
.029 
.029 

.022 


(•) 
(■) 

M79 
511 
513 






(") 

(") 

*>73 
181 
174 






1921 










1922 


$16, 795 
59, 766 
54, 638 


$0. 047 
.058 
.053 


$6, 573 
16, 872 
8,241 


$0 045 


1923 


047 


1924. . 


024 







° Not separately enumerated prior to new tariff. 

b Sept. 22 to Dec. 31; not separately enumerated prior to new tariff. 

The exports of lithopone, which are considerably less than the 
imports, were not recorded separately by the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce prior to 1922. They amounted to 923 tons in 
1924, a decrease of 38 per cent as compared with exports in 1923. 
More than 90 per cent of the exports went to Canada; the remainder 
was shipped in small amounts to a number of countries. 

Lithopone exported from the United States, 1922-1924 



Year 


Short tons 


Value 


1922... 


1,616 

1,485 
923 


$169,982 
176,624 
104, 783 


1923 


1924... 





318 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



MARKETS AND PRICES 



The chief center for barytes consumption in the East is in the 
region near New York and Philadelphia, in which the prices are 
based on quotations at New York. In the Middle West barytes is 
consumed mainly about Chicago and St. Louis, where the prices are 



Jan. Feb. 

»C(N cr> g ^ ^ SSS"" 


Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. 

.-< M <M i-lr-KM »-< ;_i C^J CO .-H O) cS _h-i<M .-< c3 CO i-> <M £M 


Oct. Nov. Dec. 




1 1 1 


1 1 1 


MM 


1 ! 1 


MM 


1 1 1 


! 1 1 


MM 


1 1 1 


1 1 1 


MM 


1 1 1 


26 


















































24 






























































Dioxide 












22 


r~ 
























TZ 
















20 










T 
























t 


























\\ 
















18 










\ 










± 


Bin 


oxide 












§16 


















































o. 










Chlorate 












a 14 

uj 

a 


















































P 
z«2 

O 


















































10 


































Nit'ra 


\ 












y 




















\ 










8 


















Lith 


opone 




























\ 














6 












































/ 


^y 


— t_ni 


jr me 




s^ 






r 


4 






=^ 


Sl 


llphate^*" 

— 1 — 3-—. 










^ 


p./ 


2 








- -Carbonate 




















Ground baryte^ 




















Crude barytes 










n 








1 II 






1 





Figure 4.— Weekly quoted prices of crude barytes and of barium products, 1924 

based on quotations at St. Louis, which is close to the barytes fields 
of Missouri. The prices of barium products are based on quotations 
at New York. 

Figure 4 shows graphically the weekly quotations on crude 
barytes and the barium products. Quotations based on short tons 
have been reduced to prices per pound. The quotations on crude 



BAHYTES AND BARIUM PRODUCTS 319 

and ground barytes were taken from Chemical and Metallurgical 
Engineering; all others were taken from the Oil, Paint, and Drug 
Keporter. 

CUSTOMS DUTIES 

Mineral Resources for 1923 listed the duties levied on imports of 
barytes and barium compounds by the tariff act of 1922. On May 
19, 1924, a proclamation by the President increased the duty on barium 
dioxide from 4 to 6 cents a pound — the new duty to go into effect 
30 days later. 

PRODUCERS 

Producers of barium products in the United States active in 1924 
are listed below, with the addresses of their main offices and the 
locations of their plants. 

Ground barytes: 

Thompson, Weinman & Co., New York, N. Y Cartersville, Ga. 

C. P. DeLore Co., St. Louis, Mo Mississippi River and 

River Des Peres, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
National Pigments & Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo__ St. Louis, Mo. 
Point Milling & Manufacturing Co., Mineral Point, 

Mo . Mineral Point, Mo. 

Clinchfield Sand & Feldspar Co., Baltimore, Md Kings Creek, S. C. 

Lithopone : 

Krebs Pigment & Chemical Co., Newport, Del Newport, Del. 

Midland Chemical Co., Chicago, 111 Argo, 111. 

Mineral Point Zinc Co., care New Jersev Zinc Co., 

New York, N. Y . Depue, 111. 

St. Louis Lithopone Co., St. Louis, Mo Collinsville, 111. 

Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland, Ohio Chicago, 111. 

Chemical & Pigment Co., care The Glidden Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio St. Helena, Md. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del__ Newark, N. J. 

Do Philadelphia, Pa. 

Grasselli Chemical Co., Cleveland, Ohio Grasselli, N. J. 

United Color & Pigment Co., Newark, N. J Newark, N. J. 

New Jersey Zinc Co. (of Pennsylvania) New York, 

N. Y Palmerton, Pa. 

Barium chemicals: 4 

Basic Chemical Manufacturing Corporation, Alton, 

111 Federal, 111. 

Chicago Copper & Chemical Co., Chicago, 111 Blue Island, 111. 

Titanium Pigment Co. (Inc.), New York, N. Y Carondelet Station, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Do Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Grasselli Chemical Co., Cleveland, Ohio Grasselli, N. J. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del__ Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bertha Mineral Co., care New Jersey Zinc Co., New 

York, N. Y Sweetwater, Tenn. 

Barium Mining Corporation, New York, N. Y Charleston, W. Va. 

4 Includes only those using barytes ore. 



NATURAL GAS 



By G. B. Richardson and H. Backus 



In 1924 the natural-gas industry in the United States made another 
high record by the consumption of 1,141,482,000,000 cubic feet, which 
had an estimated value of $105,779,000 at the wells and of $253,830,000 
at points of consumption. This total is 13 per cent more than the con- 
sumption in 1923 and almost double that of 1914. 

Increased production, as measured by deliveries to consumers, is 
recorded for most of the States and in California, Louisiana, and 
Texas the gains range between 58 and 33 billion cubic feet; but on the 
other hand a smaller output than in 1923 is reported from West Vir- 
ginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Montana. West Virginia passed from 
first place in quantity of gas produced, a rank it had held since 1909, to 
third place, and Pennsylvania receded from fourth to sixth place. 
These changes mark the passing supremacy of the Eastern States in 
the production of natural gas and a closer approach in rank of the 
States producing natural gas to those that produce petroleum, and 
they emphasize the increasing use of casing-head gas — the gas 
obtained from oil wells. 

The ratio of the domestic to the total consumption of natural gas 
continued to decrease and in 1924 only 25 per cent of the total 
quantity was used for domestic purposes as contrasted with 28 per 
cent in 1923, with 33 per cent in 1922, and with 38 per cent in 1921. 
Nevertheless, the total quantity of natural gas utilized by domestic 
consumers in 1924 increased 3 per cent and the number of domestic 
consumers in 1924 increased 209,600 to the record of 3,443,400. 

The value at points of consumption of the natural gas utilized for 
domestic purposes was considerably more than the value of the 
natural gas that was consumed industrially, although the volume of 
the latter was three times as much as that of the former. The 
average value of the natural gas consumed for domestic purposes in 
1924 ranged from 29.6 cents per 1,000 cubic feet in West Virginia to 
91.2 cents in Missouri, and for the United States it increased to the 
record high of 54 cents, as contrasted with 51.4 cents in 1923 
and with 38.2 cents in 1920. The average value of the natural gas 
consumed for industrial purposes in 1924 ranged from 2.6 cents 
in Colorado to 53.2 cents in Maryland and for the United States 
averaged 11.6 cents per 1,000 cubic feet. 

The quantity of natural gas reported as treated for recovery of 
natural-gas gasoline in 1924 was 1,016,276,000,000 cubic feet. This 
is equivalent to 89 per cent of the total consumption of natural gas in 
the United States and contrasts with 87 per cent in 1923, 71 per cent 
in 1922, and 62 per cent in 1920. The growth not only shows increas- 
ing conservation of natural gas but indicates the near approach of the 

321 



322 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



time when the available annual supply of gas, which until 1923 had 
been greatly in excess of the quantity treated for the recovery of 
gasoline, will be a controlling factor in the growth of the natural-gas 
gasoline industry. 



1200 




CO 


q 


M 


<t 




M 


N 


N 


O) 


CD 


cn 


CO 



Figure 5.— Consumption of natural gas, 1906-1924, by uses 

In 1924 a total of 156,514,000,000 cubic feet of natural gas was 
reported as consumed in the production of carbon black in the United 
States. This total is equivalent to 14 per cent of the total con- 
sumption of natural gas, and is almost three times the quantity 
consumed in the manufacture of carbon black in 1922. 



NATURAL GAS 323 

Summary of statistics for natural gas in the United States, 1920-1924 



Natural gas consumed: 

Domestic millions of cubic feet 

Industrial- 
Carbon black ...do... 

Field do... 

Other industrial.. ..do... 

Dom&stic per cent 

Industrial do... 

Treated for natural-gas gasoline: 

Millions of cubic feet 

Per cent of total consumption 

Domestic consumers thousands. 

Value of natural gas at wells: 

Total thousands of dollars. 

Average per M cubic feet cents. 

Value of natural gas at points of consumption: 

Total. - thousands of dollars. 

D omestic do... 

Industrial do... 

Average per M cubic feet — 

Domestic cents. 

Industrial do... 

Domestic and industrial.. do... 

By-products of natural gas: 

Natural-gas gasoline (raw) — 

Quantity thousands of gallons . 

Value at plants- 
Total thousands of dollars . 

Average per gallon cents. 

Carbon black- 
Quantity thousands of pounds 

Value at plants- 
Total thousands of dollars. 

Average per pound cents. 

"Revised figures. 

b Figures not available. 



1920 



28G, 001 

40, 599 
202, 108 
209, 502 



798, 210 
35.8 
64.2 

496, 431 

62.2 

2, 615 

CO 

C) 

196, 194 
109, 302 
86, 892 

38.2 
17.0 
24.6 



384, 744 



71, 788 
18.7 



4,032 
7.9 



1921 



248, 334 

50, 565 
182, 305 
180, 848 



662, 052 
37.5 
62.5 

465, 097 
70.3 
2,631 

CO 
CO 

174, 617 
110, 337 
64, 280 

44.4 
15.5 
26.4 



61,815 
13.7 



59, 766 



5,446 
9.1 



1922 



254, 413 

53, 629 
197, 850 
256, 654 



762, 546 
33.4 
66.6 

545, 139 

71.5 

3,015 

84,873 
11.1 

221, 535 
126, 902 
94, 633 



18.6 
29.1 



505, 832 

72, 711 
14.4 

67, 795 

5,820 
8.6 



1923 



=■277, 050 

109, 096 
343, 076 

277, 745 



a,006,967 
27.5 

72.5 

875, 711 
87.0 
3,234 

"100,849 
10.0 

«239, 995 

"142, 317 

97, 678 

"51.4 
13.4 

23.8 



816, 226 

77, 268 
9.5 

138, 263 

11, 692 
8.5 



1924 



285, 152 

156, 514 
393, 437 
306, 379 



1,141,482 
25 
75 

1,016,276 

89 

3,443 

105, 779 
9.3 

253, 830 
154, 075 
99, 755 

54.0 
11.6 
22.2 



933, 861 

82, 233 

8.8 

186, 872 

11, 565 
6.2 



324 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Natural gas produced and consumed in the United States, 1923-24 





Produced and delivered to consumers, including 
deliveries in other States 


Consumed, including receipts from 
other States 


State 


Quantity 


Estimated value 
at the wells 


Value at points of 
consumption 


Quantity 


Value at points of 
consumption 


M cubic 
feet 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Total 


Aver- 
age 
per M 
cubic 
feet 
(cents) 


Total 


Aver- 
age 

per M 

cubic 
feet 

(cents) 


M cubic 

feet 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Total 


Aver- 
age 

per M 

cubic 
feet* 

(cents) 


1923 

Ark 

Calif 

Colo 

111 


24, 215, 000 

131, 434, 000 

800 

4, 049, 000 

880, 000 

» 30, 913, 000 

11,953,000 

112,031,000 


2.4 
13.1 
(•) 

.4 

.1 

3.1 

1.2 

11.1 


$990, 000 

8, 543, 000 

80 

587, 000 

286, 000 

» 2, 597, 000 

1, 039, 000 

2, 890, 000 


4.1 
6.5 
10.0 
14.5 
32.5 
8.4 
8.7 
2.6 


$3, 255, 000 

22, 787, 000 

400 

690, 000 

460, 000 

H 1, 249, 000 

3, 156, 000 

6, 022, 000 


13.4 
17.3 
50.0 
17.0 
52.3 
6 36.4 
26.4 
5.4 


33, 746, 000 

131, 434, 000 

800 

4, 049, 000 

2, 951, 000 

37, 637, 000 

21,232,000 

111, 434, 000 

668, 000 

700 

6 5, 142, 000 

2,417,000 

16, 495, 000 

120, 920, 000 

173, 788, 000 

138, 478, 000 

33, 000 

4,100 

6 83,037,000 

88, 827, 000 

34, 576, 000 

97, 400 


3.4 
13.1 
C) 

.4 

.3 

3.7 

2.1 

11.1 

.1 

(«) 

.5 

.2 

1.6 

12.0 

17.3 

13.8 

(a) 
(a) 

8.2 
8.8 
3.4 
( a ) 


$4, 536, 000 

22, 787, 000 

400 

690, 000 

1, 553, 000 

10, 829, 000 

5, 605, 000 

5, 127, 000 

486, 000 

320 

b 4, 187, 000 

521, 000 

9, 506, 000 

58, 468, 000 

24, 631, 000 

54, 742, 000 

16, 600 

1,000 

*13,757,000 

18, 525, 000 

4, 018, 000 

8,680 


13.4 
17.3 
50.0 
17.0 


Ind. 

Kans 

Ky 

La 

Md 


52. 6 
28.8 
26.4 
4.6 
72.8 


Mich 

Mo 

Mont 

N. Y 

Ohio 

Okla 

Pa 

S. Dak.... 

Tcnn 

Tex 

W. Va 

Wyo 

Other <»___ 


700 

17,000 

1, 470, 000 

6, 497, 000 

53, 812, 000 

203, 082, 000 

112,562,000 

33,000 

4,100 

« 74, 535, 000 

203, 867, 000 

35, 523, 000 

97,400 


(•) 
C) 

.2 
.6 

5.3 
20.2 
11.2 
C) 
C) 

7.4 
20.2 

3.5 
(•) 


80 

3,000 

59, 000 

1, 648, 000 

8, 395, 000 

18, 277, 000 

25, 887, 000 

3,000 

300 

3, 809, 000 

24, 403, 000 

1, 424, 000 

8,540 


11.4 
17.6 
4.0 
25.4 
15.6 
9.0 
23.0 
9.1 
7.3 
5.1 
12.0 
4.0 
8.8 


320 
b 14, 000 
317, 000 

3, 739, 000 
25, 675, 000 

631,214,000 
45, 873, 000 
16, 600 
1.000 
11,320,000 
69,981,000 

4, 222, 000 

8,680 


45. 7 

i>82.4 

21.6 

57. 5 

47.7 

'- 15. 4 

40.8 

50.3 

24.4 

15.2 

34.3 

11.9 

8.9 


45.7 

6 81.4 

21.6 

57.6 

48.4 

14.2 

39.5 

50.3 

24.4 

' 16.6 

20.9 

11.6 

8.9 




61,000,976,000 


100.0 


6100,849,000 


10.0 


6240,001,000 


23.8 


61,006,967,000 


100.0 


6239,995,000 


23.8 


1924 

Ark 

Calif 

Colo 

111 


36, 616, 000 

189, 692, 000 

47, 600 

4, 072, 000 

998, 000 

25, 580, 000 

12, 875, 000 

160, 945, 000 


3.2 

16.6 

(•) 

.4 

.1 

2.2 

1.1 

14.1 


1, 747, 000 

14, 227, 000 

1,700 

635, 000 

357, 190 

2, 128, 000 

1,147,000 

5, 021, 000 


4.8 
7.5 
3.6 
15.6 
35.8 
8.3 
8.9 
3.1 


4, 908, 000 

35, 949, 000 

1,700 

759, 000 

494, 000 

10, 087, 000 

3, 432, 000 

7, 626, 000 


13.4 
19.0 

3.6 
18.6 
49.5 
39.4 
26.7 

4.7 


44, 595, 000 

189, 692, 000 

47, 600 

4, 072, 000 
2, 377, 000 

40, 528, 000 

21, 514, 000 

163, 469, 001 

679, 000 

600 

5, 394, 000 
2, 228, 000 

16, 500, 000 

111,353,000 

183, 451, 000 

123, 932. 000 

3,000 

1,200 

107, 447, 000 

79, 240, 000 

44, 879, 000 

73, 600 


3.9 

10.6 

( a ) 

.4 

.2 

3.5 

1.9 

14.3 

.1 

(") 

.5 

.2 

1.4 

9.8 

16.1 

10 9 

(a) 
(a) 

9.4 
6.9 
3.9 

( a ) 


5, 977, 000 
35, 949, 000 

1,700 

759, 000 

1, 278, 000 

11,074,000 

5,841,000 

6, 858, 000 
496, 000 

300 

4, 617, 000 

566, 350 

9, 685, 000 

57, 550, 000 

24, 016, 700 

52, 005, 000 

2,500 

450 

14, 914, 000 

18, 445, 000 

3, 787, 000 

7,000 


13.4 
19.0 
3.6 
18.6 


Ind 

Kans 

Ky 

La 

Md 


53.8 
27.3 
27.1 
4.2 
73.0 


Mich 

Mo 

Mont . 

N. Y 

Ohio 

Okla 

Pa 

S. Dak.... 

Tenn 

Tex 

W. Va 

Wyo 

Other <*__. 


600 

71,000 

1, 071, 000 

• 6, 196, 000 

47, 396, 000 

214, 452, 000 

105,803,000 

3,000 

1,200 

'107,247,000 

182, 285, 000 

46, 036, 000 

73, 600 


(a) 
(a) 
.1 

.5 
4.2 

18.8 
9.3 

(•) 

(a) 

9.4 
16.0 
4.0 

(•) 


55 

6,525 

34, 380 

1, 853, 000 

8,351,000 

14, 926, 000 

25, 037, 000 

275 

110 

4, 065, 000 

24, 536, 000 

1, 699, 000 

6,765 


9.2 
9.2 
3.2 

29.9 

17.6 
7.0 

22.7 
9.2 
9.2 
3.8 

13.5 
3.7 
9.2 


300 

61,000 

272, 350 

3, 632, 000 
24, 203, 000 
31, 045, 700 
45, 546, 000 

2,500 

45C 

13, 748, 000 

68, 000, 000 

4, 081, 000 

7,000 


50.0 
85.9 
25.4 
58.6 
51.1 
14.5 
43.0 
83.3 
37.5 
12.8 
37.3 
8.9 
9.5 


50.0 
85.6 
25.4 
58.7 
51.7 
13.1 
42.0 
83.3 
37.5 
13.9 
23.3 
8.4 
9.5 




1,141, 521, OOol 100.0 


105, 779, 000 


9.3 


253, 856, 000 


22.2 


1, 141, 482, 000 


100.0 


253, 830, 000 22. 2: 



° Less than 0.1 per cent. 

6 Revised figures. 

e Includes 9,000 M cubic feet consumed in Mexico. 

d 1923: Alaska, Iowa, New Mexico, and North Dakota; 1924: 

« Includes 12,000 M cubic feet consumed in Canada. 

/ Includes 27,000 M cubic feet consumed in Mexico, 



Alaska, Iowa, and North Dakota. 



NATURAL. GAS 

Interstate transportation of natural gas, 1923- 



325 



State in which 
gas was pro- 
duced 



1923 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Louisiana 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania. 

Texas 

West Virginia. 



Wyoming. 



State to which gas 
was transported 



Kentucky 

Missouri 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Texas 

Pennsylvania 

Indiana 

West Virginia 

Arkansas 

Kansas 

Missouri 

Texas. ...— 

New York 

Ohio 

West Virginia 

Louisiana 

Mexico 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 

Montana 



M cubic 
feet 



12, 000 



4, 566, 000 
337, 000 



4, 903, 000 



7, 625, 000 
1,615,000 



, 240, 000 
34, 000 



2, 083, 000 
1, 579, 000 



3, 662, 000 



1, 906, 000 

11,627,000 

559, 000 

15, 539, 000 



29, 631, 000 



10, 032, 000 

67, 000 

2, 381, 000 



12, 480, 000 



8, 643, 000 
9,000 



8, 652, 000 



9, 267, 000 

668, 000 

70, 703, 000 

38, 362, 000 



119,000,000 



947, 000 



, 561, 000 



State in which 
gas was pro- 
duced 



1924 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Texas 



West Virginia 



Wyoming. 



State to which gas 
was transported 



Kentucky 

Missouri 

Oklahoma 

West Virginia 

Arkansas 

Texas ._. 

Canada 

Pennsylvania 

Indiana 

West Virginia 

Arkansas 

Kansas 

Texas 

Ohio 

New York 

West Virginia 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Mexico 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. 

Montana 



M cubic 
feet 



157, 000 



5, 323, 000 
34, 000 



5, 357, 000 



6, 908, 000 
2, 453, 000 



12, 000 
24, 000 



36, 000 



1, 536, 000 
1, 149, 000 



2, 685, 000 



705, 000 
20, 305, 000 
10, 025, 000 



31,035,000 



85, 000 
10, 346, 000 
3, 289, 000 



13, 720, 000 



366, 000 

11,885,000 

27, 000 



12, 278, 000 



10, 160, 000 

679, 000 

66, 557, 000 

31,765,000 



109,161,000 



1, 157, 000 



186, 625, 000 



Revised figures. 



326 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



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328 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

Rank of States in production and consumption of natural gas, 1919-1924 



State 


Utilized production 


Consumption 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Alaska 










18 
10 

3 
21 
13 
15 
24 

9 
11 

5 


16 
9 
2 
18 
13 
15 
22 
10 
11 
4 










20 
10 

3 

22 
14 
15 
25 

8 
11 

5 
17 
23 
13 
16 
18 
12 
24 

4 

1 


18 




11 

5 

18 

12 

14 

22 

8 

13 

6 

23 

21 

19 

15 


10 

4 
18 
13 
14 
21 

8 
12 

6 
23 
22 
19 
15 


12 
4 
18 
13 
14 
21 
8 
11 
5 
23 
22 
18 
15 


10 
4 
17 
13 
14 
22 
9 
12 
5 


10 

5 
20 
15 
14 
23 

6 
11 

8 
17 
22 
13 
16 


10 

5 

20 

15 

14 

22 

8 

11 

7 

17 

23 

13 

16 


12 
5 
20 
15 
14 
22 
8 
11 
6 
16 
23 
13 
17 


10 
4 

19 
14 
15 
23 

8 
12 

6 
16 
21 
13 
17 


9 




1 




19 




14 




15 




23 


Kansas ... ._.__. 


10 


Kentucky __ ... . 


11 




3 




17 




20 
19 
15 


22 
19 
14 
16 
12 
23 
7 
2 


21 
17 
14 


22 




13 


Montana. _. .... . 


16 


New Mexico ._ . 




New York . __ 


9 

20 

4 

2 

23 

3 

17 

16 

7 

1 

10 


11 

20 

5 

2 

23 

3 

16 

17 

7 

1 

9 


10 

20 

6 

2 

23 

3 

17 

16 

7 

1 

9 


11 
21 
6 
2 


12 
23 

7 
1 


9 
21 

2 

3 
24 

1 ' 
19 
18 

7 

4 
12 


9 

21 

2 

3 

24 

1 

18 

19 

6 

4 

12 


10 
21 

1 

2 

24 

3 

19 

18 
7 
4 
9 


11 

22 

2 

3 


12 


North Dakota 


24 


Ohio 


5 




2 


Oregon ... 




Pennsylvania 

South Dakota.. . ... . .. 


3 

16 
18 

7 
1 
8 


4 
17 
20 

6 

1 
8 


6 
19 
20 
5 
3 
8 


1 

18 
20 
7 
5 
9 


2 
19 
21 

7 
6 
9 


4 
20 




21 


Texas 


6 




7 




8 







Statistics of natural gas in the United States, 1914-1924 







Treated for recov- 












ery of natural- 


Domestic consumption 




Pro- 


gas gasoline 










duced 
and de- 


























livered 












Average 


Year 


to con- 




Per cent 


Number 




Per cent 


value at 
points of 
consump- 
tion per 
M cu- 
bic feet 




sumers 

(billions 

of cubic 

feet) 


Billions 

of cubic 

feet 


of total 

con- 
sump- 
tion 


of con- 
sumers 
(thou- 
sands) 


Billions 

of cubic 

feet 


of total 
con- 
sump- 
tion 
















(cents) 


1914 


592 
629 
753 
795 
721 


17 

24 

209 

429 

449 


3 
4 

28 
54 
62 


2,078 
2,195 
2, 362 
2,431 
2, 509 


203 
217 
235 
258 
271 


34 
35 
31 
32 
38 


28.0 


1915 .. 


28.3 


1916 


28.6 


1917 


30.8 


1918 


31.4 


1919 


746 
798 
662 
763 
« 1, 007 
1,142 


480 
496 

165 

545 

876 

1,016 


64 
62 
70 
71 

87 
89 


2, 501 
2,615 
2,631 
3,015 

3, 234 
3,443 


256 
286 
248 
255 
"277 
285 


34 

36 
38 
33 

28 
25 


34.6 


1920 


38.2 


1921. . 


44.4 


1922.. 


49.9 


1923 


"51.4 


1924.. 


54. 







° Revised figures, 



NATURAL GAS 

Statistics of natural gas in the United States, 191 / r 



329 



-Continued 



- 


Industrial consumption 


Year 


Field 
(billions 
of cubic 

feet) 


Carbon 

black 

(billions 

of cubic 

feet) 


Other 

industrial 

(billions 

of cubic 

feet) 


Total 

industrial 

(billions 

of cubic 

feet) 


Per cent 
of total 

con- 
sump- 
tion 


Average 
value at 
points of 
consump- 
tion per 

M cu- 
bic feet 

(cents) 


1914 


(•) 
(•) 

(°) 
(■) 
(•) 

170 
202 
182 
198 
343 
393 


( a ) 

( a ) 

(•) 

(•) 

(•) 
50 
41 
51 
54 
109 
157 


( a ) 

(«) 

( a ) 

(•) 

(») 
270 
269 
181 
256 
278 
306 


389 
412 
518 
537 
450 
490 
512 
414 
508 
730 
856 


66 
65 
69 
68 
62 
66 
64 
62 
67 
72 
75 


9.6 


1915 


9.7 


1916 


10.2 


1917 ... 


11.7 


1918 


15.2 


1919 


14.8 


1920 


17.0 


1921 


15.5 


1922 


18.6 


1923 


13.4 


1924 


11.6 







° Figures not available. 

Natural gas produced in the United Stales and delivered to consumers, 191^-192^ 

in millions of cubic feet 



Year 


Arkan- 
sas 


Califor- 
nia 


Illinois 


Indi- 
ana 


Kansas 


Ken- 
tucky 


Louisi- 
ana 


Mon- 
tana 


New 
York 


Ohio 


1914 


"963 
<992 
2,388 
5,610 
5, 295 
5,587 
9,027 
4, 260 
9,700 
24, 215 
36, 616 


17, 829 

21, 891 
31, 643 
49, 427 
39, 719 
55, 607 
66, 041 
75, 942 
84, 580 
131, 434 
189, 692 


3,548 
2,690 
3,534 
4,439 
4, 473 
3,825 
3,013 
2,646 
3,383 
4,049 
4,072 


2,580 

2, 261 

1, 715 

1,712 

1,667 

1,407 

1,779 

1,066 

947 

880 

998 


22, 628 
27, 046 
31,710 

24, 439 
27, 825 
16, 150 
21, 158 
15, 717 
20, 289 

«* 30,913 

25, 580 


1,422 
1,667 
2,107 
2,802 
3,022 
2,057 
3, 345 
4,820 
5,872 
11,953 
12, 875 


* 26, 775 
25, 540 
32, 081 
31, 287 
36, 094 
47,062 
58, 274 
58, 004 
70, 267 
112,031 
160, 945 


..... 

213 
334 
177 
858 
818 
336 
486 
1,470 
1,071 


8,935 

7,977 
8,036 
8,372 
8.461 
8,124 
8,419 
6, 583 
6,947 
6,497 
6,196 


68, 270 


1915 


79, 510 


1916. . 


69. 888 


1917 

1918 


68,917 
61,261 


1919. 


63, 153 


1920 

1921 

1922 


58, 938 
47,412 
51, 481 


1923 

1924 


53, 812 
47, 396 





Okla- 
homa 


Pennsyl- 
vania 


Texas 


West 

Virginia 


Wyo- 
ming 


Others 


Total 


Value at points 
of consumption 


Year 


Total 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 


Average 

per M 

cubic 

feet 

(cents) 


1914 


78, 167 
87, 517 

123, 517 
137, 384 

124, 317 
163, 649 
154, 467 
124, 058 
140, 631 
203, 082 
214, 452 


110, 745 
113,692 
130, 484 
133, 397 
123, 813 
113, 489 
125, 787 
86, 144 
101, 276 
112,562 
105, 863 


13, 434 

13, 324 
15,810 
17, 047 
13, 440 
24, 710 
37, 063 
44, 504 
47, 945 
74, 535 
107, 247 


236, 489 
244, 004 
299, 319 
308, 617 
265, 161 
234, 095 
239, 719 
174, 921 
195, 288 
203, 867 
182, 285 


(°) 
«342 

• 575 
« 1, 223 
4,339 
6,014 
10, 312 
15, 608 
23, 427 
35, 523 
46, 036 


82 
120 
150 
103 
1,937 
129 
50 
31 
27 
153 
197 


591, 867 
628, 579 
753, 170 
795, 110 
721,001 
745, 916 
798, 210 
662, 052 
762, 546 
<* 1, 006, 976 
1, 141, 521 


94, 116 
101,312 
120, 227 
142, 089 
153, 554 
160, 888 
196, 194 
174, 617 
221, 535 
* 240, 001 
253, 856 


15.9 


1915 

1916 . 


16.1 
16.0 


1917 


17.9 


1918 

1919 

1920 


21.3 
21.6 
24.6 


1921 

1922... 


26.4 
29.1 


1923 


23.8 


1924 


22.2 







° Colorado and Wyoming included with Arkansas. 

b Alabama included with Louisiana. 

c Includes gas piped from Oklahoma and consumed in Arkansas. 

d Revised figures. 

« Includes Colorado. 






a 






NATURAL-GAS GASOLINE 



By G. B. Richardson and E. M. Seeley 

Tlie production of raw (unblended) natural-gas gasoline in the 
United States in 1924 was 933,861,000 gallons, an increase of 117,- 
635,000 gallons over the output in 1923. This total is based on 
reports by 457 producers operating 1,096 plants in 13 States. Of the 
total production 89,495,000 gallons were run into crude-petroleum 
pipe lines and mixed with the oil that goes to refineries to be dis- 
tilled; the remainder (excepting losses and the relatively small 
quantity utilized in the raw state) was blended for use as motor fuel. 

Increased output was reported in all of the producing States 
except West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, in which small losses 
were recorded. The greatest gain was in California, where the in- 
crease was 59,250,000 gallons, or 34 per cent. The output of the 
three leading States — Oklahoma, California, and Texas — amounted 
to 77 per cent of the total production of the country. 

The dominating position of the industry in the States west of 
Mississippi River is shown by the fact that 89 per cent of the total 
output of natural-gas gasoline in the United States in 1924 was 
produced in that area, although 45 per cent of all the plants are in 
States east of the Mississippi. 

The tendency to utilize a combination of processes for recovering 
gasoline from natural gas is increasing. Many compression plants 
nave been remodeled to utilize the absorption process, and the new 
charcoal process is being used not only by itseli but also in auxiliary 
plants to treat the discharge gas of plants utilizing the compression 
and absorption processes. The plants reported as utilizing the 
compression process singly (not in combination with other processes) 
in 1924 numbered 639; they produced 257,894,000 gallons— an 
average of 403,590 gallons per plant per annum. The 445 plants 
reported to have used the oil-absorption process, either singly or in 
combination with the compression or charcoal process, produced 
670,678,000 gallons — an average of 1,507,142 gallons per plant per 
annum. Reports were received from 12 plants in which only the 
charcoal process was utilized; they produced 4,064,000 gallons. 
Five plants were reported to have utilized the charcoal process in 
combination with other processes in recovering gasoline from natural 
gas. 

In 1924 producers reported treating approximately 1,016,- 
276,000,000 cubic feet of natural gas in the recovery of natural- 
gas gasoline, a quantity equivalent to 89 per cent of the total con- 
sumption of natural gas in the United States in that year. This 
contrasts with 87 per cent in 1923, 71 per cent in 1922, and with 

331 



332 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



54 per cent in 1917. The relationship between the total quantity 
of natural gas consumed in the United States and the quantity 
treated for the recovery of natural-gas gasoline for the years 1911— 
1924 is shown in Figure 6. The statistics show not only the increas- 
ing conservation of natural gas but indicate the near approach of 
the time when the available annual supply of gas, which until 1923 
was greatly in excess of the quantity treated for the recovery of 
gasoline, will be a controlling factor in the growth of the industry. 

The approximate quantity of motor fuel produced in the United 
States can be computed by combining figures showing the production 
of gasoline at petroleum refineries (including naphthas and other 



1100 



1000 



900 
CO 

to 

an boo 

93 u. 700 

5° 

U.C0 

°§600 
to -j 

dz 500 

5- 

u 

-?400 
^300 



200 



100 



: 
























7 


; 
























/ : 


; 






















1 


/ - 


- 










■tf f 


-rf 










1 
1 


/; 


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4 


dg*^ 


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j 


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1911 
Figure 



1915 1916 



1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 



-Natural gas consumed, natural gas treated for recovery of gasoline, and natural-gas 
gasoline produced in the United States, 1911-1924 



products lighter than kerosene) and figures showing the production 
of benzol by the coke industry with figures showing the production of 
raw natural-gas gasoline, making allowance for the raw natural-gas 
gasoline reported as blended at petroleum refineries and the raw 
natural-gas gasoline which is run into crude-petroleum pipe lines 
and mixed with the oil that goes to refineries to be distilled. This 
has been done for the years 1918-1924, as shown in Figure 7. 

The ratio of the production of raw natural-gas gasoline to the total 
motor fuel produced has increased from 7 per cent in 1918 to 10 per 
cent in 1924. Data compiled in 1925 indicate that approximately 
25 per cent of the motor fuel produced is made by cracking processes. 



NATURAL-GAS GASOLINE 



333 



Apparently, therefore, about 64 per cent of the total output of motor 
fuel comes from " straight-run " processes of manufacture from petro- 
leum, 10 per cent from raw natural-gas gasoline, and about 1 per cent 
from benzol. 













































































































y^ 4 












* 












f 












/ 












/ 























/ ' 












/ / 
/ / 












f t 










\°y 


* 










J/ 


/ 










<$/. 











' 










,£$/ / 










\ **>* 


* 
> 








< 




** 








^y 


„ - 


* 

* 








y 


^-* 










/ s 


"^Gasoline 


produced at petroleum 




/ .' 


refineries excluding receipts of raw 


,- 


/ ,' 


natural- gas gasoline 






* 
* 










t^ ^ - 


' 






















J, ^ 






























































































































_ 








































— — — —" 






-al-gas gaj 


.. 


^ ^~ ^ 






Raw natu 


__ — — -n 


. — ° -f 




- — — 


~" *T\ 


1 
1 (coke inc 


1 






— _ 


tienzc 
■— 


ustry) 




- — -— 



01=. 
1918 



1919 !920 1921 1922 1923 

Figure 7 —Motor fuel produced in the United States, 1918-1924 



1924 



334 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



Natural-gas gasoline produced in the United States, 1923-24, by States 





Number 
of opera- 
tors re- 
porting a 


Number 
of plants 


Raw (unblended) gasoline 
produced 


Estimated quantity 
of natural gas 
treated 


State 


Thou- 
sands of 
gallons 


Value at plant 


Millions 

of cubic 

feet 


Average 

yield per 

1,000 

cubic 

feet 

(gallons) 




Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


Average 

per 

gallon 

(cents) 


1923 
Arkansas 


4 

57 
30 

7 

9 
25 

5 
25 
108 
127 
48 
58 

8 


7 

119 

86 

13 

11 

35 

5 

44 

279 

196 

100 

162 

10 


16,183 

173, 329 

7, 356 

8,775 

7,601 

40, 720 

408 

10, 035 

270, 249 

19, 132 

177, 765 

63, 381 

21, 292 


1,916 

16, 564 

851 

690 

1,067 

3,484 

44 

1,446 

23, 012 

2,560 

14, 752 

8,890 

1,992 


11.8 

9.8 
11.6 

7.9 
14.0 

8.6 
10.8 
14.4 

8.5 
13.4 

8.3 
14.0 

9.4 


3,975 

211,409 

3,207 

10, 843 

22, 925 

87, 944 

640 

39, 805 

136, 563 

55, 238 

113, 733 

164, 906 

24,523 


4.1 




.8 


Illinois.. 


2.3 


Kansas. 


.H 




.3 


Louisiana.. 


.5 




.6 


Ohio . 


.3 




2.0 




.3 


Texas _ 


1.6 


West Virginia 


.4 


Wyoming 


.9 








°455 


1, 067 


816, 226 


77, 268 


9.5 


875, 711 


.9 


1924 
Arkansas 


5 
61 
29 

8 

8 
33 

5 
26 
108 
127 
44 
56 

8 


9 
140 
85 
14 
10 
45 

47 
281 
191 
106 
152 

11 


17, 533 

232, 579 

9,091 

11,658 

7,274 

48, 098 

477 

9,443 

301, 062 

19, 254 

186, 571 

61, 549 

29, 272 


1,784 

22, 690 

795 

913 

769 

3,887 

50 

1,148 

23,338 

2,266 

14, 460 

7,154 

2,979 


10.2 
9.8 
8.7 
7.8 

10.6 
8.1 

10.5 

12.2 
7.8 

11.8 
7.8 

11.6 

10.2 


3, 243 

217, 445 

3,451 

15, 796 

24, 618 

136, 448 

381 

38, 865 

172, 111 

63, 104 

148, 554 

160, 007 

32, 253 


5.4 


California 


1.1 


Illinois ... 


2.6 


Kansas __ 


.7 


Kentucky 


.3 




.4 


New York... 


1.3 


Ohio ... 


.2 


Oklahoma 


1.7 




.3 


Texas. . 


1.3 


West Virginia 


.4 




.9 








"457 


1,096 


933, 861 


82, 233 


8.8 


1, 016, 276 


.9 



a A producer operating in more than one State is counted only once. 



NATURAL-GAS GASOLINE 



135 



Natural-gas gasoline produced in the United States, 1922-192/+,' by methods of 

manufacture 





Number of plants 


Raw (unblended) gasoline produced 
(thousands of gallons) 


State 


Com- 
pres- 
sion 


Absorption 
including 
combina- 
tion absorp- 
tion process 
with com- 
pression 
and char- 
coal pro- 
cesses 


Char- 
coal 


Compres- 
sion 


Absorption 
including 
combina- 
tion absorp- 
tion process 
with com- 
pression 
and char- 
coal pro- 
cesses 


Char- 
coal 


Drip 


1922 
Arkansas 




1 

50 


(a\ 




4,289 
44, 272 


(°) 
(°) 
(°) 

(a) 
(a) 




California . ... 


27 
78 

5 

5 
13 

3 
29 
197 
168 
34 
85 

4 


22,558 

7,752 

909 

561 

8,998 

281 

1,334 

137, 712 

9,116 

62, 794 

12, 591 

19, 869 


290 




8 




3 

3 
13 

1 
12 
70 
27 
22 
66 

1 


1,928 

4,644 

19, 941 

225 

7,253 
51, 023 

9,345 

32, 426 

43, 996 

98 


19 


Kentucky. .. 




Louisiana. . . . 


467 


New York.. 




Ohio 


13 


Oklahoma 


669 
57 


Texas 


185 




209 


Wyoming . 






648 


269 


(") 


284, 475 


219, 440 


(•) 


1,917 


1923 

Arkansas . . 




7 
99 






16, 089 
158, 392 

"~4,36l" 

6,603 

30, 906 

93 

8,777 

130,991 

10,912 

97, 703 

53, 278 

3,474 




94 


California 


20 
86 

5 

3 
13 

4 
29 
178 
168 
42 
68 

4 




14, 937 

7, 355 

4,459 

462 

9, 317 

315 

1,251 

138, 455 

7,943 

80, 033 

8,627 

17, 718 






""536" 
497 


1 




8 

5 
21 

1 

15 
101 
27 
58 
91 

6 


...... 

1 

..... 
..... 


15 


Kentucky. 




Louisiana ... . 




New\ork._ 




Ohio 


""204" 
1,186 


7 


Oklahoma 


803 


Pennsylvania. . . 


73 




29 


West Virginia 


290 


Wyoming . 


100 








620 


439 


8 


290, 872 


521, 519 


2,423 


1,412 


1924 




9 
124 






17, 533 

219, 059 






California . .. 


16 

85 

5 

3 

14 

4 

30 

178 

164 

43 

93 

{ 'I 




13, 520 

9,089 

614 

1,128 

7,105 

333 

1,268 

117,424 

7,315 

66, 995 

12, 968 

20, 135 










2 


Kansas . 


9 

4 

30 

1 

16 
105 
23 
63 
56 

} 5 


_. 

1 
_. 

" §" 


11,042 

5,182 

* 40, 952 

144 

» 8, 170 

183, 128 

10,716 

119,478 

46, 856 

9,059 


""964" 

(") 


2 


Kentucky. 




Louisiana.. .. . 


41 


New York.. 




Ohio 


(») 
""I," 076" 
"l," 383" 


5 


Oklahoma... 


510 


Pennsylvania 


147 


Texas. . 


98 


West Virginia... 


342 


Wyoming 


78 








639 


445 


12 


257, 894 


670, 678 


4,064 


1, 225 



Charcoal included under combination processes. Separate data not collected. 

b Charcoal included under combination processes in order to avoid disclosing the production of individual 
operators. 
c Refrigeration. 



336 

Natural-gas gasoline turned into crude-petroleum pipe lines in the United States, 
1923-24, by States, in gallons 



State 


1923 


1924 


State 


1923 


1924 




50, 398, 000 

26, 000 

3, 049, 000 

15, 418, 000 

252, 000 


87, 135, 000 


Texas.. .-. 


3, 529, 000 

25, 000 

1, 838, 000 


347, 000 




West Virginia 






373, 000 
1, 640, 000 


Wyoming 












74, 535, 000 


89, 495, 000 









Natural-gas gasoline produced in the United States, 1911-1924, by States, in 

thousands of gallons 



Year 


Arkan- 
sas 


Cali- 
fornia 


Colo- 
rado 


Illinois 


Kansas 


Ken- 
tucky 


Louisi- 
ana 


New 
York 


Ohio 


1911 




( a ) 

1,041 

3,461 

7,581 
12, 835 
17, 159 
28, 818 
32, 269 
40, 386 
48, 208 
58, 220 
67, 120 
173, 329 
232, 579 


2 


(°) 

(a) 

( a ) 
1,164 
1,035 
2,260 
4,934 
4, 575 
6,060 
6,055 
7,536 
7,760 
7,356 
9,091 


(•) 
(•) 

215 
1,175 
2,390 
3,284 
4,331 
3,587 
2, 856 
8,775 
11, 658 


(«) 

(«) 

(a) 
(a) 
(») 

725 
3,818 
3,331 
5,136 
4,497 
4,242 
5,205 
7, 601 
7,274 




M 
(«j 

(°) 

(«) 

(■) 

(«*) 

(») 
218 
458 
411 
366 
506 
408 
477 


1,679 


1912... 






1,719 


1913--. 






2,073 
2,440 
2, 199 


1914 - 






1915 




( a ) 

2,113 
4,980 
7,021 
10, 063 
10, 610 
15, 341 
29, 406 
40, 720 
48, 098 


1916 




2,639 


1917 




5,440 


1918 




6,745 


1919 




8,801 


1920 




10, 016 


1921 




9,100 


1922 


4,289 
16, 183 
17, 533 


8,600 


1923 


10, 035 


1924 


9,443 






Percentage of total 


38, 005 
0.9 


723, 006 
17.2 


(°) 


57, 826 
1.4 


38, 271 
0.9 


41, 829 
1.0 


168, 352 
4.0 


2,844 
0.1 


80, 929 
1.9 









Okla- 
homa 


Penn- 
syl- 
vania 


Texas 


West 
Vir- 
ginia 


Wyo- 
ming 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Total 


Value at plant 


Year 


Thou- 
sands 

of 
dollars 


Aver- 
age per 

gallon 
(cents) 


1911 


388 

1,575 

6, 463 

17,278 

31, 666 

48, 360 

115, 123 

163, 701 

189, 995 

178,857 

185, 341 

189, 404 

270, 249 

301, 062 


1,467 
2,041 
3,680 
4,612 
5,899 
9,715 
13, 826 
15, 775 
20,284 
21, 151 
19, 856 

18, 518 
19, 132 

19, 254 




3,660 

5, 318 
7,662 
9, 278 
10, 854 
18, 765 
32, 669 
37,604 
52, 150 
58, 941 
54, 646 
56, 796 
63, 381 
61,549 


"i,~579~ 
5,581 
8,711 
14, 558 
19, 967 
21, 292 
29, 272 


232 
387 
722 
300 
877 
249 
181 


7,426 

12,081 

24, 061 

42, 653 

65, 365 

103, 493 

217, 884 

282, 536 

351, 535 

384, 744 

449, 934 

505, 832 

816, 226 

933, 861 


532 

1,157 

2,458 

3,106 

5,151 

14,331 

40, 189 

50, 364 

64,197 

71,788 

61,815 

72,711 

77, 268 

82, 233 


7.2 


1912 




9.6 


1913 




10.2 


1914 




7.3 


1915 


1,293 

6, 920 

7,326 

9,337 

32, 956 

77, 141 

95, 405 

177, 765 

186, 571 


7.9 


1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 


13.8 

18.4 
17.8 
18.3 


1920 


18.7 


1921 


13.7 


1922 


14.4 


1923 


9.5 


1924 


8.8 






Percentage of total . 


1, 699, 462 
40.5 


175, 210 
4.2 


594, 714 
14.1 


473, 273 
11.3 


100, 960 
2.4 


"2,950 
0.1 


4, 197, 631 
100.0 


547, 300 


13. 









° Included under "Miscellaneous. 
b Includes also Colorado for 1918. 



NATURAL-GAS GASOLINE 



337 



Natural gas produced and consumed in the United Stales and portion treated for 
recovery of natural-gas gasoline, 1911-1924 





Produced 
and 
delivered to 
consumers 
(millions of 
cubic feet) 


Consumed 
(millions of 
cubic feet) 


Treated for 
recovery 
of gasoline 
(millions of 
cubic feet) 


Ratio (percen 
natural gas 
for gasoline 


tage) of 
treated 




To quantity 
produced 

and 
delivered 
to con- 
sumers 


Toquantity 
consumed 


1924 

Arkansas . .... . . .. 


36, 616 

189, 692 

4,072 

25, 580 

12, 875 

160, 945 

c 6, 196 

47, 396 

214, 452 

105, 863 

* 107, 247 

182, 285 

46, 036 

2,266 


44, 595 
189, 692 
4,072 
40, 528 
21, 514 
163, 469 
16, 506 
111,353 
183, 451 
123, 932 
107, 447 
79, 240 
44, 879 
10, 804 


3,243 

217, 445 

3,451 

15, 796 

24, 618 

136, 448 

381 

38, 865 

172,111 

63, 104 

148, 554 

160, 007 

32, 253 


9 
115 
85 
62 
191 
85 
6 
82 
80 
60 
139 
88 
70 




7 




115 


Illinois ... . . 


85 


Kansas.. _ . . ... 


39 


Kentucky *__ _. 


114 


Louisiana... .. 


83 


New York ... .. .... 


2 


Ohio... 


35 


Oklahoma . . 


94 


Pennsylvania 


51 


Texas a *> . . 


138 


West Virginia «_ _. 


202 


Wyoming 


72 


Others 














/ 1, 141, 521 


1, 141, 482 


1,016,276 


89 


89 


1911 


512, 993 
562, 203 
581, 898 
591, 867 
628, 579 
753, 170 
795,110 
721, 001 
745, 916 
798, 210 
662, 052 
762, 546 
« h 1,006,976 >' 1.006.967 


2,476 

4,688 

9,889 

16, 895 

24, 064 

208, 705 

429, 288 

449, 109 

480, 404 

496, 431 

465, 097 

545, 139 

875, 711 


0.5 

1 

2 

3 

4 
28 
54 
62 
64 
62 
70 
71 
87 




1912 .. 




1913 




1914 




1915 




1916 




1917 




1918 




1919 ... 




1920 




1921 




1922 




1923 


87 















o Large quantities of gas both before and after the recovery of gasoline were blown in the air or unac- 
counted for. 

* Quantities of natural gas were piped from other States, treated for gasoline recovery, and residue gas 
returned to State in which produced. 

' Includes 12,000.000 cubic feet piped to Canada. 
d Includes 27,000,000 cubic feet piped to Mexico. 

• Natural gas was treated for gasoline recovery and consumed in other States. 
/ Includes 39,000,000 cubic feet piped to Canada and Mexico. 

o Includes 9,000,000 cubic feet piped to Mexico. 
h Revised figures. 

Approximate production of motor fuel in the United States, 1918-1924, in thousands 

of gallons 





1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Gasoline, including naphthas 
and other products lighter 
than kerosene, produced at 


3, 570, 313 
102, 956 

(•) 

282, 536 

44, 805 
3, 794, 698 

7.4 


3, 957, 857 
124,185 

(») 

351, 535 

61,068 
4, 246, 275 

8.3 


4, 882, 547 
132, 423 

(•) 

384, 744 

83, 371 
5,218,239 

7.4 


5, 153, 549 
105,696 

(«) 

449, 934 

54, 459 
5, 552, 246 

8.1 


6, 202, 235 
153, 795 

(•) 

505, 832 

70,111 
6, 624, 383 

7.6 


7, 555, 945 
230, 454 

74, 535 
816, 226 

97, 335 

8, 164, 517 

10.0 


8, 959, 680 


Raw natural-gas gasoline blend- 
ed at refineries ... 


532, 195 


Raw natural-gas gasoline turned 
into crude-petroleum pipe 
lines (to be recovered by dis- 
tillation) 


89, 495 


Raw natural-gas gasoline pro- 
duced... 


933, 861 


Benzol produced by the coke 
industry... 


91,904 


Motor fuel produced. 


9, 363, 755 


Percentage of raw natural-gas 
gasoline produced to total 
motor fuel produced 


10.0 







° Data not available. 



TALC AND SOAPSTONE 



By L. M. Prindle and B. H. Stoddard l 



PRODUCTION 

Both the total quantity and value of talc and soapstone sold by 
the producers during 1924 increased in comparison with sales for 
preceding years except 1920. (See fig. 8.) The quantity sold in 
1924 was the largest reported since the record year 1920, und the 
value was the highest ever recorded. All branches of the industry, 
however, did not share in the prosperity. In Vermont, whose pro- 
duction is used largely in the roofing trade, depression existed for a 
large part of the year, and the demand was, in general, unsatisfac- 
tory for all grades, especially roofing and paper. In the talc region 
of New York, however, the trade showed improvement over 1923, 
and was stimulated by the finding of new uses for the fibrous talc 
of this State, which is particularly suitable for filler in the manu- 
facture of paper. In the South Georgia and Maryland showed 
greatly increased sales of talc, and in North Carolina and Virginia 
there was renewed activity in soapstone mining. Shipments in 
California showed little change from 1923. 

Talc and soapstone sold by the -producers in the United States, 1920-1924 









Sawed and manufactured 










Year 




Talc 


Soapstone 








Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 


11,008 
2,150 
4,981 
5,706 
5,710 


$43, 820 
12, 911 
22, 582 
50, 125 
22, 247 


1,415 
C) 

654 
682 
846 


$139, 335 

( a ) 

86, 333 

114,772 

109, 405 


19, 707 
"17, 423 
22, 700 
22, 857 
25, 630 


$709, 400 

• 627, 826 

712, 144 

932, 098 

1, 288, 885 


178, 505 
102, 413 

170, 349 
167, 447 

171, 635 


$2, 142, 894 

1, 115,205 

2, 038, 838 
1,915,258 
2, 095, 019 


210, 635 
121,986 
198, 684 
196, 692 
203, 821 


$3, 035, 449 
1, 755, 942 
2, 859, 897 
3, 012, 253 
3, 515, 556 



° Sawed and manufactured talc included under "Soapstone." 

The sales of the several grades of talc and soapstone are shown in 
the preceding table. Practically all talc sold in the crude state by 
producers is eventually ground, but as figures are collected only from 
producers the value of this material after grinding is unknown. 

1 Figures for imports and exports compiled by J. A. Dorsey, of the Bureau of Mines, from records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Figures for world's production compiled by L. M.Jones, 
of the Bureau of Mines. 

339 



340 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART 11 



3^00,000 




Figure 8. Talc and soapstone produced in the United States, 1880-1924 
Talc and soapstone sold by the producers in the United States, 1922-1924, by States 





1922 


1923 


1924 


State « 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Per 
cent of 
total 
quan- 
tity 


Percentage of 

increase or 

decrease 




Quan- 
tity 


Value 




71, 470 

75, 485 
25, 351 
12, 638 

8,373 

2,194 
1,667 
1,506 


$1,116,914 
654, 715 
736, 132 
187,011 

87, 367 
23, 049 
14, 667 
40, 042 


71, 304 

67, 100 
26, 095 
16, 144 

8,182 

6, 491 

580 

796 


$1, 079, 322 
533, 510 
960, 628 
224, 838 

82, 597 
89, 290 
25, 500 
16, 568 


78, 340 
61, 653 
28, 219 
16, 335 

8,281 
6,093 
3,015 
1,885 


$1, 162, 488 

573, 747 

1, 306, 388 

247, 799 

83,296 
81, 523 

29, 767 

30, 548 


38 
30 
14 
8 

4 
3 
2 

1 


+10 
—8 
+8 
+1 

+1 

-6 

+420 

+137 


+8 


Vermont 

Virginia 


+8 
+36 


California 


+10 


Pennsylvania and 

New Jersey 

North Carolina 

Maryland 


+1 

-9 

+17 


Georgia 


+84 








198, 684 


2, 859, 897 


196, 692 


3, 012, 253 


203, 821 


3, 515, 556 


100 


+4 


+17 



TALC AND SOAPSTONE 341 

REVIEW BY STATES 

California. — Practically all of the domestic high-grade talc suit- 
able for making talcum powder is produced in California. The 
requirements for this purpose are pure white or flesh color, good 
slip, and freedom from grit or harmful impurities such as iron and 
lime. The producing companies numbered 6 in 1924, as compared 
with 7 in 1923. Walter S. McLean shipped crude talc and soapstone 
from the McLean talc claim in Butte County and the Swift soap- 
stone quarry in Eldorado County. The Master Minerals Co., form- 
erly the Master Products Co., worked the Tropico talc mine at Acme. 
A new company, the Western Talc & Magnesite Co., shipped talc 
from Inyo County, near Tecopa. The average value of crude shipped 
in this State in 1924 was $5.60 a short ton, and in 1923 $5.77; the 
average value of ground talc was $17.32 a short ton in 1924 and 
$17.43 in 1923. 

Georgia. — The Georgia Talc Co. was the only producer of talc in 
Georgia in 1924. The largest quantity was sold in the ground form 
at an average value of about $6 a short ton, but some was used in the 
manufacture of crayons that were sold for more than $200 a ton. 

Maryland. — Two producers of talc in Maryland resumed operations 
in 1924. The Maryland Mineral Co. (Inc.) shipped crude talc from 
near Conowingo, and Herbert I. Oursler shipped talc schist from 
Henryton. The Harford Talc Co. continued to mine a refractory 
talc at its property near Dublin, Harford County. 

New Jersey and Pennsylvania. — Ground talc mined in New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania was shipped by the Rock Products Co., J. (). 
Wagener & Co., and C. K. Williams & Co.; the average value a short 
ton was about $10. 

New YorJc. — Two firms, the International Pulp Co. and the W. H. 
Loomis Talc Corporation, shipped fibrous talc from St. Lawrence 
County. The W. H. Loomis Talc Corporation reported that it had 
experimented with favorable results with talc as an ingredient in 
concrete to make it waterproof, and had also used special grades of 
talc as a high-grade paper filler with like satisfaction (see p. 345). 
A third producer, the Carbola Chemical Co. (Inc.) , continued actively 
its operations in Lewis County, near Natural Bridge. 

The talc near Natural Bridge, in contrast to that of the other 
producing localities in New York, is granular. It is ground and used 
in making mineral paint or whitewash that can be applied as a dry 
powder or mixed with water in the usual way. 

Ground talc was the only grade shipped in the State, and the 
average value a short ton was $14.84. 

North Carolina. — The Georgia Talc Co., which mines pyrophyllite, 
continued the manufacture of crayons at its property near Marshall, 
Madison County. Another producer of pyrophyllite was the Stand- 
ard Mineral Co. (Inc.), whose property is near Hemp, Moore County. 
Shipments of soapstone were made by the National Soapstone Co. 
(Inc.), a new operator, from its property near West Jefferson, Ashe 
County. 

Yennont. — The quantity of talc sold by producers in Vermont in 
1924 showed no gain from 1923, but the total value of the product 
increased 8 per cent. The average value of ground talc in this State 
for 1924 was $8.73 a short ton. No new operators were reported. 



342 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 



Virginia. — New operations in Virginia were the mining of soapstone 
by the Charlottesville Soapstone Corporation, whose property is 3 
miles from Esmont, Albermarle County, and by the Phoenix Stone 
Co. (Inc.), 4 miles south of Arrington, Nelson County. The greater 
part of the Virginia output is soapstone, manufactured by the two 
concerns mentioned above and by the Virginia Alberene Corpora- 
tion. The Blue Ridge Talc Co. (Inc.) and the Bull Run Talc & 
Soapstone Co. (Inc.) shipped ground talc. 

IjIST of producers 

Producers of talc and soapstone in the United States in 192 '4 



Name and address 



Location of mine 



CALIFORNIA 

W. S. McLean, 639 Brannan Street, San Francisco 

Master Minerals Co., 1901-1929 East Slausen Avenue, 

Los Angeles. 
Pacific Coast Talc Co., 2149 Bay Street, Los Angeles.. 

Russi Soapstone Co., Folsom 

Sierra Talc Co., 401 Equitable Bank Building, Los 

Angeles. 
Western Talc & Magnesite Co., Los Angeles 

GEORGIA 

Georgia Talc Co., Asheville, N. C 

MARYLAND 

Harford Talc Co., 1801 Chelsea Road, Baltimore 

Maryland Mineral Co. (Inc.), Conowingo 

Herbert I. Oursler, Marriottsville.. 

NEW JERSEY 

Rock Products Co., 403 Trust Building, Easton, Pa... 

NEW YORK 

Carbola Chemical Co. (Inc.), Natural Bridge 

International Pulp Co., 41 Park Row, New York City. 
W. H. Loomis Talc Corporation, 173 East Main Street, 
Gouverneur. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Georgia Talc Co., Asheville 

National Soapstone Co. (Inc.), Baldwin 

Standard Mineral Co. (inc.), Hemp 

PENNSYLVANIA 

J. O. Wagener & Co., 520 McCartney Street, Easton.. 

C. K. Williams & Co., 640 North Thirteenth Street, 
Easton. 

VERMONT 

American Mineral Co., 192 Bank Street, Burlington... 

American Soapstone Finish Co., Chester 

Eastern Magnesia Talc Co. (Inc.), Burlington 

Vermont Talc Co., Chester 

VIRGINIA 

Blue Ridge Talc Co. (Inc.), Henry 

Bull Run Talc & Soapstone Co. (Inc.), Clifton Station 
Charlottesville Soapstone Corporation, Charlottesville 
Phoenix Stone Co. (Inc.), 150 Broadway, New York, 

N. Y. 
Virginia Alberene Corporation, 153 West Twenty-third 

Street, New York, N. Y. 



Butte County and near Latrobe, Eldorado 

County. 
Acme, San Bernardino County. 

7 miles north of Silver Lake station, San Bernar- 
dino County. 
\\i miles from Shingle station, Eldorado County. 
18 miles from Keeler, Inyo County. 

Tecopa, Inyo County. 



Foot of Cohutta Mountain, 3M miles southeast 
of Chatsworth, Murray County. 



Near Dublin, Harford County. 

Conowingo, Cecil County. 

x /i mile west of Henryton, Carroll County. 



Above Marble Hill, on Delaware River, near 
Phillipsburg, Warren County. 



\\i miles from Natural Bridge, Lewis County. 
Talcville, St. Lawrence County. 
Fowler, St. Lawrence County. 



On Big Laurel Creek, 9 miles north of Marshal, 

Madison County. 
Near West Jefferson, Ashe County. 
23^ miles from Hemp, Moore County. 



On Bushkill Creek, 3 miles above Easton, North 

ampton County. 
Near Easton, Northampton County. 



Johnson, Lamoille County. 

2Yi miles from Chester, Windsor County. 

East Granville, Addison County; Rochester, 

Windsor County; and Waterbury, Washington 

County. 
Windham, Windham County. 



% mile east of Henry station, Franklin County. 
3 miles north of Clifton, Fairfax County. 

3 miles from Esmont, Albermarle County. 

4 miles south of Arrington, Nelson County. 

Schuyler, Nelson County. 



TALC AND SOAPSTONE 



343 



FORM IN WHICH TALC IS SOLD BY PRODUCERS 

The quality of the talc and the demand for the different uses deter- 
mine the manner of preparation for the market. In 1924, 3 per cent 
was sold rough (crude) as it came from the mine, less than 1 per cent 
was sold as cut pencils and crayons and as blanks used for refractory 
purposes, and 96 per cent was ground to talc powder. 



Talc sold by the producers in the United States 


in 1924, by classes 




Form in which sold 


Short tons 


Value 


Total 


Average 




5,710 

846 

171, 635 


$22, 247 

109, 405 

2, 095, 019 


$3.90 




129. 32 




12.21 








178, 191 


2, 226, 671 









« For slate pencils and metal workers' crayons and for blanks used in making acetylene burners and other 
objects. 

b For filler in paper, paint, and rubber goods, and for toilet powder, foundry facings, textiles, lubricators, 
electric insulation, etc. 

Soapstone in rough quarry blocks or in crude state is worth about 
$5 a ton. Reports of producers showed, however, that no soap- 
stone was sold in that form in 1924. When sawed into slabs and 
manufactured into laundry tubs, laboratory table tops, and other 
products, its value increases greatly, and material of this class 
averaged about $50 a short ton in 1924. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Talc imported for consumption in the United States, 1920-1924 





Crude and unground steatite 
and French chalk 


Manufactures (except toilet 
preparations) wholly or 
partly finished 


Total 


Year 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 


Short 
tons 


Value 




Total 


Average 


Total 


Average 


1920 


941 
153 
248 
560 
313 


$7, 206 
2,279 
9,850 

20, 653 
4,847 


$7.57 
14.90 
40.00 
36.88 
15.49 


21, 739 
11,468 

18, 196 

19, 405 
17, 496 


$443, 514 
239, 469 
367, 528 
402, 238 
337, 508 


$20. 40 
20.88 
20.20 
20.73 
19.29 


22, 680 
11,621 

18, 444 

19, 965 
17, 809 


$450 720 


1921 

1922 

1923 


241, 748 
377, 378 
422, 891 
342, 355 


1924 





44839°— 27- 



-23 



344 

Talc, ground or unground, imported into the United States, 1928-24, by countries 

[General imports] 



Country 



Austria 

Belgium 

Canada 

China 

Chosen 

Czechoslovakia 

England 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hongkong 

India (British") 

Italy 

Japan 

Norway 

Palestine and Syria. 

Scotland 

Spain 

Switzerland 



1923 



Short tons Value 



611 

822 

7,111 

2 

(•) 



123 

3, 384 

36 

3 

( k ) 

55 

7,457 

2 

347 



19,1 



$19, 914 

5,428 

99, 902 

2,376 

4 



2,722 

51, 035 

1,167 

57 

59 

3, 446 

227, 858 

1,113 

9,073 



45 

1~078~ 



425, 277 



1924 



Short tons Value 



18, 199 



138 


$4, 411 


1,106 


6,680 


7,432 


88, 608 


29 


13, 136 


2 


114 


121 


1,443 


3, 091 


49, 861 


2 


1,653 


( e ) 


184 


84 


3,601 


6,165 


185, 730 


1 


301 


(") 


4 


28 


903 



356, 629 



3 pounds 



241 pounds. 



344 pounds. 



d 5 pounds. 



Exports of talc in bulk are not recorded. The exports of " talcum 
and other toilet powders" in 1922 amounted to 1,821 short tons, 
valued at $1,397,542; in 1923, 1,907 tons, valued at $1,671,588; and 
in 1924, 1,614 tons, valued at $1,688,211. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION 

World's production of talc and soapstone, 1920-1924, by countries, in metric tons 



Country 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Argentina. 


20 

214 
201 
6, 894 
19,659 
52, 420 
20, 943 
3,740 
21,475 

(a) 


(«) 

61 
262 
8,031 
9,184 
34, 742 
6,619 
2,103 
21,031 
(°) 

2,810 

1,115 

*>1,797 

375 


(a) 

203 

272 

13, 511 

11,970 

48, 170 
4,513 

921 
26, 485 

49, 003 
7,821 
3,078 

b 2, 063 

309 

51 

180, 242 

609 


(») 

207 
425 

7,489 
9,404 

(a) 

1,907 

7,136 

31,150 

35, 828 

8,907 

1,983 

"2, 430 

322 

189 

178, 435 

(°) 


(°) 


Australia: 

New South Wales... 


543 


South Australia 


330 


Austria (exports) 


9,683 




10, 280 


France 


(a) 


Germany (Bavaria) 


( a ) 


India (British).. . _ 


2,898 


Italy 


32, 168 


Japan _ 


( a ) 


Norway 


11,785 


Spain. . . 


2,146 

(») 
619 
367 
191, 084 

1,801 


1,457 


Sweden.. 


"2,873 


Union of South Africa (Transvaal) 


513 


United Kingdom 




United States. _ .. 


110, 663 
1,755 


184, 902 


Uruguay (exports) .. 


(°) 







° Data not available. 

b Exclusive of a small quantity for which value only is given. 



USES 

Powdered talc and soapstone are used extensively in the paper, 
paint, roofing, rubber, foundry, and textile industries, and for toilet 
preparations. A rather unique use of powdered talc is by the farmer, 
who is said to dust the grains of corn before planting, in order to pre- 
vent the crows from eating them. Massive talc of the variety known 
as "lava" grade, free from iron and grit, with no cracks or cleavage 



TALC AND SOAPSTONE 345 

! planes, is cut into gas tips, blanks for electric insulation, and spark 
plugs. Only small amounts of this variety are produced in the 
I United States. Talc is also made into crayons and pencils, and is 
! used in glass making, and as a polishing agent. Massive soapstone 
j is manufactured into laundry tubs, trays, sinks, laboratory table 
i tops, furnace blocks, fuse guards, tiles, treads, aquariums, switch- 
| boards, panel boards, bases, insulators, wainscoting, tireless cooker 
stones, hearth linings, furnace linings, and griddles. 

There has been a demand among producers for more accurate iii- 

| formation regarding the physical characteristics of talc, especially 

the melting point. The talc as mined contains a larger or smaller 

j proportion of such minerals as chlorite, calcium or magnesium car- 

I Donate, iron pyrites, quartz, or other minerals. A small admixture 

of other minerals lowers the melting point. Material from different 

I mines or even different parts of the same mine may differ considerably 

in melting point. 

In investigations of talc and soapstone from different localities in 
i Switzerland, the melting points found ranged from 1,330 to 1,480° cen- 
| tigrade. The material began to turn brown at about 850°, became 
i harder, and reached maximum hardness at 1,030 to 1,410°. Instead 
of using solid blocks of the natural talc or soapstone the investigators 
granulated the talc, mixed it with a binder, and pressed it into vari- 
ous forms. In some cases such material was heated to about 1,200° 
centigrade, when it became a reddish brown very hard substance 
that could be used as a substitute for emery. Further information 
on the technology of talc, including data on melting points, will be 
found in these publications: Der schweizerische Bergbau wahrend 
des Weltkrieges, by H. Fehlman, pages 179 to 212, 1919, and " Der 
Talkberbau von Disentis in Graubunden" by Arnold Heim: Zeit- 
schrift fiir praktische Geologie, vol. 26, 1918, pages 2 to 11. 

Some talcs expand unequally on heating and it is probable that 
grinding and pressing with a suitable binder would be of advantage 
for certain purposes. The Bureau of Mines has been experimenting 
on the possibility of using talc as the main ingredient in ceramic 
bodies of high dielectric strength and resistance to heat shock. 

In New York and Vermont the supplies of talc are relatively 
abundant and some of the producers are conducting investigations 
for improving the quality of ground talc and for increasing its field 
of usefulness. 

The advantage of such research is shown by the results already 
obtained by the Loomis Talc Corporation in New York in producing 
a better quality of material for a paper filler and in recognizing the 
advantage of using talc in concrete. This company has made exten- 
sive and successful experiments on the use of talc in concrete as a 
waterproofing agent and it has also used talc in making mortar. 
The use of talc in concrete opens a wide field for experiment and is 
perhaps the most outstanding feature of the year in the talc industry. 
The demands of the producers regarding talc are well stated in the 
following quotation from an article by J. B. Aikman, of the Vermont 
Talc Co., entitled "Talc: Its origin, properties, and uses," published 
in the Rose Technic, Terre Haute, Ind., May, 1925: 

While the production and consumption of ground talc of commercial grades 
has developed to considerable proportions in the comparatively short period 
of two or three decades, with good prospect of further growth in demand for it, 



346 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

the industry suffers from some disadvantages probably the result in part of this very 
fact. 

Of course, the chemical and physical properties of any raw material must 
determine its adaptability for various uses. In the case of talc, its chemical 
nature can not very well be modified, and, moreover, this is not necessary as it 
undergoes no chemical change in most uses to which it is applied. 

Its physical properties, however, are of the utmost importance to consumers 
and these are susceptible of modification and control within reasonable limits 
through the methods of its preparation for the market. 

Unfortunately, however, little knowledge exists as to the exact chemical and 
physical requirements of the various manufacturing processes in which it has 
thus far been employed. Hence, its marketing has depended altogether too 
much on individual opinion, prejudice and all around rule-of -thumb considerations. 

As a result it is often misjudged and made to suffer from unjust competition 
with other materials with which it is not fairly comparable. On the other hand, 
this ignorance sometimes leads to attempts to use talc for purposes for which it 
is unsuited with the ensuing natural damage to its prestige as a raw material. 

Standardized methods, acceptable alike to producers and consumers, have 
yet to be devised and adopted for testing those physical properties which are the 
foundation of its successful and advantageous sale and use. The most important 
of these properties are hardness, color, size of grain, shape of grain, "slip," specific 
gravity, character of grit, absorptive power, and behavior under heat. 

It is not to be understood that nothing has been done along these lines, but 
what has been accomplished is wholly inadequate, so it is the hope of talc pro- 
ducers, at least, that the problem may soon make a stronger appeal to those 
interested in scientific research in the field of nonmetallic minerals. 



CEMENT 



Bv E. F. Burchard and B. W. Bagfley 



ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF PORTLAND CEMENT 

In 1924 Portland cement completed a century of service. It is 
fitting, therefore, at this time to outline some of the outstanding 
features of the growth of the industry and to discuss certain historical 
tables and graphs of production and prices that lack of space has 
kept out of recent volumes of Mineral Resources. 

Mineral cementing materials 1 were known to the Egyptians 5,000 
years ago, as is evidenced by the remains of structures in which 
plaster made of gypsum was used in masonry and as stucco. Later, 
the Romans used lime mortars and still later they made a cement 
similar to the present puzzolan type by pulverizing volcanic ash and 
mixing it with quicklime. The most important ingredient in the 
cementing materials used by the Romans was lime, and in burning 
limestone to quicklime it is probable that in places they used argil- 
laceous material and thus made natural cement. This cement, how- 
ever, was not perfected until late in the eighteenth century ; puzzolan 
and natural cements antedated Portland cement by many centuries. 

The development of the chief types of hydraulic cements came 
about through industrial progress and necessity rather than pure 
accident, although accidental discoveries have played an important 
part in leading to the desired results. It was in 1756, in connection 
with the building of the Eddystone Lighthouse in England, that a 
hydraulic mortar, one which would set under water, was sought. In 
the United States the construction of canals further emphasized this 
requirement. Since the natural cements did not satisfy all the re- 
quirements of use, especially as to uniformity of strength and time 
of set, efforts were made in the early part of the nineteenth century, 
particularly by an English bricklayer, Joseph Aspdin, to produce a 
more satisfactory cement. Manufacturers of hydraulic lime and nat- 
ural cement, theretofore, had endeavored to avoid burning the rock to 
vitrification and had rejected the lumps so hardened. Aspdin tried 
for some years to make a hydraulic cement from hard, limestone and 
clay, and finally, through burning his raw material at temperatures 
higher than customary, he succeeded in making a cement that seems 
to be the most direct forerunner of Portland cement. In fact, Aspdin, 
in applying for a patent, called his product " Portland" cement, 
because its color resembled that of building stone from the Isle of 
Portland. Of course there have been many modifications in Portland 

1 For more extended discussions of the history of cementing materials, their definitions, properties, and 
technology, the reader is referred to the following publications and the volumes of Mineral Resources from 
1910 to 1920: Eckel, E. (\, Cements, Limes, and Plasters, 2d ed.: New York, 1922,655 pp. Lesley, Robert 
W., History of the Portland Cement Industry in the United States: 1924. Eckel, E. C, Burchard, E. F., 
and others, Portland Cement Materials and Industry in the United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 
522, 1913, 401 pp. 

347 



348 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

cement since the dajs of Aspdin, a wider range of raw materials has 
become available for use by manufacturers and essential standards 
have been established, with the result that to-day, especially in the 
United States, Portland cement represents a highly standardized and 
uniform product. Nevertheless, Aspdin has been formally and offi- 
cially recognized as the inventor. 

In the summer of 1924 representatives of the American Portland 
Cement Association attended a celebration in England where a 
bronze tablet in memory of Joseph Aspdin, the gift of the association, 
was unveiled at Leeds. Later, on November 19, the official American 
celebration of the 100th anniversary of Aspdin's invention was held 
at the annual meeting of the Portland Cement Association in Chicago. 
The latest tribute to the work of Aspdin was the presentation on 
March 27, 1925, by the Portland Cement Association to the Smith- 
sonian Institution at Washington, D. C, of a photographic copy of the 
original Portland cement patent granted by King George IV to 
Joseph Aspdin, October 21, 1824. This copy, a replica of the original 
patent which is still in the possession of the Aspdin family, shows 
also a reproduction of the bronze memorial tablet mentioned above. 
It was brought to the United States by the former Lord Mayor of 
Leeds and has been placed in the division of mineral technology of the 
United States National Museum, in which is displayed a model of a 
modern Portland cement plant. 

For nearly 50 years after Aspdin's discovery the United States 
depended for its cement supplies on domestic natural cement and 
upon imports from Europe of both Portland and natural cements. 
For extensive projects and for construction during winter Portland 
cement gradually gained in favor until enough interest developed to 
cause its manufacture in the United States. In 1872 David 0. 
Saylor, already a manufacturer of natural cement in the Lehigh 
district, built at Coplay, Pa., a plant consisting of vertical kilns and 
essayed to make a "new and improved" cement from argillo-mag- 
nesian and argillo-calcareous limestone. The mixture of stone was 
calcined and the product was crushed, ground, and seasoned. In his 
application for a patent Saylor claimed that the stone to be used 
contained the same ingredients as that used for making Portland 
cement, and that the products could not be distinguished from each 
other except by treatment. Soon afterward other pioneers began the 
manufacture of Portland cement from cement rock in the Lehigh 
district and from limestone and shale in western Pennsylvania, as well 
as from marl and clay in Indiana. The use of domestic natural 
cement and imported Portland cement was, however, firmly in- 
trenched, and it was not until about 1895 that domestic Portland 
cement began to show a rapid gain in output. In fact, it was not 
until 1900 that the output of domestic natural cement, decreasing 
from its peak in 1899, was equaled by the production of Portland 
cement. (See fig. 11.) 

To chronicle the mechanical and chemical developments that have 
contributed to the development of the cement industry since it 
began its rapid growth 30 years ago would require more space than 
is available here, but a few conspicuous steps may be mentioned. 
The first kilns, as has been mentioned, were vertical, like limekilns, 
and operations were intermittent. An attempt was made to improve 
operation by making it continuous, but as this change could at most 



CEMENT 349 

only double the output, interest was soon directed toward the rotary 
kiln which was in use m England. This type of kiln was first in- 
troduced into the United States in 1889. Its use necessitated 
radical change in the form of fuel, for the vertical kiln had used 
coke or coal interbedded with the stone, but the rotary required a 
gaseous fuel and this could be supplied only by blowing oil, gas, or 

Eulverized coal into the kiln. This change of kilns and fuel, which 
ecame general within the next few years, marks the beginning of the 
rapid increase in output of Portland cement through increased 
capacity of plants and lower cost of production. 

Cited here without regard to their order of adoption — many of 
them may be said to have been developed more or less contem- 
poraneously — are the introduction of steam shovels in quarrying, 
enlargement of crushing, grinding, conveying, and storage facilities, 
improvements in power plants, introduction of electrical drives, use 
of mechanical packing and weighing devices, improvement and 
extension of wet process, finer grinding of raw materials and finished 
cement, dust collection, increased length and diameter of kilns, en- 
largement of lower end of kilns, utilization in power plant boilers of 
waste heat from rotary kilns, and the use of concrete for plant con- 
struction. With all this development has come more accurate chemical 
control of the product and a gradual improvement of its quality. 

A recent trend in the industry has been toward still further im- 
provements in Portland cement and the development of special 
qualities, such as the early hardening of the high-alumina cements 
which makes them desirable for road or bridge repair work or for work 
in cold weather or where the forms can not long be used. Quick- 
setting cement has been developed for use in oil wells and cement 
with good plasticity and water-retarding properties for use in stucco 
finish. To some extent the efforts to produce improved Portland 
cement have led experimenters outside the limits of that type of 
cement officially denned as "the product obtained by finely pulver- 
izing clinker produced by calcining to incipient fusion an intimate 
and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous 
materials with no addition subsequent to calcination except water and 
calcined or uncalcined gypsum." Certain of the departures are 
fused cements high in iron and alumina or in titanium. 2 

F. W. Kelly, 3 president of the Portland Cement Association in 1924, 
attributes the development of the Portland cement industry in the 
United States largely to five factors, as follows: (1) Systematic 
application of chemistry; (2) development of efficient grinding 
machinery; (3) development of rotary kiln; (4) development of 
standard specifications; (5) systematic study of the best uses for 
concrete and best methods of making it. 

The chief improvement of the Portland cement industry in the 
United States thus may be said to have been introduced during the 
last 25 to 30 years, and this period is coincident with the enormous 
increase in output as shown in the statistical tables and graphs, 
pages 352 to 359. This period of development also has coincided with 
the existence of the Portland Cement Association, one of the largest 
engineering, educational, and scientific research organizations in the 
world, which aims to increase the knowledge, utility, and use of 

a Sec bibliography of alumina and other special cements, p. 375. 

3 Kelly, F. W., "Progress in cement manufacture in 20 years": Concrete, March, 1924, pp. 85-87. 



350 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 





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CEMENT 



351 



Cement plants shown in Figure 9 
[Portland cement unless otherwise specified. N=natural cement. PZ=puzzolan cement] 



NAME AND LOCATION 

ALABAMA 

1. National, Ragland. 

2. Atlas, Leeds. 

3.{^|^~}North Birmingham 

4. Southern (PZ), North Bir- 

mingham. 

5. Warrior, Spocari. 

CALIFORNIA 

1. Pacific, Cement. 

2. Cowell, Cowell. 

3. Pacific, Redwood City. 

4. Santa Cruz, Davenport. 

5. Old Mission, San Juan Bau- 

tista. 

6. * Calaveras, San Andreas. 

7. Monolith, Monolith. 

8. Southwestern, Victor ville. 

9. Golden State, Orogrande. 

10. California, Colton. 

11. Riverside, Riverside. 

COLORADO 

1. Colorado, Portland. 

2. United States, Concrete. 

GEORGIA 

1. Georgia Cement & Stone, 

Portland. 

2. Southern States, Rockmart. 

3. Clinchfield, Coreen. 

ILLINOIS 



1. Sandusky, Dixon. 
9 /Alpha.....! 
J -\Marquettei 

3. Lehigh, Oglesby. 

4. Utica (N), Utica. 



•La Salle. 



INDIANA 

1. Universal, Burlington. 

2. Wabash, Stroh. 

3. Indiana, Greencastle. 

4. Lehigh, Mitchell. 

5. Louisville (also N), Speed. 

IOWA 

1. Gilmore, Gilmore City. 

9 f Lehigh \ Mason 

^•(Northwestern States/City. 
„ (Hawkeye, Des Moines. 
"•\Pyramid, Valley Junction. 
4. *Linwood, Davenport. 

KANSAS 

1. Kansas, Bonner Springs. 

2. Great Western, Mildred. 

3. Lehigh, Iola. 

4. Monarch, Humboldt. 

5. Port Scott (N), Fort Scott. 

6. Ash Grove, Chanute. 

7. Fredonia, Fredonia. 

8. Atlas, Independence. 

KENTUCKY 

1. Kosmos(alsoN),Kosmosdale. 

MARYLAND 

1. North American, Security. 

2. Lehigh, Union Bridge. 



1. Petoskey, Petoskey. 

2. Huron, Alpena. 

* Under construction. 



3. Newaygo, Newaygo. 

4. Aetna, Bay City. 

5 -{N4w a Egyptian} Fenton - 

6. New Egyptian, Port Huron. 

7. Alpha, Bellevue. 

8. Peerless, Union City. 

9. Wolverine, Coldwater and 

Quincy. 

10. Peninsular, Cement City. 

11. Michigan, Chelsea. 

12. Wyandotte, Wyandotte. 

13 -{pee r r d less:} River Rou ^ 

MINNESOTA 

1. Universal, Morgan Park. 

2. Carney (N), Carney. 

3. Carney (N), Mankato. 

4. Austin (N), Austin. 

MISSOURI 

1. Missouri, Sugar Creek. 

2. Atlas, Hannibal. 

3. Missouri, Prospect Hill. 

4. Alpha, St. Louis. 

5. Marquette, Cape Girardeau. 

MONTANA 

1. Three Forks, Hanover. 

2. Three Forks, Trident. 

NEBRASKA 

1. Nebraska, Superior. 

NEW JERSEY 

. (Vulcanite, Vulcanite! Lehigh 
\Edison, New"Village/dfstrict. 



NEW YORK 

1. Alpha, Jamesville. 

2. Cayuga, Portland Point. 

3. North American, Howes 

Cave. 

4. Glens Falls, Glens Falls. 

5. Acme, Catskill. 
„ /Knickerbocker) 



•\ Atlas. 



►Hudson. 



7. Lehigh, Alsen. 

8. Alpha, Cementon. 

9. Snyder (N), Rosendale. 
]0. * Louisville (N), Akron. 



1. Sandusky, Silica. 

2. Sandusky, Baybridge. 

3. Castalia, Castalia. 

4. Diamond, Middle Branch. 

5. Lisbon (N), Lisbon. 

„ /Southwestern\ n „,,_ 
M* Wabash. __J 0sh om. 

7. Pittsburgh Plate Glass, Ful- 

ton ham. 

8. Wellston, Superior. 

9. Alpha, Ironton. 

10. Standard, Fairport. 

OKLAHOMA 

1. Dewey, Dewey. 

2. Oklahoma, Ada. 



1. Oregon, Oswego. 

2. Sun, Lime. 

3. Beaver, Gold Hill. 



Lehigh 
district. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Allcntown, Evans- 

ville. 
Alpha, Martins 

Creek. 
Atlas, Coplay and 

Northampton. 

Bath, Bath 

Coplay, Coplay 

Dexter, Nazareth 

Giant, Egypt and 

Lesley. 
Hercules, Sto cker- 
{ town. 
Lawrence (also N), 

Siegfried. 
Lehigh, Fogelsville, 

Ormrod, S a a d t s 

Eddy, and West 

Coplay. 
Nazareth, Nazareth. 
Penn- Allen, Penn- 

Allen. 
Pennsylvania, Bath. 
Phoenix, Nazareth— . 
.Whitehall, Cementon 

2. Bessemer, Bessemer. 

3. Lehigh, Newcastle. 

4. Crescent, Wampum. 

5. Universal, Universal. 

6. Sandusky, York. 



SOUTH DAKOTA 

1. South Dakota State, Rapid 
City. 

TENNESSEE 

1. Hermitage, Nashville 

2. Clinchfield, Kingsport. 

3. Dixie, Richard City. 

4. Signal Mountain, Chatta- 

nooga. 

TEXAS 

1. Trinity, Fort Worth. 
9 /Trinity, Eagle Ford. 
/- \Texas, Cement. 

3. Southwestern, El Paso. 

4. San Antonio, San Antonio- 

5. Texas, Manchester. 

UTAH 

1. Utah-Idaho, Bakers. 

2. Union, Devils Slide. 

3. Utah, Salt Lake City. 

VIRGINIA 

1. Lehigh, Fordwick. 

2. Virginia, Norfolk. 

WASHINGTON 

1. Olympic, Bellingham. 

2. Superior, Concrete. 

3. Lehigh, Metaline Falls. 

4. International, Irvin. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

1. Alpha, Manheim. 

WISCONSIN 

1. Manitowoc, Manitowoc. 



352 MINKRAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Portland cement through scientific investigation and public educa- 
tion. This association, in cooperation with the United States Gov- 
ernment and the American Society for Testing Materials, has been 
largely responsible for the requirement that a cement in order to be 
in good standing shall meet the United States Government specifica- 
tion for Portland cement. 

During the period of more than 16 years, in which the senior 
author of this chapter directed the preparation of the annual reports 
on the cement industry that were published in Mineral Resources by 
the United States Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, the 
production of Portland cement increased from about 65,000,000 
barrels to nearly 150,000,000 barrels. In relinquishing this work 
because of its transfer to the Bureau of Mines, Department of Com- 
merce, the author ventures to predict that the next 16 years will 
witness even greater growth in the Portland cement industry. 

GENEEAL REVIEW OF RECENT YEARS 

Because of its interest in connection with the foregoing review of 
100 years of progress in the Portland cement industry a graph com- 
paring the output of Portland cement with the volume of all manu- 
factures for the years 1911 to 1924, the period for which monthly 
statistics of cement production are available, follows. The curve 
for Portland cement has been constructed from the average daily 
production by months by taking the average for 1911 to 1913 as 100 
per cent; the curve for manufactures has been drawn by taking the 
average for the years 1909 to 1913 as 100 per cent. This comparison 
was shown graphically in a paper 4 from which the following comments 
are quoted: 

The most notable feature of the curve showing production of cement is the 
wide seasonal variation. Except for this great seasonal change, which makes it 
somewhat difficult to interpret during the winter and early spring, the cement 
curve should be a useful barometer of business. It reflects, of course, the ac- 
tivity of construction, particularly road making. For this reason the cement 
industry was relatively depressed in 1918, when construction had to yield priority 
to the manufacture of war materials, into which cement did not enter in large 
volume. Conversely, when other industries were feeling the great depression 
of 1921 the cement mills were making new records. * * *. 

Cement making is also interesting as one of the few industries in which figures 
for producers' stocks are available over a long period. The demand for cement 
is even more seasonal than the production, as here shown. Shipments during 
the winter drop far below the low point of production and in like manner, during 
the summer, rise above the high point of production. The curve for stocks is 
the reverse of the curve for shipments. 

A summary of the monthly estimates of output of Portland cement 
in 1924, compiled from the monthly reports of producers, was pub- 
lished early in January, 1925, by the United States Geological Sur- 
vey. These estimates, which indicated a production of nearly 
149,000,000 barrels and shipments of about 145,747,000 barrels, 
were within about 0.3 and 0.2 per cent, respectively, of the final 
figures for 1924. 

In January, 1924, production was at a slightly higher rate and 
shipments were at a slightly lower rate than in January, 1923. Dur- 
ing the active season, from May to October, production and ship- 

4 Smith, George Otis, and others, Fluctuations in mineral output: Presented before the American Statis- 
tical Association at Washington, D. C, Dec. 28, 1923. Published with other papers on the problem of 
business forecasting, Boston and New York, 1924. 



CEMENT 



353 





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354 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

ments attained much higher levels than in 1923; in October, when 
stocks were lowest, there was more than 6,000,000 barrels of cement 
at the mills and more than twice that quantity at the end of most 
other months. 

Portland cement manufacturers differed in their comments on 
trade conditions in 1924 as compared with 1923. In the Lehigh dis- 
trict those manufacturers who replied to inquiries said conditions were 
good, very good, or better than in 1923. Similar comment character- 
ized most of the replies received from manufacturers in the States 
east of Mississippi River. In the Lehigh district railroad conditions 
were reported better; demand was reported very much greater due 
to building and increased road construction, but some plants noted 
slight recessions in price because of market conditions. In New 
York conditions in the northeastern part of the State appear to have 
been slightly better than elsewhere; building operations and State 
road work were reported active and railroad conditions better. In 
western Pennsylvania and Ohio conditions appear to have been 
satisfactory most of the time, but a labor strike and a storm caused 
brief shutdowns. In Michigan a large demand caused by increased 
building activities enabled several plants to run at full capacity 
except during the usual winter shutdown period; similar conditions 
prevailed in Indiana. In the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, 
and Alabama demand was reported as ranging from about the same 
to very much better than in 1923. West of Mississippi Kiver con- 
ditions seem to have been less uniformly satisfactory. The majority 
of plants in Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Colorado reported 
very little change as compared with 1923, but some plants in Kansas 
and Texas found trade better. In Texas favorable weather helped 
the industry. Iowa manufacturers generally reported a smaller 
demand due to the unfavorable financial condition of farmers in Iowa 
and adjacent States. Drought and general agricultural depression 
had an unfavorable effect on the Portland cement industry in parts of 
the Rocky Mountain and extreme Northwestern States. In the more 
populous centers of the Pacific coast demand for cement was nearly 
as great as in 1923, but many plants reported a loss of business through 
importations of European cement. 

The following table summarizes the value of buildings shown by 
permits issued during 1921 to 1924 in 180 cities representing all parts 
of the United States; it illustrates the general trend of building 
construction during these years. The grand totals for the four years 
successively increased, and all districts showed increases throughout 
the four years except the central and northern great plains States and 
California, which snowed decreases in 1924. 

The other table summarizes the value of contracts awarded for 
buildings of all classes and for engineering construction work of all 
other kinds, including public works. The net increase in 1924 for 
construction work of all kinds was considerably higher than that for 
buildings alone. 



CEMENT 



355 



Value of buildings shown by permits issued in 180 cities in the United States, 

1921-192J. a 













Increase 
or de- 


Group of cities 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


crease, 
1924 from 

1923 
(per cent) 




$84, 907, 000 
562, 755, 000 

143, 081, 000 
146, 805, 000 

341,117,000 
45,311,000 

79, 630, 000 
46, 830, 000 

16, 327, 000 
-201, 989, 000 


$152, 680, 000 
773, 747, 000 

287, 528, 000 
214, 028, 000 

556, 604, 000 
65, 671, 000 

119, 858, 000 
55, 205, 000 

25,911,000 
302, 006, 000 


$153, 820, 000 
983, 772, 000 

303, 717, 000 
243, 146, 000 

726, 319, 000 
80, 562, 000 

145, 621, 000 
64, 974, 000 

31, 627, 000 
408, 351, 000 


$183, 078, 000 
1, 062, 275, 000 

330, 657, 000 
255, 201, 000 

711,075,000 
55, 912, 000 

169, 240, 000 
73, 468, 000 

34, 041, 000 
383, 059, 000 


+19 


New York and northern New Jersey.. 

Eastern Pennsylvania, southern 
New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, 
District of Columbia, and Virginia. 

Western Pennsylvania, West Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, and Kentucky 

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Missouri, Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Oklahoma 

Minnesota, North Dakota, and 
South Dakota 


+8 

+9 
+5 

-2 
-31 


North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, and 


+16 


Arizona and Texas. _. 


+13 


Colorado, Utah, Montana, and 
Idaho 


+8 


California, Washington, and Oregon. 


-6 




1, 668, 752, 000 


2, 553, 838, 000 


3, 141, 909, 000 


3, 258, 006, 000 


+4 



° From Bulletin of Portland Cement Association showing values tabulated in detail by cities, based on 
Bradstreet's and American Contractor building statistics. 

Value of contracts awarded for building and all other construction work in eastern 
and central States, 1921-1924 ° 



Group of States 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Increase 
or de- 
crease, 
1924 from 

1923 
(per cent) 


New England 


$205, 147, 000 
645, 418, 000 

306, 557, 000 
396, 075, 000 

695, 515, 000 
85, 101, 000 

(") 


$333, 572, 000 
891, 321, 000 

418, 869, 000 
534, 575, 000 

1, 048, 329, 000 

78, 564, 000 

(*) 


$332, 857, 000 
1, 068, 935, 000 

374, 182, 000 
593, 994, 000 

1, 006, 422, 000 
127, 336, 000 

486, 757, 000 


$352, 195, 000 
1, 329, 396, 000 

477, 746, 000 
578, 365, 000 

1, 049, 586, 000 
88, 264, 000 

606, 255, 000 


+6 


New York and northern New Jersey. 

Eastern Pennsylvania, southern 
New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, 
District of Columbia, and Virginia. 

Western Pennsylvania, West Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, and Kentucky 

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Missouri, Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Oklahoma.. . . . . 


+24 

+28 
-3 

+4 


Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota, and northern Michigan. _. 

North and South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, Arkansas, and 


-31 
+25 








'2,333,813,000 


e 3,305,230,000 


3, 990, 483, 000 


4, 481, 807, 000 


+ 12 



° From Bulletin of Portland Cement Association based on compilations by F. W. Dodge Co. 
6 No statistics available prior to 1923. 
<= Exclusive of southeastern States. 

CHIEF HYDRAULIC CEMENTS 



The shipments of Portland and other (masonry, natural, and puzzo- 
lan) cements from the mills in the United States in 1924 increased 
more than 7 per cent in quantity and more than 2 per cent in value 
over the shipments in 1923. 



356 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 PART II 

Hydraulic cements shipped from mills in the United States, 1922-1924 



Class 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Barrels 


Value 


Barrels 


Value 


Barrels 


Value 


Portland 

Masonry, natural, 
and puzzolan 


117,701,216 
889, 428 


$207, 170, 430 
1, 293, 598 


135,912,118 
1, 271, 674 


$257, 684, 424 
1, 947, 352 


146, 047, 549 
1, 418, 461 


$264, 046, 708 
2, 006, 559 




118,590,644 


208, 464, 028 


137, 183, 792 


259, 631, 776 


147, 466, 010 


266, 053, 267 



The abridged historical table on page 358 gives the production and 
value of natural, Portland, and puzzolan cements for more than 100 
years. The curves in Figure 11 show graphically some of these data 
from 1890 to 1924. 






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Figuke 11.— Production of Portland and natural cements, 1890-1924, and shipments of Portland cement, 

1911-1924 



358 



MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 



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-24 



360 MINERAL RESOURCES, 1924 — PART II 

PORTLAND CEMENT 
PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS, AND STOCKS 

The total output of Portland cement in the United States in 1924 
showed an increase of 9 per cent over that in 1923. Shipments from 
the mills increased 7 per cent in quantity and 2 per cent in gross value. 
The average factory value decreased 9 cents a barrel, or nearly 5 
per cent. The production of 149,358,109 barrels of 376 pounds net 
is equivalent to 597,432,436 sacks, 25,070,825 long tons, or 28,079,324 
short tons. 

The statistics in the following table are arranged by States, so far 
as possible. The term "active plant" is applied to a mill or to a 
group of mills situated at one place and operated by one company, 
but if a company has establishments at different places its mill or 
group of mills at each place is counted as a plant. In the table by 
districts the statistics are for groups of States, or parts of States, 
that are geographically and commercially related. 

South Dakota and Wisconsin with one new plant each were in- 
cluded in 1924 for the first time' in the list of producing States. Of 
the 27 other States in which Portland cement was manufactured in 
1924 all but 8 showed increases in production, and all but 6 showed 
increases in shipments as compared with 1923. All the commercial 
districts except Colorado-Utah and Oregon-Washington-Montana 
showed increases in production and all but the last named showed 
increases in shipments; the gains in production ranged from 1 to 44 
per cent and in shipments from 0.1 to 49 per cent. The net change 
for the whole country was an increase of 9 per cent in production and 
of 7 per cent in shipments. In 1924 production exceeded shipments 
by 3,310,560 barrels. 

The statistical tables show very large increases in production in 
certain States or districts — for instance, in Alabama there was a 
gain of 59 per cent, and in the district in which this State is situated 
there was a gain of 44 per cent. In this district another new mill, 
situated in Tennessee (see p. 373), began producing early in the year. 
In Michigan, where the initial production of another plant was re- 
corded, there was a gain of 22 per cent. In other States, such as 
California and Ohio, the production was increased by the building 
of new mills. The increase in output where no new mills were built 
was, as a rule, due to larger manufacturing capacity facilities, stimu- 
lated, no doubt, by the growth in projected road-building and con- 
struction work. 



CEMENT 



361 



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CEMENT 



363 



Figure 12 shows graphically the monthly and seasonal fluctuations 
in output. 

The accompanying table, which shows production, shipments, and 
stocks by months for 1923 and 1924, has b